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Department of State bulletin (Volume v. 22, Apr- Jun 1950) online

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fully capable of making its own decisions.

May 15, ?950

885732—50 2



U.S. Denies American Plane
Violated Soviet Territory

U^. Note of May 5, 1950
[Released to the press May 5]

The Ambassador of the United States of
America presents liis compliments to the Minister
for Foreign Affairs of the Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics and, with reference to the
Ministry's note of April 21 regarding the lost
American airplane, has the honor to communicate
the following :

The Government of the United States of
America notes that the Government of the Union
of Soviet Socialist Republics continues to refer to
an American airplane of the B-29 type, which
allegedly penetrated Soviet territory on April 8,
despite the fact that it has been made clear that
the only American military airplane in the Baltic
area on April 8 was a United States Navy airplane
of the Privateer type. The United States Gov-
ernment reiterates that this United States Navy
airplane was unarmed and was at no time over
Soviet or Soviet-occupied territory or territorial
waters. It is thus apparent that the Soviet Gov-
ernment's account of this incident is not factual.
The reply of the Government of the Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics to the United States
Government's communication of April 18 makes it
obvious that the Government of the Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics continues to base its
position on the erroneous account which it put
forward shortly after the incident occurred and
that it has failed to carry out the careful investiga-
tion suggested by the Government of the United
States which would enable it to correct these
errors.^

The United States Government categorically
denies that the American airplane violated Soviet
or Soviet-occupied territory and rejects as wholly
without foundation the protest contained in the
last paragi-aph of the note of the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs of April 21.

In these circumstances, the Government of the
United States has no alternative but to conclude
that the Government of the Union of Soviet So-
cialist Republics has not only failed to meet but
has no intention of meeting the obligations which
international law and practice impose on members
of the family of nations. It is clear that tliis
disregard for law, custom, and the opinion of man-
kind constitutes a further obstacle to the estab-
lishment of harmonious relations among nations
and cannot be reconciled with the Soviet Govern-
ment's continued protestations of its devotion to
the cause of peace.



' Bulletin of May 1, 1950, p. 667.



753



It is clearly impossible to resolve this issue so
long as the Soviet Government refuses to base its
position upon the facts of the case. The Soviet
Government must, however, bear the responsi-
bility both for the action of its Air Force and for
the manner with which it has dealt with this inci-
dent. The Government of the United States must
warn the Government of the Soviet Socialist
Republics of the seriousness with which it regards
the attitude of the Government of the Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics in matters of such grave
consequence.

Soviet Note of April 21, 1950 "■

In reply to the note of the Government of the
United States of America, of April 18 this year, the
Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics considers it necessary to state the
following :

As was already communicated in the note of the
Soviet Government of April 11, the American air-
plane which violated the Soviet frontier south of
Libava (Lepaya), according to verified data was
a four-motored military airplane B-29 ("Flying
Fortress") which not only did not submit to the
demand of Soviet fighters to follow them for a
landing at an aerodrome but opened fire on the
Soviet airplanes. After the leading Soviet fighter
was compelled to return fire, the American air-
plane turned toward the sea and disappeared.

Such are the facts established by due verifi-
cation.

In the note of the Government of the United
States of America of April 18, there is contained
a series of proofless assertions which are refuted
by accurately established facts.

In this note, for example, the Government of the
United States of America asserts that the only
American military airplane which was in the air
in the region of the Baltic on April 8 was an air-
plane of the Naval Aviation of the United States
of America of the type "Privateer." However,
it has been accurately ascertained that an airplane
B-29 ("Flying Fortress") with American identi-
fication signs was flying over Soviet territory
south of Libava (Lepaya).

The Government of the United States of
America declares that the above-mentioned air-
plane supposedly did not violate the Soviet
frontier and was "not armed. However, according
to verified data at the disposal of the Soviet Gov-
ernment, an American airplane B-29 ("Flying
Fortress") on April 8 of this year violated the
state frontier of the Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics in the region of Libava. penetrated into
territory of the Union of Soviet Socialist Repub-
lics for 21 kilometers, and shot at Soviet fighters.
These facts fully refute statements of the Gov-
ernment of United States of America both to the
effect that the American airplane did not violate

' Printed from telegraphic text.

754



the frontier of the Soviet Union and to the effect
that it was allegedly unarmed.

In the light of these facts, the above-indicated
assertions of the Government of the United States
of America cannot be assessed otherwise than as
an attempt to evade responsibility for gross vio-
lation of international law.

In its note, the Government of the United States
of America also declares that it "demands that
most strict and categorical instructions be issued
to the Soviet Air Force" to avoid repetition of
incidents of similar kind and that the Soviet side
should allegedly bear responsibility for the in-
cident which did occur and that it should pay
compensation for the loss of the American air-
plane.

