Copyright
United States. Dept. of State. Office of Public Co.

Department of State bulletin (Volume v. 22, Apr- Jun 1950) online

. (page 62 of 116)
Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 22, Apr- Jun 1950) → online text (page 62 of 116)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


nitely bring about agreement on the ti'eaty as a
whole. If, however, the unwillingness of the
Soviet Government to settle all outstanding issues
continues to prevent the conclusion of the treaty,
the occupation will have to be maintained for the
present. But the three Governments are them-
selves prepared to carry out such measures as may
properly be taken to strengthen within the frame-
work of existing quadripartite agreements the au-



thority of the Austrian Government and to lighten
the burden of the occujiation on Austria.

In accordance with the jirovisions of Article 9 of
the control agreement of Jime 28, 1946, the three
Governments have decided to proceed at any early
date to the appointment of civilian High Com-
missioners.



POOLING FRENCH AND GERMAN
STEEL AND COAL INDUSTRIES

Statement Tyy Acting Secretary Webb

[Released to the press May 19]

Mr. Schuman's proposal for the pooling of the
French and German steel and coal industries is
a major contribution toward the resolution of the
pressing political and economic problems of
Europe. Since the details of the proposal have
not been elaborated, we cannot yet see or analyze
all its many implications. The creative and con-
structive possibilities inherent in the proposal,
however, are so great as to encourage the belief
that the many difficulties involved can be resolved
by the continuing effort and imagination of all
who are concerned.



Statement by the President

[Released to the press hy the White House May 19]

Mr. Schuman's proposal for the pooling of the
French and German steel and coal industries is an
act of constructive statesmanship. We welcome it.
This demonstration of French leadership in the
solution of the problems of Europe is in the great
French tradition. The wholehearted reception of
this proposal in Germany is likewise encouraging.

This proposal i^rovides the basis for establishing
an entirely new relationship between France and
Germany and opens a new outlook for Europe.
There will be many difficult problems to solve in
developing this far-reaching plan. I am confident,
however, that the kind of imaginative thinking
that went into the pi'oposal can work out the
details in ways that will benefit not only the coun-
tries directly concerned, including those who work
in these industries and those who use their prod-
ucts, but also the whole free world.

We are gratified at the emphasis the proposal
places upon equal access to coal and steel products
to all Western European countries, and upon the
need for reductions in cost, through higher pro-
ductivity, so that consumers can benefit through
lower prices and workers through hi":her wages.
We are also gratified to note, while tlie proposal
protects the coal and steel industries against the
shocks of readjustment during the transitional
])eriod, it does leave the industry open to receive,
once the transition is completed, the full benefits
of the competitive process.



828



Department of State Bulletin



Fourth Session of North Atlantic Council



ADDRESS BY SECRETARY ACHESON, CHAIRMAN >

Tlie final meeting of the fourth session of the
North Atlantic Council is called to order.

As we come tojjether for this final meeting of
the North Atlantic Council in London, I want to
thank all of my colleagues, the Foreigii Ministers
of the 12 Atlantic states, for their tireless ef-
forts to achieve the common objectives toward
which we have been working so hard during these
last few days.

I am sure that all of my colleagues agree that
we have made genuine progress. As Chairman,
I know that I am expressing the sentiments of the
Council in thanking our host Government, Mr.
Bevin, and his able and hard-working stati' who
have lu'lpeil us in our work.

Our final communique indicates our achieve-
ments and i^erhaps I can do no better than read the
opening part of this statement which sets forth
the principles on which our association is founded
and tlie objectives toward which we are working.

The Ministers "reaffirmed the adherence of their
Governments to the principles which inspire the
United Nations Charter and their conviction that
common action imder the Treaty is an integral
part of the effort which all free nations are making
to secure conditions of world peace and human
welfare.

"They are determined that freedom, which is
the common basis of their institutions, shall be
defended against every threat of aggression or
subversion, direct or indirect. Freedom means
the independence of nations, the respect for
spiritual values, and the dignity of man.

"Only a free society can guarantee to the in-
dividual, the benefits of economic and social
betterment.

