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shaded streets of many tens of thousands of
quiet and decent and God-fearing American
communities.

It is this thought that carries many of us now,
as it has carried many of our predecessors, through
moments which, without it, might shake the
strongest faith and the strongest resolve. It is
this thought which gives us calmness and strength
of spirit amid the tumult and the shouting, like
a glimpse of the stars through a break in the
clouds.

Visit of Honduran Publisher

Alejandro Castro (hijo) publisher of the weekly
magazine, Rcvuta Tegucigalpa^ has arrived in
Washington to begin a 3-month visit in the
United States for the purpose of conferring with
colleagues in his field. His visit has been made
possible through a grant-in-aid awarded by the
Department of State under the program of ex-
change of persons. Mr. Castro will remain in
Washington for a period of 2 weeks after which
he will visit various cities in order to consult
with si)ecialists in the newspai)er field.



698



Department of State Bulletin



U.S. and Belgium IVIake Surplus
Property Available to NAC Countries

On April 20, tlu' I'liitod Stall's luul Belfxiuin
sigiunl an af^reiMuonl that tlie ivniainiiij; pix)p-
erty i)f Fnited States surplus orifjin, previously
acquired by Bel'jium and in wliich there still
remains a joint United States-Belgian interest,
will be made available without cost to Noi-th
Atlantic Treaty countries to meet military supply
deficiencies.

In effecting: this agreement, both governments
have taken full cognizance of tlieir self-help and
mutual aid pledges under the North Atlantic
Treaty and under the Mutual Defense Assistance
Agreement of January 27, IDaO. They also recog-
nize the mutual benefits to be derived through
utilization of this property to maintain and in-
crease an individual and collective capacity for
defense in furtherance of the objectives of the
North Atlantic Treaty.

The value of the i)roperty involved, which in-
cludes many categories of military equipment, is
approximately 30 million dollars. It will be avail-
able immediately for distribution in accordance
with recommendations made by the Military Sup-
ply and Production Board of the North Atlantic
Treaty Organization.

The Government of Belgium has given consid-
erable time and effort to the rehabilitation, storing,
and cataloging of this equipment. The Govern-
ment of Belgium will continue to maintain the
Office d'Aide Mutuelle (Office of Mutual Aid),
which is thoroughly familiar with these stocks,
to assist in turning them over to recipient
countries.

Tlie Government of Belgium agrees to transfer
the property to the recipient Government without
cost except for actual packing and transportation.

The agreement was signed by Under Secretary
of State James Webb and Baron Silvercruys,
Ambassador of Belgium. Mr. Webb made the
following statement :

The action of the Government of Belgium in
making available equipment in joint cooperation
with the United States to meet supply require-
ments of its partners in the North Atlantic Treaty
serves as further implementation of the ])rinciple
of mutual aid embodied in the Treaty. It attests
the vitality of the collective effort of the free
nations of the Atlantic community for joint
defense.

I am sure, Mr. Ambassador, that the assistance
being provided so generously by your Government
will be received in the same manner as the aid
which will be supplied for the common defense by
others of our Treaty partners — with appreciation
by nations which are united in a firm purpose to
preserve freedom and justify hopes for a lasting
peace.



Baron Silvercruys said in reply:

This arrangement, Mr. Secretary, is but another
proof of the co()i)eration between our two Govern-
ments.

Based as it is on the undei-standing of their
nuitual obligations, the agreement beai-s witness
to their readiness to upliold the principles which
are the root of the Atlantic Pact. It will serve the
connnon purpose of defense and it will contribute
therefore to the preservation of freedom and to
the maintenance of peace.



President Gonzalez Videla
of Chile Visits Washington

Remarks hy President Trwman ^

{Released to the press hy the White House April IS]

It is with sincere pleasure, Mr. President, that
I welcome you to the United States. We shall do
our utmost to make your stay among us pleasant
and interesting.

I am happy to welcome you as the Chief Execu-
tive of a sister republic whose citizens have con-
stantly been inspired by devotion to the democratic
principles that we cherish here. Your arrival
symbolizes the traditional and warm friendship
that has long existed between our two countries.

It is a source of satisfaction that, in the spirit
of friendly cooperation and inter-American soli-
darity, Chile and the United States are continuing
their efforts to assure the security and peace of
the world. Our countries are motivated by the
same concern for individual freedom and human
welfare.

We in the United States are honored by your
visit and heartily extend our sincere good wishes
to you personally and for the prosperity of the
people of your country.

Welcome, Mr. President !



Statement hy Secretary Acheson
[Released to the press April 12]

I look forward with great pleasure to the visit
of the President of Chile, Gabriel Gonzalez Videla.
The President, together with his wife and a small
group including the Foreign Minister of Chile,
Horacio Walker, arrived in Washington this after-
noon. This visit is a concrete affirmation of the
close and friendly relations existing between the
United States and Chile. It is hoped that the visit
will result in even closer ties and broader under-
standing between peoples of the two countries.

' Made nt the Washlnorton National Airport upon the
arrival of the President of Chile.



May 1, 1950



699



The Challenge of Education



hv Hmoland H. Sargeant

Deputy Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs ^



The Educator as Citizen

In the United States the educator is the natural
link between today and tomorrow. It is largely
the teacher on whom we depend to develop a broad
understanding of the world's problems in tomor-
row's citizens. We have given him a heavy bur-
den, yet only too often we fail to reward his
devotion and to recognize his difficulties. His sub-
ject matter requires the most delicate handling.
New facts and events change his pi'oblem every
day. He has no simple proofs of our theories and
no infallible answers.

In the United States, the teacher carries a double
load. As an adult citizen, he must cope with to-
day's problems, today's anxieties, and, perhaps,
with today's pessimism. But as soon as he steps
into a classroom, his main concern must be with
tomorrow. He must nourish the hope of a stable
future, point toward it, teach toward it, no matter
what the disappointments of today. If he trans-
fers to his students the basic belief that this will
turn out to be a livable kind of world, that the
fundamentals of democracy can be preserved, that
moral order can be established on a universal basis,
he will be performing a most distinguished and
vital service for our democratic way of life.

The student needs the raw materials for his
spiritual and mental growth. He needs to know
the real issues in today's world, but he must also
be able to place them in a context of reasonable
hope and confidence. He must find himself in the
idea of a free society as against a slave society.
He must feel his freedom as a citizen in contrast
to fear of a Secret Police, the dread knock on the
door at night. He must judge his freedom of
worship as against religious persecution. He must
use his freedom of mind to understand the dan-
gers of a state-imposed thought control. He must

'Excerpts from an aiklress made before the National
Catholic Educational Association in New Orleans, La. on
Apr. 11, 1950, and released to the press on the same date.
For full text, see Department of State press release 335.



see clearly the contrast between his economic free-
dom and the controlled starvation clamped down
upon his counterparts in so many of the totalitar-
ian countries.

There is no need to soften or disguise these burn-
ing issues of our time. Thev focus naturally into
an active and practical belief in our democratic
principles. I am convinced that when the facts
are known and their meaning made clear, the men
of today — and the children who will be the men
of tomorrow — will make a sound choice.



Tragedy in Europe

As educators and as citizens our responsibilities
have a wide range. Youth all over the world needs
to understand what is at stake today. The aim of
the police state, past and present, is to make men
and children immune to the idea of freedom. I
happened to be in Europe at the time when Hitler
and Mussolini were in control of the German and
the Italian educational systems. I had at least a
short glance at the kind of training, in the German
Jugend and the Italian Giovani d'ltalia, that turns
the minds of children away from friendliness and
understanding, and builds, instead, a fierce hos-
tility. Those children went goose-stepping from
one school to the next, arrogant in the belief that
they were superior creatures destined, literally, to
conquer the world. Today that generation, or
what is left of it, is in a pitiful confusion. It has
to begin all over again. We can be certain that in
Western Germany, in Italy, and in Jai)an, educa-
tion for international understanding will be a long
and difficult job.

