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Siam. The vote for United States territories was
withheld.

Although the United States had taken the lead
in advocating a frequency sharing plan based on
sound engineering standards and within the
framework of the Atlantic City agreements, we
did not feel that the plan agreed upon for the
June median afforded an equitable or satisfactory
basis for a full agreement. An analysis of the
plan shows conclusively that our broadcasting in-
terests are not protected, that the June median
plan does not provide an equitable basis for a com-
plete plan, and that the United States does not
receive a broadcasting service comparable to that
of any other country.

The relative channel hour assignments provided
for the major countries are as follows: the
U.S.S.R 660 (plus 120 for the Ukraine and
Byelorussia) ; the United Kingdom 437 ; India
350 ; France 235 ; and the United States 202. The
fact that a considerable number of these channel
hours are assigned to the 21 mc. band does not
eliminate the inequity of the Soviet assignments.
The assignment of 202 frequency hours to the
United States represents a reduction of 30 percent
from the present level of frequency usage and
almost a 50 pei'cent reduction from our require-
ments as originally submitted. Adequate provi-
sion is not made for expansion of our present
reduced program services and fails to provide fre-
quencies for private broadcasting authorized un-
der existing legislation. Finally, it fails to meet
minimum United States requirements for relay
services from Manila, Tangier, Munich, and
Hawaii.

The failure of the Mexico City conference to
complete its assigned tasks, after the impetus of
the Atlantic City accomplishments, has provoked
concern among leaders in this field, who have
worked zealously toward closer international col-
laboration in communication matters. However,

April 3, 1950



it should be borne in mind that high frequency
broadcasting is one of the newer services, and its
potentialities aiul implications are not yet fully
appreciated even by other radio services. This
action was the first effort on a world-wide basis to
bring order into a service that has developed pretty
much in an unrestricted fashion. The technical
complexities of the undertaking are of astounding
proportions : Political elements were also brought
into full play in an essentially technical confer-
ence вАФ particularly in the positions taken by the
Soviet bloc and by the delegations of other coun-
tries with respect to the Soviet bloc. Finally, con-
tinued Soviet jannning both of the Voice of
America and BBC broadcasting throughout the
confei'ence was not conducive to a harmonious
atmosphere for an undertaking requiring consid-
erable compromise and understanding on all sides.
The extensive educational value of the work of the
conference is conceded as an important step in
the efforts to arrive at a genuinely sound basis for
use of the high frequencies in broadcasting.

If the deficiencies in the Mexico City plan could
be corrected in the plans for other seasons of the
sunspot cycle, the United States would not view
the situation in such a serious vein. However, it
has been projected, unmodified by the Technical
Plan Committee, into a final plan to cover a 5-year
period. This plan, which may serve as the basis
for the Florence conference, is considered very
unsatisfactory even by most of the countries rep-
resented on the committee. The United States
was not eligible for participation as a member of
the committee by virtue of having neither signed
nor approved the Mexico City agreement. Our
observers followed closely every working session
of the Committee, which met in Paris from June-
December 1949.

Throughout these successive efforts, the United
States has remained firm in the policy of support-
ing and even urging planned usage of the high
frequency broadcasting band on the basis of equi-
table and practical distribution of channel hours.
Our deep interest and willingness to cooperate in
all efforts to formulate a frequency assignment
plan for high frequency broadcasting purposes
has been repeatedly affirmed.

Both the Mexico City and Florence conferences
are an integral part of the Atlantic City concept
for planned usage of the radio spectrum to which
the United States stands firmly committed. Be-
cause of the increasing significance of high fre-
quency broadcasting in our foreign relations, we
have a vital stake in achieving concrete results in
the form of an acceptable plan. It is felt that if
there is no broadcast assignment plan, the whole
structure of international cooperation in the tele-
communication field, as embodied in the Atlantic
City Telecommunication Convention of 1947,
might be jeopardized. A fresh perspective by the
countries represented at the Florence meeting
could contribute materially to some practical co-
operative arrangement in this field.

535



U.S. Delegations

to International Conferences

Inter-American Economic and Social Council

Announcement was made on March 1 of the
United States delegation to the extraordinary ses-
sion of the Inter-American Economic and Social
Council which convened at Washington on March
20.1

The President has now designated Walter J.
Donnelly, United States Ambassador to Venezu-
ela, as an additional alternate delegate to this
meeting. The United States delegation to this
session is composed also of the following :

Advisers

James C. Corliss, Assistant Economic and Finance Ad-
viser, Bureau of Inter-American Affairs, Department
of State

Isaiaii Frank, Adviser, Commercial Policy Staff, Office of
International Trade Policy, Office of the Assistant
Secretary for Economic Affairs, Department of State

Louis J. Halle, Special Adviser on Technical Cooperation,
Bureau of Inter-American Affairs, Department of
State

John S. Hooker, United States Alternate Executive Di-
rector, International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development and International Monetary Fund

Edmund H. Kellogg, Acting Officer in Charge, Economic
Affairs, Office of United Nations Economic and Social
Affairs, Bureau of United Nations Affairs, Depart-
ment of State

Herbert K. May, Acting Chief, Latin American Section,
Division of International Finance, Department of the
Treasury

Dillon S. Myer, President, Institute of Inter-American
Affairs

George N. Monsma, Officer in Charge, International Or-
ganization Affairs, Bureau of Inter- American Affairs,
Department of State

Thomas D. O'Keefe, Special Assistant to the Secretary,
Department of Commerce

Fred J. Kossiter, Associate Director, Office of Foreign
Agricultural Relations, Department of Agriculture

Walter C. Sauer, Vice President, Export-Import Bank
of Washington

Leslie A. Wheeler, