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Department of State bulletin (Volume v. 22, Apr- Jun 1950) online

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great pride of the national culture of Viet Nam.
But he told the students, "You will learn foreign



628



Department of State Bulletin



languages and literatures. Our people have be-
gun to enter into international liie and will need
extensive relations."

He also made a little speech to nie, in which ho
said : "I hope when you are back in your country,
you will not forget this simple ceremony. I also
iiope that this College of Letters and many other
schools of our country will have close relations
■with the schools of America for cultural ex-
changes."

I had the jirivilege of speaking also to the stu-
dents and faculties of the Universities at Manila
and Seoul. They understand and respond to
references to our great university tradition of aca-
demic freedom exercised in the spirit of the search
for truth.

I mention these examples of the strong urge
among these newly independent people to learn,
and to learn in their own way, in keeping with
their national pride, but linked in the common
bond of the free world's devotion to the spread of
knowledge. So when it comes to developmg their
resources of food and minerals, when it comes to
establishing their governments on a firm basis, it
is not the urge or even in many cases the knowl-
edge that is lacking. It is the necessary concen-
tration on public order, on putting down insurrec-
tion or civil war, or preventing invasion. That
is their main problem at the moment.

Situations for Communist Footholds

You may have noticed that I have not talked
so far in terms of the Communist threat in Asia,
and for a good reason. Each of the free coun-
tries of Asia has its own special problem in deal-
ing with conununism. The nature of the threat
varies, and it is not possible to make accurate
generalizations about the whole area. However,
it is possible to identify certain weaknesses on
which communism thrives and to see also the
strong points which offer effective resistance to
communism.

The existence of internal disorder and the in-
experience of governments are points of weakness.
So is the intense poverty of the people, and
their gi'owing sense of discontent witli their con-
ditions of life. To offset these, you have the
immense strength of the desire for independence,
the awakening of national pride, and the stub-
born resistance to interference from outside.

During my travels, I became aware of two other
situations which offer the Communists a foothold
in these free countries. One is the presence of a
common frontier with Communist-controlled ter-
ritories. You have these common frontiers in In-
dochina and Burma, and, in both of these coun-
tries, there is an ever present fear of infiltration
over the border, as well as the threat of possible
invasion. You have the same situation in Korea,
and, as I have said, the boundary has become the
I front line in an actual shooting war.

The other situation which might offer the Com-



munists a foothold, i)erhaps in a few places, is the
existence of large Cliinese minorities in Southeast
Asia. These minorities have existed for genera-
tions. Most of them are respectable hard-work-
ing people, laborers, merchants and property
owners. The Communist domination of China
puts them as well as the countries of their adoption
in a difllcult position. The Communist masters
of China have been quick to take advantage of this
situation. Their propaganda paints a glowing
picture of the benefits whicli they allege that com-
munism has brought to China. The blackmail
says to them : "You have relatives and friends in
China. If you want them to live and prosper,
join your local Communist movement and help
to spread the gospel — or else."

Action Needed Toward Asia

Now it seems to me that these problems point
to several kinds of action which we need to take
in Asia. One kind of action is to help the free
people of Asia and their governments to restore
domestic peace. This is not as big a job as it may
sound. What they need is not large amounts of
military material, but key bits of equipment, such
as rifles for their constabulary, or communications
equipment, radios, jeeps, or small boats to enable
their police or militia to move about in time to
meet the kind of guerrilla attacks that are dis-
rupting most of these countries.

Now, the other kind of action — and this can and
must go on at the same time — is to help these
people to raise their standards of life. One direct
and effective answer to their poverty is in our
program of technical cooperation, which is now
before the Congress, the program which the Pres-
ident listed as Point 4 in his inaugural address.

I have been tremendously struck with the results
of this kind of work, as it was carried on under the
ECA in China, and as it is still going on in For-
mosa. It went at specific things, like the control
of cattle diseases and pests, like the use of new
seeds and fertilizers to produce larger crops.

When I talked about this work in several other
countries, people said, "That's exactly the kind of
thing we would like to do." They didn't know
about this particular work, but it fitted in with
their picture.

