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gation of broader powers to the executive branch
with respect to arms-export controls.

As a consequence of recent developments here
and abroad, it appears unthinkable that the United
States will ever revert to unregulated anns traffic.
In fact, it is probable that arms-export controls
will be strengthened in order to implement and
make more effective general American foreign


Department of State Bulletin

Inter-American Relations in Perspective

hy Edward G. Miller, Jr.

Assistant Secretary for Inter- American Affairs ^

Since I took office last June I have visited 15 of
the 20 republics of Latin America. In every coun-
try in South America and the Caribbean, I have
talked with the people and with their leaders.
And I have talivcd wiih our own citizens residing
in these countries. My visits have given me a
unique opportunity to examine our problems at
first hand and to think about our relations with
these countries and their people.

Common Interests

Our national interest in Latin America seems
clear to me. As neighbors all of us must get along
with one another. We have a common interest in
the security of our hemisphere.

During these visits of mine, I have been im-
pressed by the community of interest which is our
inter-American heritage. I have fortified my
own faith in our ability to work together. In the
Organization of American States, we have ma-
chinery for the discharge of our common business.
In the treaty of Rio de Janeiro, we have agreed to
act together for the maintenance of our common
peace and security. Experience shows clearly
that we need the other American Republics and
that they need us. This was proved during the
last war through the pooling of our efforts and

But there is a deeper consideration that must
govern our attitude. Our way of life is on trial
m this hemisphei'e. We are called upon to justify
our faith in the unlimited possibilities of the indi-

Today we are especially concerned with improv-
ing material standards of living in the Americas.
Our policy is to lend our strength to our neighbors
for this purpose. But there are limits to what we
can do. The other American Republics are sover-
eign and independent countries.

' An address made before the fourth Annual Bulletin
Forum in Philadelphia, Pa. on Mar. 22, 1950, and released
to the press on the same date.

AprW 3, 1950

870417—50 3

They are our equals under the law of nations.
Each is as much responsible for the solution of its
own domestic problems as we are for the solution
of ours. It is not our function to run their affairs
or to be officious. If, in dealing with tlieir own
problems, they seek cooperation from us tliat we
can properly furnish, we shall try to furnish it.
But we cannot ourselves solve their problems, and
there is no use of our even trying to cooperate ex-
cept on the basis of what they themselves are doing
to solve them.

Misconceptions About U.S.

There is a great deal of confusion in the other
American Republics — and in the United States as
well — about what the attitude and purposes of the
United States really are — about what we are doing,
about what we ought to be doing or not doing.
One misconception that you run into is that the
United States because of its size and prosperity
is responsible for solving the problems of tlie other
American Republics and that when they have
difficulties the United States is to blame. An
obsession has grown up here and abroad about
American financial assistance. It has become
dogma in some circles that the United States is
under a continuing obligation to help other nations.

Now the fact is that we have, in the past few
years, taken the initiative to strengthen other
countries through financial and technical meas-
ures. That initiative today is represented by, and
in part, by the International Bank and Fund, the
Export-Import Bank, and the Institute of Inter-
American Affairs. AVe have not taken that initia-
tive, however, in the discharge of any particular
obligation to any particular country. We have
done it because of the identification of our own
national interest with tlie general welfare of the

We are innnediately concerned, however, with
correcting a dangerously unbalanced economic
situation oy helping our neighbors increase their


own production on a rational basis. Some idea of
the degree of imbalance is indicated by the fact
that the United States, with less than 7 percent
of the world's population, is today producing over
40 percent of the world's goods.

This unbalance is just as much against our in-
terests as against those of the other countries.
Obviously we serve our own interest by promoting
increased productivity in Latin America. Finan-
cial cooperation is one of the means to this end, but
it is not an end in itself. We and the other nations
of this hemisphere must look at financial assist-
ance in its proper perspective. The problem of
increasing production is not one of dollars alone.
It is a problem rather of men, of resources, of
skills, and of ideas. Until these are allowed to
play their true part, we are not going to accom-
plish very much.