In the meantime, the tragedy of miseducation is
being enacted again in Eastern Europe and the
Soviet Union. In Russia, the Komsomolsk is
serving the same purpose that the Jugend served
in Germany. One can see the totalitarian pattern.
It is not an accidental one. In Czechoslovakia, the
Communist minority now in control has begun to



700



Department of State Bulletin



concentrate on education and training. It has
completed the initial stage of taking over the edu-
cational system. All universities have been purged
of teachers who refused to conform to Communist
dogma. In the secondary schools, an estimated
30 percent of the teachers lost their jobs in the
first 21 months of the new regime. Everywhere,
students were questioned to determine their po-
litical reliability. It is known that at least 10,000
university students were found to be "unfit" for
higher education. Under a new law, the text-
books have been completely revised, and true to
form, the Russian language made compulsory in
the schools.

Where are these measures leading? Given
enough time, is it not possible that the majority
of people in the Russian orbit can be so indoctri-
nated that they will have neither desire nor under-
standing of freedom? Can mind and character
be machined to a set response? The experiment
is now going on behind the Iron Curtain.



The Teacher's Crucial World

We have each of us a responsibility in that
experiment, for no man, in the words of John
Donne, is an island entire unto himself. There is
much we can do here at home and overseas. I am
heartened to see that school children in the United
States are learning about Unesco, about the United
Nations and have their exchange programs with
the children of other lands. That is one way. We
can help even more directly. Recently, a friend of
mine had this experience while traveling in Europe.
He happened to mention to a group over there that
our sessions of the Congress begin each day with
a prayer by a Congressional chaplain. That fact
amazed his audience, and everywhere he went he
could create the same interest by repeating it.
The United States has been pictured in many
ai'eas as a materialistic nation without a moral or
spiritual unity. We here at home, and especially
our teachers, have the job of bringing to the surface
our deep-rooted morality.

The task before the American educator is one
which demands our deepest respect and our fullest
aid. His is a crucial role in our national defense
against a danger that is greater than the danger
from weapons or armies. If it is allowed to
spread, or to go unchecked, no amount of weapons
or armies of our own will bring us the world we
want.

That danger is the willful attempt to enslave the
human mind, to make it immune to freedom. By
accepting the challenge to counteract that danger,
and by working to eliminate it, our teachers can
become the strongest link between today and a safe
tomorrow.



Soviet Note on Trieste Awaited

Statement by Secretary Acheson
[Released to the press April 21]

The Department has not yet received the full
text of the Soviet note alleging that this Govern-
ment is violating the terms of the Italian peace
treaty with respect to Trieste.

We have had only a summary of the Soviet note
and are awaiting the full text before preparing
our reply. From what we have received, it seems
that the Soviet note is a repetition of a number
of out-worn arguments with the addition of some
new and wholly false allegations of violations of
the Italian peace treaty. Coming at this time,
such repetition can only be taken as an attempt,
under the guise of concern for legality, to disrupt
efforts to achieve a solution of the question among
the parties most directly concerned.

The allegations that Allied authorities in Trieste
are suppressing guaranteed human rights and lib-
erties and that they are establishing a military
and naval base are nonsense, as is apparent from
the regular reports of the Anglo-American admin-
istration to the Security Council and as anyone
who has been to Trieste can plainly see for himself.

British and United States troops are in Trieste
in complete conformity with the obligations of the
Italian peace treaty that the Free Territory of
Trieste shall continue to be administered by the
Allied Military Commands within their respective
zones, pending assumption of office by a governor.
It is on the record that we made every effort to
reach agreement on the appointment of a governor
until the peace treaty provisions establishing the
Free Territory were proved unworkable. Since
then, as the Soviet Government well knows, we
have consistently sought a constructive settlement
of this question in the interests of peace and
stability.



Department Officers Confer
Witli Britisli and Frencti Officials

The Department of State announced on April 20
that Philip C. Jessup, Ambassador-at-Large, and
George W. Perkins, Assistant Secretary of State
for European Affairs, accompanied by a few De-
partmental officers, will depart for London this
week to undertake preliminary discussions, at the
request of Secretary of State Dean Acheson, with
British and French oflicials. They will prepare
the way for the discussions Secretary Acheson will
have in May.



May I, 1950



701



The United States in tlie United Nations



[April 22-28]

Conventional Armaments

Meeting for the first time since August 1, 1949,
the Commission for Conventional Armaments on
April 27 decided to ask its working committee to
continue with its progi'am of \york, the next item
being development of adequate safeguards for dis-
armament. This decision resulted from a United
States suggestion to refer to the working commit-
tee Security Council and General Assembly resolu-
tions which, in effect, asked the Commission to con-
tinue its study of the regulation and reduction of
conventional armaments and armed forces in
accordance with its plan of work. The working
committee is to report to the Commission by July
15.

Following the pattern in other United Nations
organs, the Soviet representative left the meeting
after liis proposal to exclude the "Kuomintang
Group's Representative" was defeated.

Sub-Commission on Economic Development

The fourth session of the Sub-Commission on
Economic Development opened April 17 at Lake
Success, with the formulation of practical recom-
mendations for financing economic development of
underdeveloped countries as its primary task.
The Commission, composed of seven experts act-
ing in their personal capacity, will submit its
recommendations to the Economic and Social
Council for consideration at the session opening
in Geneva on July 3, 1950.

The experts from the U.S.S.R. and from Czech-
oslovakia left the meeting when the former's pro-
posal for the exclusion of the "Kuomintang"
expert was voted out of order. Following the
walk-out, the Commission unanimously reelected
V. K. R. V. Rao as Chairman. The United States
expert on the Commission is Beardsley Ruml, with
August Maffry as his alternate.

After an exchange of views on the procedure to
be followed in its deliberations, the Sub-Commis-
sion agreed to consider five aspects of the problem
before it: These are (1) limits of domestic financ-
ing for economic development; (2) place of for-
eign financing; (3) sources of foreign financing;



(4) private foreign investment^ and (5) long-
term, low-cost financing for projects not suitable
for private capital investment.

Following a period of general debate, in which
representatives of certain specialized agencies and
nongovernmental organizations participated, the
Sub-Commission convened on April 20 as an in-
formal working group to formulate tentative
recommendations. It plans to spend a week in
Washington consulting with officials of the Inter-
national Bank for Reconstruction and Develop-
ment, the International Monetary Fund, the Ex-
port-Import Bank, Congressional and Adminis-
tration sponsors of the "Anti-Depression Bill,"
and officials concerned with the Technical Assist-
ance Program.

Social Commission

Concluding its prolonged debate on long-range
activities for children, the Social Commission on
April 21 recommended that the Economic and
Social Council "take all necessary steps to en-
sure the uninterrupted continuation and develop-
ment of the activities of the International Chil-
dren's Fund." The resolution, based on a joint
French- Yugoslav-Brazilian-Turkish-Indian res-
olution, provides for the establishment of a United
Nations Children's Board, composed of the mem-
bers of the Social Commission and other govern-
ments designated by the Economic and Social
Council, which will formulate the Fund's poli-
cies. It will be assisted bj' a Program Connuittee
of seven or nine members of the Board. The
Board will be responsible for close collaboration
by the Fund with the specialized agencies and
nongovernmental organizations concerned with
children. Administrative expenses will be covered
by the normal United Nations budget, while the
operational activities will be financed by volun-
tary contributions.

Previously, the Commission had rejected a
United States proposal that the United Nations
undertake n continuing, long-range program of
technical aid to governments on behalf of chil-
dren rather than continue the International Chil-
dren's Emergency Fund. United States repre-



702



Department of State Bulletin



tentative, Arthur J. Altmeyer, in explaiuinj; his
vote ujiainst tlie resolution adopted said that the
United States does not consider that the ("onunis-
sion's reconunendations present a suitabU' instru-
ment for ac'ooniplishinfj; an effective projjrain for
children throughout the world. The resolution,
he said, fails to outline a carefully conceived pro-
gram, a carefully conceived plan of administra-
tion, or an effective plan of financing.