"They are resolved to secure the economic prog-
ress and prosperity of the peoples of their
countries through close cooperation with each
other and with other nations. To the immense re-
sources of the free world, and its industrial and
scientific development, the peoples of the North
Atlantic community bring the spiritual strength
which comes from freedom.



'Made at the final meeting of the Council at London on
May 18, 1950, and released to the press on the same date.



"Conscious of the strength and of the will to
peace of their countries, the Ministers remain
ready to seize any opportimity for achieving a
genuine and lasting settlement of international
I^roblems but for so long as some nations are not
willing to cooperate in conditions of equality and
nuitual respect, they believe that the maintenance
of peace and the defense of freedom require the
organization of adequate military defense.

"The nations of the Atlantic Council are ac-
cordingly resolved, by their united efforts, to build
up a system of defense equipped with modern
weapons and capable of withstanding any external
threat directed against any of them.

Throughout its deliberations the Council has
recognized that only through coordinated plans
and effort could its great objectives be achieved.
To this end, we have taken six important decisions
to improve the functions of the North Atlantic
Treaty organizations and to guide its future work.

First, we have established a mechanism to per-
mit the Council fully to discharge its role as the
principal and directing body of the North Atlantic
pact. By appointing deputies responsible to the
Council for carrying out its policies and formu-
lating issues requiring decisions by member gov-
ernments the organization will be able to function
on a continuing basis.

Second, the Council agreed on principles which
will guide the work of this body as well as the
other organizations of the North Atlantic Treaty.

Third, the Council has issued directives to the
Defense Committee and the Defense Financial and
Economic Committee to guide them in their future
work.

Fourth, recognizing the indispensability of self-
help and mutual aid among the Treaty Powers,
the Council recommended that each party make its
full contribution through mutual assistance in all
practicable forms to achieve the integrated
strength necessary for the defense of the North
Atlantic area.

Fifth, the Council unanimously agreed that if
effective military defense of the member countries
is to be achieved, it must be along the lines of the
most economic and effective utilization of the
forces and material at the disposal of the North
Atlantic countries.



May 29, 7950



829



Sixth, the Council made provision for establish-
ment of a North Atlantic Planning Board for
Ocean Shipping, to be composed of representatives
of the participating countries concerned. This
Board will report to the Council and will work
in close cooperation with other bodies of the Treaty
organization in all matters relating to the vital
factor of merchant shipping.

These achievements represent genuine and sub-
stantial progress. I now call upon the Foreign
Ministere of each of the 12 states of the North
Atlantic Council.



FINAL COMMUNIQUE

[Released to the press May 19}

At the fourth session of the North Atlantic
Council in London the Foreign Ministers of the
12 nations of the North Atlantic Treaty con-
sidered the principles on which their association
is founded and the objectives toward which they
are working.

They reaffirmed the adherence of their Govern-
ments to the principles which inspire the United
Nations Charter and their conviction that com-
mon action under the Treaty is an integral part
of the effort which all free nations are making
to secure conditions of world peace and human
welfare.

They are determined that freedom, which is the
common basis of their institutions, shall be de-
fended against every threat of aggression or sub-
version, direct or indirect. Freedom means the
independence of nations, the respect for spiritual
values, and the dignity of man. Only a free so-
ciety can guarantee to the individual the benefits
of economic and social betterment.

They are resolved to secure the economic prog-
ress and prosperity of the peoples of their coun-
tries and to promote the economic and social
development of other peoples of the free world
through close cooperation with each other and
with other nations. To the immense resources
of the free world and its industrial and scientific
developinent, the peoples of the North Atlantic
community bring the spiritual strength which
comes from freedom.

Conscious of the strength and of the will to
peace of their countries, the Ministers remain
ready to seize any opportiuiity for achieving a
genuine and lasting settlement of international
problems. But for so long as some nations are
not willing to cooperate on a basis of equality and
mutual respect, they believe that the maintenance
of peace and the defense of freedom require the
organization of adequate military defense.