Another source of confusion is the claim that
because we are meeting particular emergencies in
one part of the world through cooperative meas-
ures we ai'e therefore obligated to cooperate on a
similar scale in other areas, even though condi-
tions are quite different. We are under no such
obligation. Moreover, what we have clone to meet
emergencies in the Eastern Hemisphere has not
prevented us from continuing our cooperation
with the countries of the Western Hemisphere.

In the past 2 months, I have participated in
conferences at Habana and Rio de Janeiro at-
tended by our Ambassadors in the other American
Republics. At these conferences, we decided that
our programs of cooperation must be planned in
terms of the over-all situation in each country.
Our cooperation can be effective only wliere there
is a genuine mobilization of effort in the other
country. This point of view will be put forward
by our delegation at the special session of the
Inter-American Economic and Social Council
which convened this week in Washington.

The bipartisan legislation now before Congress
to give effect to the Point 4 Program, known as
the Kee-Herter Bill, also expresses this point of
view. It contains one provision which may be
most useful in making this over-all approach effec-
tive. I refer to the device of joint commissions
to be set up at the request of other countries to
work out programs for economic development.
These would be permanent commissions concerned
with the various aspects of our relations with the
other countries relating to economic development.
But miracles are not to oe expected in this immense
task of development, and we cannot look forward
to immediate transformation of the economy of
any country. Wliat is needed more than anything
else is persistence of purpose and effort.

Inherent Differences

Another point I want to make clear is that, even
within the Western Hemisphere, our policy of
cooperation cannot possibly be uniform in its ap-
plication country by country. For one thing, the
differences between the nations of the American
community are striking.

Ten days ago I was in Brazil, a country larger
than the United States. Just before that I was in
Uruguay, with an area somewhat less than that
of Nebraska. I have visited countries with cul-
tures as different as those of Haiti and Argentina.
In Brazil the language is Portuguese; in Haiti,
French. Paraguay is virtually bilingual, as al-
most everyone speaks the native Guarani in addi-
tion to Spanish. In the other countries, Spanish
is the language.

Some countries are badly overcrowded; some
are almost empty. Some are rich; some are poor.
Some have developed industries; others are pri-
marily agi'icultural. Some wish to attract foreign
capital ; others see no advantage in doing so. Our
cooperative programs must therefore be adjusted
to the conditions of the different countries. They
must, in particular, be adjusted to the degree of
self-help which the coimtries themselves apply.
Some of them have immense possibilities for in-
creased production but are not meeting the chal-
lenge of those possibilities. This naturally limits
what we can do to cooperate with them. Others
are making an aggressive attack on the problem
of their own production and, consequently, are
getting more cooperation from us.

The Example of Puerto Rico

Recently, I saw a most inspiring example of
what a dynamic and high-minded government can
do to elevate its people. It was in my native island
of Puerto Rico, which today, as an associated part
of the United States, has its own independently
elected governor and legislature. The adminis-
tration of Governor Munoz Marin is not sitting
back and deploring the dire economic and social
situation in that overcrowded island. On the con-
trary, the Government of Puerto Rico is aggres-
sively administering a program of development,
partly through the aid of public funds but pri-
marily through bold and far-sighted measures for
attracting private capital.

Governor Munoz Marin told me that each j'ear
there are approximately 26 billion doHars of new
investment in the continental United States. He
feels that the task of his Government is to try to
attract some portion of this investment to Puerto
Rico and that if it is successful in attracting even
one-fourth of one percent of this amount, the
economy of Puerto Rico can be radically trans-
formed in a few years. This example might well
be studied by countries with similar problems.

