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world. In each case, I hope that the meetings
will facilitate more effective concerted action.

Preparation for these meetings has been on a
strictly bipartisan basis. I am much encouraged
by the talks I have had with both Republican and
Democratic Members of the Senate and the House
of Representatives and by the constructive sug-
gestions I have had from them. Mr. Dulles and
Mr. Cooper have given invaluable assistance in
preparing for the talks, and Mr. Cooper will assist
me in them.

' Made on the Secretary's departure for Europe on May
6, 1950, and released to the press on the same date.



May 15, 7950



775



Free men and free nations everywhere will face
increasingly crucial tests in the years immediately
ahead. What we seek at London is to accelerate
mobilization of the moral and material strength
of the free world. The free world contains vast
untapped moral and material resources. We
must develop those reserves to the best of our
ability. We should be doing so even if interna-
tional communism did not exist. As things are,
we must do so with utmost vigor.

These meetings will be important in themselves,
but, I believe, they will be even more important
in laying the basis for continuing concerted ac-
tion in the future. We must have firm faith in
ourselves and in the values for which our country
and other free countries stand.

1 trust that from these meetings will come a
new sense of community in the North Atlantic
area.



Anniversary of Signing the
North Atlantic Treaty

Messages Received hy the Secretary of State
[Released to the press April 5]

We, the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the
European signatories of the Atlantic Pact, on this
4th April, the first anniversary of the signature
of the Pact, wish to take this opportunity to send
you a message of greeting and solidarity.

Much valuable work has been done during the
past year and a sound organization has been estab-
lished to carry out the common task. The Pact
is universally recognized as a symbol of the deter-
mination of the community of the Atlantic peoples
to defend their freedom and their civilization
against any attack. At the same time all the world
knows that we should never contemplate aggressive
action against any other power.

We look forward to meeting again at the forth-
coming session of the Council in London, when we
shall hope to carry a stage further the work of
consolidation which has been so well begun.

Robert Schuman (France)
Carlo Sforza (Italy)
Paul, van Zeeland (Belgium)
Dirk Stikker (Netherlands)
Joseph Bech (Luxembourg)
JosE Caeiro da Matta (Portugal)
Halvakd Lange (Norway)
GusTAv Rasmussen (Deiunark)
Bjarni Benediktsson (Iceland)
Ernest Bevin (Great Britain)



that we created under your direction is serving
to ensure the peace and freedom that the demo-
cratic countries consider their greatest good. It is
my wish that the future may bring ever greater
results, making the force of the Pact felt wherever
it is necessary to ensure ever greater social justice
and the desire for peace. For these ideals, which
I know well are those of the United States, the
Italian people will always be happy to stand at
your side.

Sforza



One year has elapsed since April 4, 1949, mem-
orable day on which twelve countries agreed to
sign at Washington the North Atlantic Pact.
Twelve countries with an old civilization which
have understood the lesson of the modern world
and have decided to unite their efforts to defend
and promote their ideal of peace, justice, free
democracy. Together, they hope to establish in
the world the permanent conditions of general
peace and material prosperity in which all peoples
will share. They understand that their united
forces are not inferior to those of any group and
safeguard them from all danger of attack wherever
it may come from. They have been forced to stop
the disarmament which they joyously undertook
after the war but if they rearm it is with the single
and identical idea of defending themselves and
thereby ensuring peace for themselves and for all
men of good will. Your great country, Mr. Sec-
retary of State, has taken an eminent part in this
common effort. The power and wealtli of the
United States are the basis for an intelligent gen-
erosity from which have come the Marshall Plan
in the economic field and the military assistance
agreements in the field of armaments. The year
that is endinw has not been lost. The agencies of
the Atlantic Pact have been established. Step by
step, the Atlantic nations are strengthening them-
selves economically and militarily. Millions of
men have definitively placed their fondest hopes
in the establishment of lasting peace, the advent
of an era of prosperity and social justice.

Paul ^вЦ†A^^ Zeeland



On the first anniversary of the Atlantic Pact
I am happy to note with you that this first period
of work in common has proved how much the Pact



At the occasion of the first anniversary of the
signature of the North Atlantic Treaty which has
even more tightened the bonds that hajipily unite
our two countries I do not fail to convey directly
to Your Excellency the heartfelt feelings of the
Portuguese Government and people our regard for
the work already realized and our faith in the
future results of the common job we undertook
togetlier for the maintenance of peace and the
strengthening of solidarity among the western
powers.

I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to
Your Excellency the assurances oif my highest
consideration.

Jose Caeiro da Matta



776



Department of State Bulletin



Soviet Move on Austrian Treaty Talks
Poses Question of Cooperation

Statement by Secretary Achesoii
[Released to the press May 3]

The Soviet Deputy has unexpectedly called a
meeting: of the deputies for May 4 although it had
been agreed to hold the next meeting on May 22.

It is well known that conclusion of the Austrian
treaty has been blocked for many months by the
Soviet refusal to proceed until bilateral agreement
has been reached with Austria on the settlement of
Soviet claims for relief supplies and services.

The Soviet deputy, at the April 26 meeting, in-
jected a new issue into the negotiations by reading
a prepared statement charging the Austrian Gov-
ernment with failure to comply with Allied Coun-
cil decisions on denazification and demilitarization
and by attempting, on the basis of these allega-
tions, to amend an already agreed article of the
treaty.

That was a new but not unexpected tactic. The
Soviets have many times before made similar im-
substantiated charges in the Allied Council in
Vienna. This Government is just as interested as
the Soviet Government in assuring that Austria
is denazified and demilitarized in accordance with
our international commitments. The Allied
Council in Vienna, however, not the treaty meet-
ings in London, is the proper forum for the dis-
cussion of matters of this character. Established
procedures exist in Austria to deal with any real
violations of the denazification laws or demilitari-
zation regulations.

The Soviet action in raising this issue in the
treaty negotiations was, obviously, a further de-
laying tactic intended to serve as a pretext for
refusal to conclude the treaty. The previous ex-
cuse of bilateral Soviet-Austrian settlement of
relief claims had worn so thin that, at the last
meeting, the Soviet deputy refused to give any
information concerning those negotiations. The
Western deputies repeatedly indicated their will-
ingness to proceed .with the negotiations and to
discuss all remaining unagreed issues of the treaty,
five in number, with a view to concluding the
treaty. The Soviet position, however, rendered
such action impossible.

Conclusion of the treaty remains the keystone
of United States policy with respect to Austria,
and this Government intends to continue to exert
every effort to this end in order to secure the with-
drawal of all occupation forces from Austria and
to reestablish Austria's independence as promised
in the Moscow declaration.

This latest move by the Soviet deputy in calling
the May 4 meeting leaves the issue clearly up to
the Soviet Union as to whether it proposes to get
on with the treaty or whether this is but another
move to delay the conclusion of a treaty. We,



accordingly, look forward with great interest to
see what the Soviet deputy will propose to carry
out our agreed policy for an early conclusior^ of
the treaty.



Poland Withdraws From FAO

[Released to the press April 27]

The Food and Agriculture Organization from
which Poland is witlidrawing is one of the oldest
of the United Nations organizations. It is de-
voted to increasing food supplies, improving the
utilization of foodstuffs, and raising the level of
farm living throughout the world. It is deeply
regretted that any government should withdraw
its support from such a humanitarian project.
Poland's action is particularly surprising because
of the benefits which it has obtained from mem-
bership in the Food and Agriculture Organization.
For one thing, at the request of Poland, an agri-
cultural mission was sent to that country by the
organization in 1947. It surveyed conditions
there and made recommendations as to the best
methods of restoring agricultural production,
which had been disrupted by the war. A number
of these recommendations have been put into ef-
fect with beneficial results to the Polish economy.
Specialists were also sent to Poland at the request
of that country in 1947, 1948, and 1949. United
States specialists played an active part in the Food
and Agriculture Organization's work of assisting
Poland.

It is ridiculous to suggest that the United States
controls the Food and Agriculture Organization.
Sixty-three countries belong to Food and Agri-
culture Organization, and they have an equal
voice in its conferences where the policies of the
organization are determined. An excellent illus-
tration that the United States does not have a
disproportionate influence over Food and Agri-
culture Organization can be seen from the decision
of the Conference of the organization last fall to
move its permanent headquarters from the United
States to Rome, even though the United States
attempted to secure agreement to the retention of
the headquarters in the United States.

Poland's withdrawal from the Food and Agri-
culture Organization follows closely its with-
drawal a few weeks ago from the International
Bank for Reconstruction and Development and
the International Monetary Fund. This move is
a part of the pattern set by the previous with-
drawal of the U.S.S.R. and certain of its satellites
from participation in specialized agencies of the
United Nations. In view of the primarily agrar-
ian character of the Polish economy, Poland's
withdrawal from the Food and Agiiculture Or-
ganization can hardly be considered to be in the
best interest of the country.



May 15, 1950



777



U.S. Delegations to International Conferences



FAD: Control of Infestation

Henry J. Spencer, wildlife research biologist,
Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the In-
terior, Gainesville, Florida, will be the United
States delegate to the Food and Agriculture Or-
ganization (Fao) Latin American meeting on
Control of Infestation of Stored Products to be
convened at San Jose, Costa Rica, on April 17.
He will serve also as acting United States member
at the first meeting of the Fao Committee on In-
festation Control and Safe Grain Storage which
will be officially constituted at the first-mentioned
meeting. Clyde M. Packard, head of the Division
of Cereal and Forage Insect Investigation, Agri-
cultural Research Administration, Department of
Agriculture and United States member of the
Committee, will be unable to attend.

The control of infestation has been a major
project of the Food and Agriculture Organiza-
tion for 3 years, for the estimated loss from in-
festation represents almost one half of the amount
of foodstuffs which enter world trade. In the
United States, for example, insects living in farm
grain bins eat or destroy 5 percent or more of
the nation's stored grain and cereal products
every year. They cause an annual loss estimated
at 300 million bushels of grain, worth about 400
million dollars at today's prices. Rats destroy or
damage 200 million bushels more.

Approximately 6 months ago. Fad and the Costa
Rican Government started a project, to be carried
on for at least a year, for a country-wide demon-
stration in Costa Rica of what can be accomplished
by modern methods of infestation control. Pur-
suant to a recommendation made at a Latin
American regional meeting of the Fao, held in
Quito in September 1949, Fao has convoked the
Conference which will meet on April 17 in order to
enable technicians from interested countries to ob-
serve the progress of the demonstration work in
Costa Rica.

The participants in the Conference will attend
demonstrations on (1) the operating of the grain
storage plant in San Jose; (2) laboratory tech-
niques, sampling, grain drying, moisture determi-
nations, etc. ; (3) methods of fumigation in silos,
chambers, and under tarpaulins; and (4) the con-
trol of rats. Insecticides, the uses of spraying



778



and dusting equipment, and methods of treating
grain in sacks will be discussed. Visits will be
made to the Research Institute at Turrialba and
to Pontarenas, at which latter place examination
will be made of port facilities, barges, boxcars,
etc., in order to observe the methods used for the
infestation control of grain in transit. In addi-
tion to studying the progress of the work in Costa
Rica, the participants will report on infestation
control and grain storage projects in their respec-
tive countries and discuss special problems of
general interest.

Provision was made for the establishment of
the Committee on Infestation Control and Safe
Grain Storage in a resolution adopted by the
Meeting on the Control of Infestation of Grain
and Other Food Products held at Palmira and
Cali, Colombia, in February >1949. The Com-
mittee, which will consist of technical experts
from the American Republics, will deal specifi-
cally with questions of practical applications and
regulations pertaining to the preservation and
storage of grain and food products.

ICAO: Frequency Assignments for South East Asia

The United States delegation to the Inter-
national Civil Aviation Organization (Icao)
Special Frequency Assignment Planning meeting
for South East Asia was convened at New Delhi,
April 18, 1950, is as follows :

Delegate and Chairman

James D. Durkee, chief, International Branch, Aviation
Division, Federal Communications Commission

Advisers

Alick B. Currie, aeronautical communications specialist,
Civil Aeronautics Administration, Department of
Commerce

Captain John York, USAF, 1808 AACS Wing, Far East Air
Force, Tokyo

This is one of a series of special regional fre-
quency assignment planning meetings to be con-
vened by Icao for the purpose of preparing plans
for the assignment of high frequencies allotted by
the International Teleconununication Union (Itu)
to the major world air route areas and regional
and domestic air route areas falling within or
traversing the various Icao air navigation regions.

Department of State Bulletin



A combined meeting of the African-Indian Ocean
and Middle East regions was held at Paris hist
month. A combined meeting of the Caribbean,
Sout American, and South Atlantic regions is in
session at Habana at the present time. Meetings
for the remaining regions have not yet been
scheduled.

The New Delhi meeting will prepare coordi-
nated ratlio frequency assignment plans for aero-
nautical stations serving the major world air
routes and regional and domestic air routes within
the IcAO South East Asia region, as well as a plan
of radio frequency assignments for such special
aeronautical mobile services as those for broad-
casting meteorological information to aircraft.

ICAO: Altimeter Setting Procedure

The Department of State announced on April 21
that the following have been named to represent
the United States Government at the International
Civil Aviation Organization (Icao) meeting on
altimeter setting procedure for the European-Med-
iterranean region to be convened at Paris on April
24, 1950 :

Delegate and Chairman

James L. Kinney, Representative, Flight Operations, Inter-
natioual Civil Aviation Organization, Civil Aeronau-
tics Administration, Department of Commerce

Advisers

Walter B. Swanson, Adviser, International Air TrafiBe
Control Standards, Civil Aeronautics Administration,
Department of Commerce

Major William F. Bernheisel, USAF, Headquarters,
USAFB, Wiesbaden, Germany

The lack of standardized altimeter setting pro-
cedures has been a source of danger to aircraft
(including United States aircraft) operating in
the IcAO European-Mediterranean air navigation
region. Although the matter of establishing such
procedures has been considered at several Icao
meetings held in the region, the recommendations
of those meetings have not as yet been accepted and
put into effect by the states concerned. The infor-
mal meeting to be held on April 24 represents a
further attempt to formulate and adopt generally
acceptable altimeter setting procedures.

ILO Migration

On April 25, the Department of State an-
nounced the United States delegation to the In-
ternational Labor Organization (Ilo) Prelimi-
nary Conference on Migration, which convened at
Geneva on that date. The delegation consists of
the following:

Delegate

Clara M. Beyer, associate director. Bureau of Labor
Standards, Department of Labor

Advisers

Boris Shisbkin, director, European Labor Division, Office



of the Special Rppresentatlve, Economic Cooperation
Admini.sti'ntion, Paris
Irwin Tobin, labor adviser, Bureau of ESuropean Affairs,
Department of State

Ilo is convening this Conference to consider
steps which should be taken to facilitate the move-
ment of people from overpopulated ICuropean
countries to countries inside and outside Europe
which urgently need manpower for their own de-
velopment. The economic and social factors im-
peding migration at the present time include : fear
of lower living standards; different ways of life;
djflRculties of transport; problems of adminis-
trative organization; difficulties of economic de-
velopment; and reco^iition that migration in the
past has often been disappointing f I'om the stand-
point of the migrant and the countries of immi-
gration and emigration.

In an effort to find solutions to the existing
difficulties, the forthcoming Conference will review
the present situation regarding migration move-
ments and will consider: the number and qual-
ifications of persons in the various countries avail-
able for emigration, and the number and qualifi-
cations of persons for whom demands in the
countries of immigration have been made known ;
the organization of migration both in countries of
emigration and in countries of immigi-ation, e.g.,
arrangements for determining availabilities and
demands for manpower, selection, transjiort, re-
ception, and settlement of migi-ants; and action al-
ready taken by the Ilo and other intergovern-
mental organizations to promote migration and
economic development and the possibilities of ex-
tending this action in the future.

Plant Quarantine Regulations

The Department of State announced on April
26 that Stanley B. Fracker, Research Coordina-
tor, Agricultural Research Administration, De-
partment of Agriculture, will represent the United
States Government at the International Confer-
ence on Plant Quarantine Regulations which is to
be held at The Hague, April 26-May 3, 1950.