The nations of the Atlantic Council are accord-
ingly resolved, by their united efforts, to build up
a system of defense equipped with modern weap-



ons and capable of withstanding any external
threat directed against any of them.

The Council throughout its deliberations recog-
nized that only through coordinated planning and
joint effort could these objectives be achieved.

To this end the Council took the following de-
cisions to improve the functioning of the North
Atlantic Treaty Organization and to guide its
future work :

1. They decided to establish, by the appoint-
ment of deputies, mechanism to permit the Council
fully to discharge its role as the principal and di-
recting body of the North Atlantic Treaty.

2. The Council in this connection agreed on
principles which should guide the work of the
deputies and of the other organizations of the
North Atlantic Treaty.

3. The Council, having considered the repoi-ts of
the Defense Committee and the Defense Financial
and Economic Committee, issued directives em-
phasizing that the problem of adequate military
forces and the necessary financial costs should be
examined as one and not as sepai'ate problems.

In formulating their directives the Council pro-
ceeded on the basis that the combined resources of
the members of the North Atlantic Treaty are
sufficient, if properly coordinated and applied, to
insure the progressive and speedy development of
adequate military defense without impairing the
social and economic progi'ess of these countries.

4. The Council, recognizing the indispensability
of self-help and mutual aid among the Treaty
powers in making progress toward an integrated
defense and convinced that further mutual assist-
ance is essential to rapid progress towards the
strength required for the common security of the
North Atlantic area, recommended that each party
make its full contribution through mutual as-
sistance in all practicable forms.

5. The Council unanimously agreed that if ade-
quate military defense of the member countries is
to be achieved it must be along the lines of the
most economical and effective utilization of the
forces and material at the disposal of the North
Atlantic countries. They accordingly urged their
Governments to concentrate on the creation of
balanced collective forces in the progressive build-
up of the defense of the North Atlantic area, tak-
ing at the same time fully into consideration the
requirements for national forces which arise out
of commitments external to the North Atlantic
area.

6. In furtherance of article 9 of the Treaty the
Council established a North Atlantic Planning
Board for Ocean Shipping to be composed of
representatives of the participating countries con-
cerned. This Board will report directly to the
Council and will work in close cooperation with
other bodies of the Treaty organization in all
matters relating to the factor of merchant ship-
ping in defense planning.

The ministers believe that the decisions they



830



Department of Sfafe Bullelin



have taken here in London represent a marked
advance towards the practical realization of the
objectives of the North Atlantic Treaty.



NORTH ATLANTIC COUNCIL RESOLUTION
ON CENTRAL MACHINERY

[Released to the press May tS]

The North Atlantic Council established in ac-
cordance with article !> of the said Treaty has so far
only met twice at the ministerial level, and on two
other occasions when members of the Council have
been represented by their (Jovernments' diplomatic
representatives in Washington.

But under article !1 the Council is the principal
body of the North Atlantic Treaty. It is there-
fore the paramount duty of the Council to put
itself in a position to exercise its full role as the
central and most important of the various organs
of the Treaty by taking the most efFectiye steps
to keep itself informed of all matters which fall
within its competence, by working out the neces-
sary decisions and by ensuring the execution of
such decisions.

A years experience has shown that on the polit-
ical side the meetings of the Council have been
too infrequent to permit a sufficient exchange of
views on matters of common interest within the
scope of the Treaty. On the niilitar}' side the stra-
tegic concept of the Treaty has been adopted and
a defense plan drawn up, and the corresponding
estimate of the necessary forces is being estab-
lished. The next step is to put these plans into
effect by taking further measures in the direction
of common defense, the division of financial re-
sponsibilities and the adaptation and development
of the necessary forces.

In view of this situation, the Council will in
particular undertake the following tasks :

(A) Study the inter-relationship of the various
programs to support the plans for the defense of
the North Atlantic area and ensure coordination
of the work of the Defense Committee, the Defense
Financial and Economic Conmiittee, and all other
bodies established under the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization;

(B) Recommend to governments the steps
necessary to ensure that effect is given to the co-
ordinated plans prepared for the defense of the
North Atlantic area;

(C) Exchange views on political matters of
conmion interest within the scope of the Treaty ;

(D) Promote and coordinate public informa-



tion in furtherance of the objectives of the Treaty
while leaving responsibility for national programs
to each country ;

(E) Consider what further action should be
taken under Article 2 of the Treaty, taking into
account the work of existing agencies in this field.

To enable the Council effectively to carry out
its responsibilities and to exercise them continu-
ously, each government will appoint a deputy to its
Council representative. Each deputy will be in a
position to give whatever time may be necessary to
ensure that the responsibilities of the Council are
carried out effectively.

In the intervals between meetings of Ministers,
the deputies, duly authorized thereto by their re-
spective governments, will be responsible, on be-
half of and in the name of the Council, for
carrying out its policies and for formulating issues
requiring decisions bj' the member governments.

To assist the Council in fulfilling its responsibil-
ities, the deputies, on behalf of their governments,
shall select a permanent chairman from among
their membership. With the advice of the chair-
man, the deputies shall establish a suitable full-
time organization composed of highly qualified
persons contributed by member governments. The
chairman, in addition to presiding at meetings of
the deputies, shall be responsible for directing the
organization and its work.

Member governments will appoint their depu-
ties with the least possible delay in order that a
chairman may be selected, the organization estab-
lished, and progress be made on the urgent prob-
lems before the Council. The deputies, assisted
by the chairman and the organization to be cre-
ated, should begin fmictioning in the very near
future in order that tangible results may be
achieved before the next meeting of the Ministers
when the progress made will be reviewed. With-
out minimizing the importance of any of the points
listed above, first priority in the work of the organ-
ization should be given to points (A) and (B).

The headquarters of the deputies will be in
London.



Lt. Col. Bonesteel Confirmed Director
of European Coordinating Committee

On May 11, 1950, the Senate confirmed the nomi-
nation of Lt. Col. Charles H. Bonesteel, United
States Army, to be Executive Director of the Euro-
pean Coordinating Committee, pursuant to the au-
thority of section 406 (e) of the Mutual Defense
Assistance Act of 1949 and Private Law 412,
Eighty-first Congi-ess.



May 29, J 950



831



The Problem of the Former Italian Colonies
at the Fourth Session of the General Assembly



ly David W. Wainhouse and Philip A. Mangano



BACKGROUND

In September 1949, 4 months after it first tried
to reach a decision on the disposition of the for-
mer Italian colonies, the General Assembly of the
United Nations reconsidered this important and
complicated problem.^ Since the coming into
force of the Treaty of Peace with Italy, Septem-
ber 15, 1947, this problem had defied solution by
agreement among the Four Powers (United
States, France, United Kingdom, and the
U.S.S.E.) which, under the terms of the Peace
Treaty, were given the responsibility for settling
this question. The Four Powers had undertaken
to seek a settlement "in the light of the wishes
and welfare of the inhabitants and the interests
of peace and security, taking into consideration
the views of other interested Governments."

After a year of effort, which included the send-
ing of a Commission of Investigation to the three
areas concerned (Libya, Eritrea, and Italian
Somaliland) the Four Powei-s, unable to agree,
referred the problem to the General Assembly in
September 1948 for a recommendation which, un-
der annex XI of the Italian Peace Treaty, they
had bound themselves to accept. The decision
of the General Assembly, therefore, would rep-
resent a final and binding decision by the organ-
ized international community on a problem
involving the destinies and the welfare of 3 mil-
lion people. It would chart the road along which
those people, with such degree of international
guidance as might be found suitable in each case,
could develop themselves and their lands into
sound and constructive elements in the regions of
North and East Africa.

The discussions of the General Assembly at the
second part of its third session at New York, in
the spring of 1949, although inconclusive, pro-
vided a means by which members could become

Editor's Note : Footnotes appear at the end of this
article.



familiar with this question. The discussions also
reflected general trends of thinking which would
aid in solving that question. At its fourth regu-
lar session (September-December 1949), the
General Assembly reached a decision on the dis-
position of two of the former colonies (Libya
and Italian Somaliland) and provided machin-
ery through which a decision on the third terri-
tory (Eritrea) might be reached at its next session
in "September 1950.