Basis of Friendship

Wlien I speak of our attitude toward other
American Republics and our cooperation with
them, I am reminded that the questions most fre-
quently asked me when I return from a trip like
my last one are: "What do the people of the other


Department of State Bulletin

countrips think of us? Is there ii solid enough
friendship to form the basis for real cooperation T'
My answer is that by and hirge they do like and
respect us, that such a basis of friendship does
exist. Obviously, there are exceptions in detail
and often we are validly criticized for errors of
omission and commission. Our size and strength
make us a natuial target, especially for those who
would sliift the blame for local dillicultics or who
confuse details with the totality of our relations.
We are prepared to take this kind of criticism in
our stride as one of the expected obstacles in the
conduct of our international relations. We will
not allow it to deflect us from administering those
relations accordinji to the interests of our country
as we see them. However, let no one confuse our
restraint with docility. Bad faith, deliberate niis-
struction and hostility, where they occur, are
bound to injure our relations with the comitry
concerned. The job of creating good relations is
not ours alone.

We naturally seek to spread understanding of
our motives. This is the purpose of our informa-
tion programs. The extent to which we realize
understanding tests the effectiveness of our coop-
eration. In the progressive city of Sao Paulo,
Brazil, the state and mimicipal governments on
the day I was there donated a parcel of land worth
almost 300 thousand dollars for the expansion of
the Brazil-United States Cultural Institute. We
might ponder this real example of international
friendship. To mj' mind it represents a more
typical attitude than such resentment and criti-
cism of us as also find expression.

I have spoken of the need for each country to
assume the responsibility that belongs to it alone.
I have spoken of the need to base our inter- Amer-
ican cooperation on the active programs of self-
help that each country undertakes for itself. I
have spoken of the friendship and trust that are
indispensable to cooperation. These are the ele-
ments. Let us now clear our minds of fantasies,
false notions, and imagined grievances. We have
the tools, in this hemisphere, to prove the effective-
ness of our way of life. It means hard work,
patience, and good will. I suggest that we go
forward on that basis.

Consular Convention With
Costa Rica Enters Into Force

[Released to the press March 22'i

On March 19, 1950, the President issued his
proclamation of the consular convention between
the United States and Costa Rica, which entered

into force on that day, the thirtieth day after the
day of the exchange of instruments of ratification,
in accordance with article XV of the convention.

The convention was signed at San Jose on Janu-
ary 12, 1918, by the Uniled States Charge
d'Affaires ad iterim and the Costa Kican Secretary
of State in ciiarge of Foreign Relations. The ad-
vice and consent of the Uniled States Senate to
ratification of the convention was given on August
17, 1949, and the convention was ratified for the
United States on September 2, 1919. The respec-
tive ratifications of the United States and Costa
Rica were exchanged at San Jose on February 17,

The convention, which was developed after ex-
tensive study and negotiation, establishes a formal
reciprocal basis for the exchange of consular of-
ficers between the two countries, an exchange
which has taken place heretofore on the basis of
custom and usage, and defines rights and duties
covering such matters as privileges and immuni-
ties with respect to taxation and import duties,
consular authority in connection with the settle-
ment of decedents' estates, representation by con-
sular officers of their countrymen, authentication
and notarization of documents, and shipping and
merchant-marine problems such as salvage and

U.S. Endorses Report of
Caribbean Investigation Committee

Statement hy Secreta-ry Acheson
[Released to the press March 22]

The United States gives full support to the con-
clusions and recommendations i^resented by the
Caribbean Investigating Committee to the Council
of the Organization of American States, acting
provisionally as the Organ of Consultation under
the Rio treaty. The Committee, on which a rep-
resentative of the United States was privileged to
serve along with representatives from four other
American Republics, carried on its investigations
in a thorough and objective manner.

The resolutions which the Committee has rec-
ommended be adopted by the Organ of Consulta-
tion reflect a mature and consti'uctive considera-
tion of the facts and causes involved in the situa-
tion which the Committee was asked to investigate.
I am confident that the Organization of American
States, through its action in this case, will take a
great step forward in the cause of peace and se-
curity and, thereby, importantly strengthen the
basis of inter- American solidarity and friendship.

April 3, ?950


General License Concerning
Assets in Balkans Revoked

On February 24, 1950, Attorney General J.
Howard McGrath announced the revocation of
General License No. 32A which permitted limited
monthly remittances from blocked accounts to per-
sons within Bulgaria, Hungary, or Rumania who
are citizens or subjects of any such country and
who are the beneficial owners of such accounts.
That license, as he pointed out, was revoked pend-
ing a governmental decision as to the disposition
to be made of blocked assets of nationals of Bul-
garia, Hungary, and Rumania in accordance with
the treaties of peace with those countries.

Numerous inquiries have been directed to the
Office of Alien Property, Department of Justice,
as to whether the action described in the Attorney
General's announcement had any effect either on
assets in the United States of nationals of Bul-
garia, Hungary, and Rumania which are not
blocked at the present time or on assets which may
be required in the future by such nationals.

Harold I. Baynton, Acting Director, Office of
Alien Property, emphasizes that existing assets
in the United States of nationals of Bulgaria,
Hungary, and Rumania which have been un-
blocked under either general or special license or
assets of those nationals which may be acquired in
the future and which would be free under Gen-
eral License No. 94 are in no way affected by the
revocation of General License No. 32A. The
effect of the revocation is to prevent those owners
of assets now blocked, who live in Bulgaria,
Hungary, or Rumania and who are citizens of any
such country, from using such assets in the limited
amounts formerly permitted under General
License No. 32A.

Pan American Day, 1950


Whereas this year marks the sixtieth anniver-
sary of the founding of the Pan American Union,
which now functions as the General Secretariat
of the Organization of American States; and

Wheiu3as April 14 is customarily designated as
"Pan American Day" in each of the republics of
this Hemisphere, as a commemorative symbol of
tiie bonds of friendship among the peoples of the
Americas; and

Whereas it is fitting to call attention to the high
purposes insijiring the American republics in their
collaboration, through the Organization of Amer-
ican States, toward the solution of their common

' Pioe. 2877, 15 Fed. Reg. 1629.

problems and the maintenance of their peace and
security :

Now, therefore, I, Harry S. Truman, Presi-
dent of the United States of America, do hereby
proclaim Friday, April 14, 1950, as Pan American
Day ; and I direct the appropriate officials of the
Govermnent to have the flag of the United States
displayed on all public buildings on that day.

I also invite the Governors of the States, Terri-
tories, and possessions of the United States and the
ajjpropriate officials of municipalities and other
political subdivisions, to issue proclamations or
take other suitable action with respect to Pan
American Day. And I call upon the schools,
churches, and civic organizations, and the people
of the United States generally, to observe the day
with api^roiDriate ceremonies, thereby giving ex-
pression to the cordial sentiments entertained by
the Government and people of the United States
for the Governments and jaeoples of the other
American republics.

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my
hand and caused the Seal of the United States of
America to be affixed.

Done at the City of Washington this eighteenth

day of March in the year of our Lord nineteen

hundred and fifty, and of the Independ-

[seal] ence of the United States of America

the one hundred and seventy-fourth.

Harry S. Truman

By the President :
Dean G. Acheson
Secretary of State.

Switzerland To Represent
U.S. Interests in Bulgaria

[Released to the press March 22]

Notice is hereby given that following the cessa-
tion of diplomatic relations between the Govern-
ment of the United States of America and the
Government of the Peoples' Republic of Bulgaria,
the Government of Switzerland assumed the pro-
tection of American interests in Bulgaria and the
Govermnent of Poland assumed the protection of
Bulgarian interests in the United States of
America. Notice is further given that all matters
relating to American interests in Bulgaria or
Bulgarian interests in the United States of
America should henceforth be directed to the
Division of Protective Services of the Office of
Consular Affairs, Department of State, Washing-
ton 25, D.C.


Department of State Bulletin

Halibut Convention With Canada

[Released to the press March 2^1

The Department of State announced signature
today of a convention between the United States
ami Canada for the extension of port privileges to
halibut fishing vessels on the Pacific Coast of the
two countries.