This Point 4 Program takes a very small amount
of money and a small number of people. It takes
patience. And it takes, particularly, an under-
standing of the special problems of the people in
the country where our experts are working.

I went out to Asia strongly convinced of the
value of technical aid as an arm of American for-
eign policy. I came back a hundred times more
strongly convinced. I wish I could fully com-
municate this conviction to you, but you have to
see for yourselves before you can fully understand
how much these people need and want the skills
and the knowledge we can bring to them.

In this connection, I think you should know



April 24, 1950



629



that, in this part of the world, we have an enor-
mous reservoir of pro-United States sentiment on
which to build. There is feeling against the West,
to be sure. There is a tremendous feeling against
the old colonialism that they connect in their
minds with the West. There is some suspicion
of our motives. But, on the whole, there is a vast
respect for the United States and a vast amount
of confidence in the United States.

Now, I mentioned this friendly sentiment as
something on which we can build, and I mean that
literally. You cannot rely on sentiment — you
have got to build on it.

Everywhere I went on my journey, in every
single country, people asked me with almost
pathetic earnestness : "Can we count on help from
the United States? Do the American people
really understand our desire for independence,
and will they back up our independence?"

And I answered, I think, truthfully, "The
United States does stand for independence ; it be-
lieves in independence. It will help people who
are determined to work and fight for their inde-
pendence. It does help free people to remain
free. It does help people who help themselves."

The policy of tne United States toward these
countries of Asia is a positive and a concrete
policy. It has form and substance. More than
that, it is not a static but a developing policy, and
it is developing along very clear lines. It re-
quires the wholehearted and enthusiastic support
of the American people.

During the past 3 months. Secretary Acheson
has outlined our policy on a number of occasions.
And I think it is worth summarizing tonight.

First, the United States believes that every peo-
ple has the right to be independent, to govern it-
self, and to work out its own problems in its own
way. We have demonstrated this belief as, for
example, in our relations with the Philippines,
with the Republic of Korea, and with the United
States of Indonesia.

Second, the United States believes in the in-
stitution of democratic government and encour-
ages the practice of democratic government
wherever it is possible to do so. We have done
this in Germany and Japan. We feel that the
Japanese people have progressed to a point where
they deserve a peace treaty which will give them
responsibility for managing their own afFairs,
with certain necessary safeguards.

Third, the United States believes that free peo-
ple who are determined to maintain their inde-
pendence are entitled to military aid which will
help them to remain free. We have provided
such aid to the Philippines and Korea and will
continue to provide it under similar conditions.

Fourth, the United States, within the limits of
its resources, gives economic aid, in the form of
loans and technical assistance, where such aid is
wanted and can help people to help themselves.
An example of such aid is the recent Export-
Import Bank loan to Indonesia and the program



of technical assistance which we introduced with
great success in China, Formosa, and Korea
through the Economic Cooperation Administra-
tion.

Fifth, we shall continue to carry on a vigorous
information program to make known the purposes
and policies of the United States and to counter
the campaign of misinformation and libel that
the Communists are waging not only among their
captive people but among the free people who
are our friends and partners.

Sixth, we shall continue to work through the
United Nations as well as through direct diplo-
matic channels to encourage the settlement of
disputes that endanger peace and stability. We
are hopeful that the progress now being made
between the Governments of India and Pakistan
will lead to a full and friendly understanding be-
tween those two great nations.

I believe there are two necessary conditions for
the success of the policies I have outlined. One
condition, it seems to me, is a cool and unwaver-
ing determination on our part to go forward in the
face of the many difficulties and discouragements
that are bound to arise.

The second condition is an ever growing under-
standing, on our part, of the realities of life in
Asia. There is no quick or easy way to acquire
an understanding of the complex problems of the
Orient. But there is no substitute for under-
standing. It is the basis of our democratic
foreign policy. It is at the very root of our
democratic faith.