Since the Conference, called by the Netherlands
Government to commemorate the fiftieth anniver-
sary of the establishment of the Netherlands
Phytopathological Service, will study the control
of plant pests and diseases, arrangements have
been made by the Fag to have the participants
consider, pursuant to a recommendation adopted
by the Fifth Fao Annual Conference at Wash-
ington in 1949, the possibility of revising two con-
ventions relating to plant disease and plant
protection.

The discovery that a North American insect,
the grape phylloxera, had accidentally reached the
vineyards of Europe and was causing serious de-
struction led to the signature on November 3, 1881,
by five European countries (Germany, Austria-
Hungary, France, Portugal, and Switzerland) of
an international phylloxera convention designed



May 15, 1950



779



to prevent the unrestricted movement of infested
vines in international trade.

During the period since 1881, European vine-
yards have been reconstructed by the use of re-
sistant American grapes as grafting stocks; va-
rious measures (e.g., soil fumigation with carbon
bisulfide) have helped to eradicate the insect;
effective plant protection services have been estab-
lished; and restrictions and quarantine measures
have been adopted to safeguard the importation
of plant materials, while the prohibitions imposed
on the circulation of vine cuttings by the conven-
tion have actually handicapped the progress of
viticulture in the countries concerned.

Preliminary discussions have indicated a will-
ingness on the part of the 15 countries, parties
to the convention at the present time, to terminate
the convention so long as those of its stipulations
which should be retained are incorporated into a
revised version of the international convention on
plant protection, signed at Rome in 1929.

The latter convention, in providing for close
collaboration among countries for combating
plant diseases, sets forth specific international
regulations to prevent the spread of plant diseases.
At the forthcoming conference, the Fao intends
to propose (1) a broad world-wide plant quaran-
tine convention, couched in general terms in order
to make possible the conclusion in the future of
sucli regional international agreements as may be
necessary and (2) a European agreement that
would provide in specific terms for the settlement
of problems of international inspection and certi-
fication within the borders of that Continent. Fi-
nal action on the proposals will be defen-ed, how-
ever, until the convening of a special meeting on
the subject or the next annual conference of Fao,
which may be held in April 1951.

_ The United States Government is not party to
either of the existing conventions. Because of
its interest in plant quarantine problems, it may
desire, however, to become party to the new world-
wide convention on the subject.

The participants in the forthcoming Confer-
ence will have an opportunity to study the organ-
ization and work of the Netherlands Phytopatho-
logical Service and the Netherlands Extension
Service for agriculture and horticulture. In ad-
dition, they will consider a report on research in
the plant pathology field; simplification of ad-
ministrative measures governing plant quaran-
tine; and the possibility of achieving a free
exchange of information regarding the occur-
rence of plant diseases and pests and the control
thereof on an international basis.

In addition to attending the International Con-
ference on Plant Quarantine Regulations, Dr.
Fracker will attend the meeting of the Joint Com-
mittee of Fao and the International Office of
Epizootics at Paris, May 1-5, and the ninth session
of the Council of the Fao to be convened at Rome
on Slay 8.



FAO: Council



P.-H



Knox T. Hutchinson, Assistant Secretary of
Agriculture, has been appointed by the President
as United States member on the Council of the
Food and Agriculture Organization (Fao) for its
ninth session at Rome on May 8. Other members
on the delegation are:

Alternate United States Member

Fred J. Rossiter, associate director, OflBce of Foreign Agri-
cultural Relations, Department of Agriculture

Associate United States Member

John W. Evans, chief. Economic Resources and Security
Staff, Department of State

Advisers

Howard R. Cottam, agricultural attach^, American Em-
bassy, Rome

Ursula Duffus, Office of United Nations Economic and
Social Affairs, Department of State

Stanley B. i'racker, connlinator of Interdepartmental
Relations, Agricultural Research Administration, De-
partment of Agriculture

Ralph S. Roberts, director of finance, Department of
Agriculture

Adviser and Secretary

James O. Howard, Otfice of Foreign Agricultural Rela-
tions, Department of Agriculture



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 22, Apr- Jun 1950) → online text (page 52 of 116)