The United States Ambassador, Laurence A.
Steinhardt, and the Canadian Minister of Fish-
eries, R. W. Mayhew, signed the convention in

Under the terms of this agreement, Canada will
grant to United States halibut fishing vessels the
privilege of landing catches and obtaining sup-
plies, repairs, and equipment in Canadian ports
on the Pacific Coast. In return, tlie United States
will grant the same privilege to Canadian halibut
fishing vessels in Pacific Coast ports of Alaska
and the continental United States.

This convention puts on a permanent basis an
arrangement which has been made year by year
in the past.

Shanghai Communists Delay
Evacuees From China

[Released to the press March 20]

The American President Lines today informed
the Department of State that local Chinese Com-
munist authorities in the Shanghai Foreign Trade
Bureau have refused permission for shallow-draft
LST vessels under commercial chai'ter to the APL
and manned by civilian APL crews to enter
Shanghai for the purpose of ferrying evacuees to
the liner S. S. General Gordon at safe anchorage
outside the Yangtze estuary. Shallow-draft ves-
sels are required to navigate the shallow north
channel of the Yangtze because the main channel
has been mined and is unsafe.

Although the detailed written reply of the
Shanghai authorities to this request is not yet
available, it would appear that tentative refusal
is based on unwarranted apprehensions of local
authorities that these vessels ai'e not commercial
ships. This is not the case. In view of the steps
which Shanghai authorities had taken to expedite
granting of a large number of exit permits, in
view of the announcement of the top Chinese Com-
munist authorities at Peiping that they wished to
facilitate the departure of American official per-
sonnel, and in view of the earlier indication from
Shanghai authorities to the APL agent there of
their agreement in principle to this operation, the
Department is instructing United States officials
there to seek at once a reconsideration.

Almost 2,000 foreigners of various nationalities,
including American diplomatic and consular offi-
cials from Nanking ami Siianghai and many
invalids and others urgently desiring to depart
from the isolated port of Shanghai, had expected
to leave by this means sometime in the course of
this week. Approximately 310 Americans are

The two LST's are en route to Shanghai while
the General Gordon, which was scheduled to leave
Hong Kong yesterday for the i-cndczvoiis off the
Yangtze, will remain in Hong Kong pending
further decisions. The LST's will remain out-
side Chinese territorial waters awaiting entry

Japan-Burma Trade Agreement

[Released to the press in Tokyo March 21]

General MacArthur today announced a trade
agreement between Japan and Burma ; provisions
for the exchange of 49 million dollars (17.5 mil-
lion pounds sterling) . of goods during calendar
year 1950 has been ratified.

ScAP officials stated this is first formal trade
agreement between the recently established gov-
ernment of the Republic of the Union of Burma
and Japan. They said it is anticipated trade
resulting from this agreement will be instrumental
in the economic rehabilitation and development
of both countries.

The new agreement was negotiated in January
1950 at trade conference held in Tokyo between
Burmese Trade Mission headed by U Thet Su,
Chairman of the Burmese State Agricultural
Marketing Board and representatives of Scap.
Japanese Government officials attended the con-
ference as observers.

In general, the new agreement provides for
balanced trade between the two areas at the high-
est practicable level. Trade will be conducted on
a pound sterling basis in accordance with provi-
sions of the over-all payments arrangement cur-
rently in force between Japan and the sterling area
to which Burma is a signatory.

The new trade plan for the calendar year 1950
provides for exchange of variety of goods. Jap-
anese principal imports from Burma will be rice,
crude rubber, gram (chickpeas), raw cotton,
maize, teak, beans, tung oil, lacquer, cotton seed,
sticklac, and other raw materials. Japanese prin-
cipal items of export to Burma will include tex-
tiles, building materials, small-scale cottage in-
dustry equipment, machinery and equipment,
rubber manufactures, cement, food, enamel-
ware, aluminum ware, and other miscellaneous

April 3, 1950



Universal, Regional, and Bilateral Patterns of International Organization

Statement hy Deputy Under Secretary Rush ^

Mr. Chairman and Members of the Subcom-
mittee : I appreciate very much the opportunity to
appear for the Department of State at this par-
ticular stage in these hearings. The Subcommit-

Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 22, Apr- Jun 1950) → online text (page 4 of 116)