After discussing a rei)ort of the Secretary-Gen-
eral on the basic features of legislative and other
existing measures for the beneht of the aged, the
C'onnnission decided on April 124 to request the
Secretary-General "to initiate an integrated work
program of research, studies, antl action for pro-
moting the welfare of aged pei-sons." It sug-
gested postponement of any decision on the ad-
visability of a declaration on old-age rights until
the necessary preparatory studies and reports had
been completed.

The Commission then turned to a discussion of
an international program for the social rehabili-
tation of the physically handicapped, including
the blind. Jane Hoey, alternate United States
representative, expressed the "genuine interest
of the United States" in such a program. She
stressed, however, the importance of carefully de-
fining "the scope of the rehabilitation program we
undertake," and pointed out that United Nations
facilities in this field "now include advisory social
welfare services, experience in holding seminars
and administering fellowships, and the furnishing
of supplies."' The United States, she said, further
recommends that a staff of experts be employed to
develop "a comprehensive rehabilitation program
with the objective, first, of preventing disability,
and also of restoring and treating those who have
become disabled, and of providing education, vo-
cation, and social guidance." She further stated
that for this purpose the United States is will-
ing "to agree to some increase in funds." A joint
United States-Bolivian-Canadian resolution, ap-
proved bj' the Commission on April 26, mentions
the desirabilit}' of the development of a broad co-
ordinated program in this field by the United Na-
tions, the sjiecialized agencies, and the Interna-
tional Children's Emergency Fund. It requests
the Secretary-General to provide various specific
services "in so far as budget permits."

On April 27, the Commission adopted a United
States-United Kingdom resolution noting a report
of the Secretary-General on the establishment of
a Far Eastern Bureau to combat traffic in persons
and requested him to consult the governments in
the region with a view to calling a conference to
examine this problem. The Secretary-General
was also asked to make available to Far Eastern
governments requesting such service an expert con-
sultant in this field.



Human Rights Commltdon

The Human Rights Commission, under the
chairmanship of Mrs. Franklin I). lioosevelt, on
April 25 interrupted its article-by-article consid-
eration of the draft International Covenant on
Human Rigiits to discuss methods of implementa-
tion of the Covenant. Speaking in support of a
joint United States-United Kingdom i)ropo.sal to
provide in the Covenant for a i)rocedure under
which one ratifying state could bring charges of
covenant violation against another ratifying state,
with ad hoc connnittees performing fact-finding
functions, Mi-s. Roosevelt pointed out the impor-
tance of achieving substantive progress on imple-
mentation at this session. She cautioned, how-
ever, against an attempt to "over-reach that which
we can reasonably accomplish initially and thereby
endanger the progress the United "Nations has
made so far in the field of human rights." Mrs.
Hanso Mehta, Indian representative, urged that a
permanent international body to assure implemen-
tation be created in a separate instrument, while
several representatives of nongovernmental or-
ganizations advocated the establishment of a mech-
anism that would permit individuals or groups, as
well as states, to make complaints concerning
alleged human rights violations. Pending re-
sumption of debate on this topic after sufficient
time has been allowed for study of the various
proposals, the Connnission again turned to exam-
ination of the individual Covenant articles.

Some of the main articles already given pro-
visional approval by the Commission relate to the
right to life, slavery, arbitrary arrest, right to fair
trial, liberty of movement, freedom of beliefs,
freedom of assembly, freedom of association, and
freedom of information.

After extended debate on article 5 (right to
life), a United Kingdom formula for a detailed
enumeration of exceptions was defeated in favor
of a more general approach, suported by the
United States. Similarly, the United Kingdom
favored enumeration in article 17 of specific limi-
tations on the right of freedom of information.
However, as advocated by the United States, the
text as provisionally adopted contains only gen-
eral limitations.

On April 2G, the Connnission adopted a resolu-
tion recommending through the Economic and
Social Council that the fifth session of the General
Assembly prweed with the elaboration of a spe-
cial freedom of information convention. The
United States opposed this action on the grounds
that the Commission, not having considered this
convention, was not in a position to j>ass nj^on its
merits, (ireece also o]iposed the resolution, pro-
|)os(h1 jointly by Egypt, France, Lebanon, and
India, while Belgium and Australia abstained in



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 22, Apr- Jun 1950) → online text (page 39 of 116)