Evacuation of Americans in Slianghai
by Sea Abandoned

Statement hy Secretary Acheson
[Released to the press April 12]

The Chinese Communists have not yet granted
clearance of ships for the proposed evacuation
from Shanghai. At the same time, the National
Government has informed us that, for military
reasons, it can no longer delay the mining of the
North Channel. Accordingly, all plans for an
evacuation by sea from Shanghai at this time have
been abandoned.

The Department started planning for the
Slianghai evacuation in mid-January, following
the announcement of the closure of all official
establishments in Communist China and the with-
drawal of official American personnel. At the
same time, the Department stated that facilities
would be made available at the time of withdrawal
of official personnel for all American citizens
desiring to leave.

The use of planes, trains, and small coastal
steamers for exit from Shanghai was thoroughly



630



Department of Slate Bulletin



investigated. The Communist authorities refused
permission for tlie use of commercial planes or for
travel by rail to other ports. The owners of the
coastal steamers refused to risk them in the narrow
North Channel of the Yangtze which was the only
channel clear of mines.

On February 10, the Department sought other
shallow-draft vessels for use in navigating the
North Channel. Finally, with oral assurances
that the Shanghai authorities approved in prin-
ciple the use of shallow-draft vessels to lerry
passengers to larger ships off the Yangtze estuary,
the American President Lines arranged, with the
approval and support of the Department, to char-
ter and man two LST's. Crews for these ships
were flown from the West Coast to Japan. The
LST's sailed for Shanghai and waited over a week
outside territorial waters for permission to enter
Shanghai. These ships were to rendezvous with
the liner General Gordon on March 20. The De-
partment expended almost half a million dollars
in support of this operation only to have the
Communists refuse permission for the use of the
LST's.

■\Vlien this plan finally collapsed, the Depart-
ment authorized Shanghai to continue its search
for other means. A Chinese-owned river steamer
was finally found in Shanghai which could be
chartered for the shuttle operation. An addi-
tional ship to carry baggage and cargo also was
available. The Communists refused to permit
these ships to rendezvous with the LST's but in-
dicated approval would be forthcoming if they
were used to rendezvous with commercial ships.
Accordingly, we immediately took steps to locate
suitable commercial ships in Far East waters.
Several ships were found to be available, but they
proved unsuitable for the large evacuation opera-
tion. A Dutch ship was found in Japanese
waters, but its Shanghai agent did not consider
the plan feasible. Consequently, that plan had
to be dropped in favor of the use of the An King,
a British vessel in Hong Kong, which had been
alerted by the British authorities to assist in the
evacuation operation.

Since over 450 British subjects wished to evac-
uate, in addition to the 300 Americans, and since
the Chinese river steamer could accommodate only
450 per trip, it would have required two ferry trips
to evacuate the British and American citizens. In
addition, reports from Shanghai indicated it would
reqiiire 2 to 5 days to arrange customs clearance
and loading after final permission had been ob-
tained for the ferry operation.

This would have carried the evacuation opera-
tion almost one full week beyond the deadline set
by the Nationalists, even if permission had been
granted at once by the Shanghai authorities.

It is now too late to try to carry through this
plan since any attempt to run through the mine
fields would entail serious risks.

The Department will continue every effort to
assist Americans to get out of Shanghai. Wliile it

Aptil 24, 1950



is premature at the moment to state what can be
done, renewed efforts will be made to obtain from
Communist authorities permission for travel by
rail either to a North China port or to Honp Kong,
where shipping facilities can be made available.

All of our official personnel from Peiping and
Tientsin will be en route out of China by the end of
tlie week. Consul General O. Edmuncf Clubb and
the last members of this staff are leavin" Peiping
today and are scheduled to sail on Friday from
Tientsin via Tangku Bar. Consul Alfred T. Well-
born and his assistant will leave Tientsin also on
Friday.



Department Encouraged
by India-Pakistan Tall(s

Statement hy Secretary Acheson
[Released to the press April 12]

The successful conclusion of the New Delhi
talks between Prime Minister Nehru of India and
Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan of Pakistan is
highly gratifying. The announcement that the
two Prime Ministers plan to meet again from time
to time is an added source of encouragement.