The Soviet Government cannot take under con-
sideration the above-indicated demands, as they
are clearly absurd and deprived of any foundation
whatever.

It is not difficult to understand that the aviation
of any country, under obligation to guard the
inviolability of its frontiers, in a case of violation
of the frontier of its country by a foreign plane,
should conduct itself in exactly such a manner as
Soviet aviation did.

The note of the American Government confirms
that the American airplane, which violated the
frontier of the Soviet Union, was wrecked. The
Soviet Government has no data on this matter,
but if the American airplane was actually lost,
then responsibility for its loss rests exclusively on
those gentlemen who obliged the American air-
plane to penetrate into Soviet territory to photo-
graph Soviet defense installations and thereby
caused it to violate international law and the
inviolability of Soviet frontiers.

As concerns the instruction for Soviet aviators
of which the American note speaks, an appropriate
instruction has already existed for a long time and
needs no changes whatever. This instruction
reads : On the occasion of violation of the frontiers
of Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and pene-
tration into Soviet territory by a foreign airplane,
Soviet aviators are under obligation to compel it
to land at a Soviet aerodrome and in case of resist-
ance to open fire on it.

Finally, the Soviet Government considers it
necessary to direct special attention to the fact
that the Government of the United States of
America, as may be judged by its note of April 18,
in place of an objective answer to the note of the
Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics of April 11, is sheltering the unlawful
actions of several of its subordinates who have
stained themselves with gross violation of gen-
erally recognized standards in international law.
In view of what has been stated, the Soviet
Government confirms its i-esolute protest to the
Government of the United States of America
against the gross violation of its frontiers by the
American military airplane.

Department of Stale Bulletin



Rumanian Trial of Local Employees
Aimed at Discrediting U.S. Mission

[Releancd to the press May S]

The Rumanian authorities liave just brought to
conchision a trial which resulted in heavj' sen-
tences for several employees of the former Ameri-
can and British information offices at Bucharest
antl for the Rumanian correspondent of the New
York Timex. The trial seems to have been de-
sigiied principally to discredit the diplomatic
missions of tlie United States and United King-
dom and to intimidate Rumanians from employ-
ment by or association with these missions.

Miss Xora Samuelli, who was secretarj' to the
Public Affairs Officer of the United States infor-
mation service in Rumania, was charged with
having performed espionage at the direction of
official United States representatives. This is the
first instance of the conviction and sentencing of
one of the Legation's Rumanian employees. The
pattern had already been set by the trials of
Michael Shipkov in Bulgaria and two employees
of the American Embassy in Czechoslovakia.

It may be stated categorically tliat Miss Samu-
elli served the Legation only in the capacity of
stenographer-clerk; her functions entailed no
activities which could properly be labeled as
espionage, sabotage, or conspiracy. The further
charge that she attempted with others to flee the
country clandestinely, whether true or not, is a
commentary both on the conditions which induce
persons to risk the extreme hazards of flight and
on the measures which forbid persons to depart
Rumania voluntarily.

Another defendant at this trial, Liviu Nasta,
was the local correspondent of the New York
Times, a Rumanian citizen. Evidently, his con-
viction for what was chai'acterized as paid espi-
onage was based on his supplying to his news-
paper and to other subscribers material which, in
any normal countrv', would be considered routine
news copy.

The trial, like others being staged in Communist
countries, had the full quota of "confessions" and
entirely deprived the accused of the means of
adequate defense. Once more, a Communist
regime has shown its contempt for truth and for
human rights in pursuing the aim of severing the
lines of communication between the people under
its domination and the nations of the free world.

Visit of Greek Conductor

Theodore Vavayannis, conductor of the State
Symphony Orchestra at Athens and professor at
the Athens Conservatory, arrived in Washington
on May 1 for a period of 2 weeks. His visit has
been made possible through a grant-in-aid
awarded by the Department of State under the
program oi exchange of persons.



Visit of Prime Minister of Pakistan

Remarks by President Truman '

Mr. Pkime Minister; Beoum Saiiiha: With a
deep sense of the historical import of this occa-
sion and with the greatest personal pleasure, I am
hai)p3' 'o welcome you both to the United States.
Mrs. Truman and I, and Americans throughout
our country, have been looking forward to your
arrival. We are glad you have found it possible
to do us the honor of visiting us and are thank-
ful that you have been granted a safe journey.

The many Americans who have had the priv-
ilege of visiting Pakistan are unanimous in their
praise of your heart- warming hospitality. I hope
that while you are in the Uiiited States you will
feel as much at home as Americans do when they
visit your great country. It is likewise my sin-
cere hope that in the course of your stay you will
find that Americans and Pakistanis have much
in common.

Knowing that the number of invitations from
Americans wishino; to extend hospitality has far
exceeded the number which your sojourn in the
United States will permit you to accept, I wish
at this time to extend a warm and heartfelt wel-
come on behalf of all the American people.



Evacuation From Shanghai to Tientsin

Statement hy Secretary Acheson
[Released to the press April Z6'\

A special train carrying passengers, who had
exit permits and had desired to evacuate from
Shanghai, is now en route to Tientsin. The train
left Shanghai the morning of April 26 (last night
Washington time) . In addition, other passengers
have traveled by regular train to Tientsin during
the past week.

The American Presidents Liner General Gordon
is due off Taku Bar, the nearby deep-water anchor-
age for Tientsin, on Friday. Passengers will be
transferred by local lighters to the ship which is
on its regularly scheduled trans-Pacific crossing.
Arrangements for the charter of the special train,
use of lighters, and the call of the General Gordon
were initiated by the American Presidents Line's
local agent.

The ship's next calls will be Hong Kong, Manila,
Yokohama, and the United States.

The Department has no exact information on
the number of Americans or other passengers ex-
pected to board the ship but understands almost
1,000 people are expected to depart via this means.

All official American personnel are included.



' Made at the Washington National Airport on May 3,
1950, and released to the press by the White House on the
same date.



May 15, 7950



755



Foreign Policy in a Cold War



iy Francis H. Russell, Director, Office of Public Affairs *



I should like to begin by invading the domain
of political ideas and principles in which you
specialize. I do this because I believe that this
domain has been the forgotten front in the cold
war that is now going on between Soviet com-
munism and the democracies; and because it is
clear that, if we are to win the cold war, the Ameri-
can people will have to become again a nation of
hard-hitting cracker-barrel political philosophers.
That should not be dilRcult. We developed a habit
of intensive discussion on problems of political
philosophy during the eighteenth and early nine-
teenth centuries which, if we can resurrect it, will
stand us in good stead.

Understanding Principles of Communism

It is impossible to understand the actions of
the Soviet Union in the United Nations, in Western
Europe, in the field of atomic energy control, or
human rights without understanding the political

Brinciples upon which communism is founded,
ewspaper headline reading merely adds puzzle
to puzzle.

One of the intellectual hardships of the world
war is that only a person who is more or less at
home with the works of Kant, Fichte, Hegel,
Feuerbach, and Marx can understand what makes
the Kremlin tick. With a knowledge of the
political philosophy upon which Soviet com-
munism is founded, its day-to-day actions become
not only comprehensible but, to all intents and
purposes, predictable.

Paralleling this, and equally urgent, is the need
for a rediscovery of the taproots of democracy.
These roots are deeper and more complex than
those of comnmnism, but they are, nevertheless,
identifiable ; and, when identified, they give fresh
understanding and meaning to the goals we pur-



' An address made before the Midwest Political Science
Conference at Ann Arbor, Mich., on Apr. 21, 1950, and
released to the press on the same date.



sue and the methods by which we must pursue
them.

If democracy is to gain the adherence of people
around the world who are malring their choice be-
tween conflicting ways of life, we must be able
to show why it is that communism is inevitably
the road to intellectual, moral, and physical death
and why it is that the political philosophy upon
which democracy is built is that of life and growth.

We make no impression upon those with a Com-
munist bent when we point to the horrors of the
police state because their theories specifically call
for dispensing with all morality. They only smile
at our effort. But when we punch holes in the
philosophic foundations of their system, they be-
come uneasy. Then, by creating doubt and un-
certainty among those who would otherwise be
their followers, we are hitting them where it hurts.

This effort cannot be synthetic. We cannot hire
one or two men to do it for us. It must spring
from the intellectual and moral life of America.
It is a job that lies with special obligation among
you and your colleagues.

Practical Job Facing U.S.

Having made this excursion into your field, I
should like to retire and dwell for a few minutes
on one or two less philosophical situations in the
world that call for attention and particularly on
the practical job facing the United States as its
^ets on with its role as the leading power in the
free world.

I will narrow this down a bit further. I am
speaking to you as an officer of the Department of
State. It is our job in the Department to act as
an arm of the President in the conduct of United
States foreign relations. We are concerned not
only with the policy level but with the action level
of foreign policy. We feel with special force the
definition of politics and diplomacy as "the art
of the possible."

Since this is a democracy, the ultimate source of
our foreign policy is the character of the American



756



Department of State Bulletin



people. Our policy must express the aspirations
of the peoiilo ami must serve their



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 22, Apr- Jun 1950) → online text (page 47 of 116)