INITIAL DEBATE

Opening Plenary Sessions

During the general debate of the opening ple-
nary sessions of the fourth session of the General
Assembly, several countries reviewed the courses
which they would advocate in the renewed effort to
solve this problem. First to touch on the question
was Secretary of State Acheson. On September
21, he outlined briefly the United States position.
Plans should be worked out, he said, "for a united
and independent Libya" and carried to completion
in not more than 3 to 4 years. As for Eritrea and
Italian Somaliland, the former should be enabled
"to join in political association with neighboring
governments" and the latter should be placed im-
der the system of trusteeship. Secretary Acheson
also described the power of decision on this ques-
tion, which had been given the Assembly by express
I)rior agreement of the responsible parties, as open-
ing a "promising avenue toward enhanced useful-
ness of the United Nations" since the development
of this precedent might assist in the settlement of
other problems by the Security Council, the Gen-
eral Assembly, and, in legal questions, by the
International Court of Justice.-

India's representative. Sir B. N. Rau, sketched
his country's views on 8ei)tember 21. Kemarking
that, on this matter, the Assembly was acting al-
most like a "world parliament," he noted that some



832



Department of State Bulletin



of the territories might be fit for iiKlepoiuU'iKe but
othei-s would need to be placed under the trustee-
ship system or dealt with in some other way- He
cited India's own recent experience in achieving
independence anil said that lie fi-lt lliat, in the
case of a territory ready for indi'])eiulenie. oigans
of self-government woukl first need to be created.
In this process, a Unitetl Nations Connnission of
Experts could perform valuable work in planning
for and calling into being a constituteut assembly
which would frame a constitution. India felt that,
in the case of a territory needing a period of trus-
teeship, somewhat similar services could be ren-
dered uy such a connnission which might, however,
actually draft a constitution appropriate to the
stage of development of the territory.^ Mr. Jamali
(Iraq) stressed the right of the people of Libya
to be free and independent and warned against
any attempted division of that territory.^

France's Foreign Minister Schuman declared
that, although independence under a democratic
government was the generally agreed goal for the
respective territories, immediate and complete
realization of that independence might be incom-
patible with the present stage of their political
and economic development. It would be only wise,
he said, for the United Nations to "define the stages
by which those territories are to go toward a lib-
ert}' which is neither a snare nor an adventure."
He asked that Italy be permitted to play a suitable
part in that pi'ocess.^

The delegate of El Salvador asked for observ-
ance of the principle of self-determination both
in the case of an area whose population desired
and was read}' for independence and in cases
where partition of an area was being considered."
Egypt and Lebanon strongly reaftirmed the prin-
ciple of unity and early independence for Libya.'
Sir Zafrullah Khan (Pakistan) stated that the
wishes and welfare of the inhabitants of the for-
mer colonies must be paramount.** Ethiopia's
spokesman. Foreign Minister Aklilou, asserted
that the General Assembly had a duty to decide
the question without further delay. He reminded
the members that, at the i)revious Assembly ses-
sions, a substantial majority had favored Ethi-
opia's "minimum and essential claims." ^ Mr.
Santa Cruz (Chile) reiterated his Government's
belief that adequate provision for the economic
and social development of the territories con-
cerned would be basic to any plan adopted.^"

Mr. Clementis (Czechoslovakia) expressed skep-
ticism at the prospect for a decision at the current
session because of the "tactics of postponement"
which, he implied, certain Western governments
had adopted." For the United Kingdom, Mr.
Bevin asked that every effort be made to achieve
a solution without further delay. After brief
comment on the manner in which his country had
been carrying out its responsibilities in Cyrenaica
and Tri[)olitania,^^ he reaflirmed support for
Ethiopia's claim to eastern Eritrea and of a plan



for Italian trusteeship in Italian Somaliland."
Otiier delegations taking part in t he general debate



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 22, Apr- Jun 1950) → online text (page 62 of 116)