I am confident that this demonstration of
statesmanship by Mr. Nehru and Mr. Liaquat Ali
Khan will mark the beginning of better relations
between their two countries. It is a real pleasure
to congratulate the two Prime Ministers and their
respective countries which are fortunate in having
in these difiicult times leaders of such stature.



THE CONGRESS



Legislation

Authorizing the Committee on Expenditures in the Exec-
utive Departments to Employ Assistants and Make Ex-
penditures in Studying Relationships of the United States
with States and Certain International Organizations.
S. Kept. 1210, 81st Cong., 2d sess. [To accompany S. Kes.

Amending the Displaced Persons Act of 19-18. S. Kept.
1237, 81st Cong., 2d sess. [To accompany H. R. 4567]

Amending the Displaced Persons Act of 19-18. S. Rept
1237, Part 2, 81st Cong., 2d sess. [To accompany H. R.
4567] 14 pp. ^ _,. ,

Authorizing the President to Appoint Lt. Col. Charles
H Bonestcel as Executive Director of the European Co-
ordinating Committee Under the Mutual Defense Assist-
ance Act of 1040, Without Affecting His Military Status
and Perquisites. S. Rept. 1238, 8l8t Cong., 2d sess. [To
accompany S. 2011] 2 pp.



(Continued on page 653)



631



Attack Against USIE Work at Praha Protested



UNFOUNDED ATTACK BY IVAN ELBL

{Released to the press April 12]

Following is the text of a note transmitted today bp
the United States Embassy in Praha to the Czechoslovak
Ministry of Foreign Afairs.

The American Embassy presents its compli-
ments to the Czechoslovak Ministry for Foreign
Affairs and has the honor to refer to tlie statement
of Mr. Ivan Elbl, a former employee of the Em-
bassy, which was distributed by the official Czecho-
slovak News Agency and appeared in all Praha
IDapers on April 12.

As the Ministry was informally advised at the
time, Elbl was arrested by Czechoslovak security
organs on the morning of April 6 and, so far as
the Embassy is aware, was not released until the
afternoon of April 7. It is obvious that this fact
raises serious question as to the validity of the
Elbl statement.

In his statement, Elbl makes various comments
regarding the direction and activities of the United
States Information Service library, material avail-
able there, and persons who patronize the library.
As the Ministry is aware, the library and its fa-
cilities are open to the general public on a non-
discriminatory basis and its books, films, and other
materials are used by and loaned not only to in-
dividual Czechoslovak citizens but also to Czecho-
slovak officials and semi-official organizations.
The Czechoslovak police and censorship au-
thorities are fully and currently aware of the ma-
terial in the library, and nothing is available there
to which they express objection. In fact, the
Ministry is aware from the Embassy's yet un-
acknowledged note no. 106 of December 30, 1949,^
protesting against the official censorship suppres-
sion of certani issues of the daily language bulletin
of the United States Information Service, this
bulletin is censored by Czech authorities and ap-
proved by them before it is allowed to be
distributed.

In his statement, Elbl expresses the opinion
that "either this honorable road — the road with
the people not only of our republic, but with peace-
loving people of the whole world — or the road
against peace, the road of treason in conjunction

' Not printed.



with the mortal enemies of mankind, who today
are represented by American imperialism. There
is no other road either for me or for my other
fellow citizens in similar services with capitalist
representative officers and institutions."

As the American Embassy operates in Praha
on the basis of diplomatic relations existing be-
tween Czechoslovakia and the United States Gov-
ernments under the established principles of inter-
national law, it is indeed surprising that the official
Czechoslovak News Agency would distribute and
the official organ of Czechoslovak Communist
Party and other officially sanctioned newspapers
would publish a statement which in effect accuses
any Czechoslovak citizen employed by the Ameri-
can Embassy of being a traitor to his country.

In the light of the above, the Embassy expresses
surprise at the official distribution and publication
of the Elbl statement and requests that the Czecho-
slovak Government promptly:

1. Give comparable publicity to an official state-
ment correcting the inaccuracies and unwarranted
implications of the Elbl statement, and

2. Convey to the Embassy assurances that in
accordance with established international proce-
dure, the Czechoslovak Government has no objec-
tions to the employment by the Embassy of
Czechoslovak citizens, does not consider them
traitors to their country, and will not discriminate
against them or otherwise penalize them because of
their employment by the Embassy.



DETENTION OF FORMER EMPLOYEES
BY SECURITY POLICE

{Released to the press April 141

The events of the past few days clearly indicate
that the Czechoslovak Government in dealing with
former employees of the American Embassy in
Pralui has launched a propaganda attack against
the Embassy designated to discredit the United
States Information Service in Czechoslovakia in
its efforts to promote cultural exchange and
friendly understanding.

The attack first took the form of widely dis-



632



Department of State Bulletin



seminated statements attributed to two former em-
ployees of the Embassy. These statements jiave
an altogether false inijiression of the operations
and functions of the United States Information
Service. The employees resigned and issued the
statements oidy after a period of detention by the
security police.

Thereafter two other employees, who had been
in the hands of the security police for approxi-
mately 1 month, were placed on trial and report-
edly sentenced to long terms of imprisonment on
charges of espionage and subversive activities
under the direction of the Embassy's press attache,
Joseph C. Kolarek.

The trial itself may be considered to constitute
an indictment by the Czechoslovak Government,
for its own purposes, of the Embassy and the
United States cultural and information activi-
ties — activities departing in no way from those
which nations are accustomed to regard as a
normal and legitimate function in diplomatic rela-
tions and in the maintenance of friendly contact
between countries throughout the world.

This deliberately planned propaganda attack
against the United States Information Service is
viewed with grave concern by the United States
Government and the American people, since it
raises doubts concerning the desire of the Czecho-
slovak Government to continue cultural ties and
the free exchange of information between the
people of Czechoslovakia and the peoples of other
countries.

The aim of the United States Information
program is to present a true and accurate picture
of the United States to the people of the world,
on the assumption that international cooperation
arises from mutual understanding. The activities
of the United States Information Service have
been developed for the purpose of furthering
mutual understanding between nations through
the free exchange ot information and cultural
materials as a road to peace. The present govei-n-
ment of Czechoslovakia now takes steps indirectly
to denounce these activities contributing to inter-
national accord in spite of the repeated profes-
sions of that government in behalf of world peace.

The people of Czechoslovakia have always
sought to maintain close cultural contacts with
many countries including the United States.
They have demonstrated their continued desire
to do so by their spontaneous and sustained inter-
est in utilizing the United States Information
Service facilities in Czechoslovakia. In the past,
the Czechoslovak Government itself has expressed
support in principle of the United Nations pro-
grams fostering greater cultural exchange and
freedom of information.

During the Nazi occupation of Czechoslovakia,
its people were deprived of their traditional cul-
tural links with the outside world. After the war,
they were anxious to renew these contacts. It is
hoped that the present Government will refrain



from taking steps which would circumscribe still
further the opnortimities of Czechoslovakia to in-
crease the understanding of the United States.
The United States Government is reluctant to be-
lieve that the Czechaslovak authorities would
willfully .set out to lead the Czechoslovak people
into the type of cultural isolation to which they
were condemned during the last war.



German Lawmakers Visit U.S.



The Department of State announced on April
14 that 13 members of the Bundestag (lower house
of Parliament) of the German Federal Republic
are scheduled to arrive in Wasliington on April
18 from Bonn for a month's tour and study of the
United States under the auspices of the Depart-
ment's exchange progi-am which is designed to
offer first-hand observation of American demo-
cratic processes.^ It marks the first visit of
German federal lawmakers to this country since
the war.

The Bundestag members will remain in Wash-
ington approximately 15 days observing the
United States Government in action, then leave for
a tour of the nation, to include such points as the
TVA, Detroit, New York City to study city gov-



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 22, Apr- Jun 1950) → online text (page 25 of 116)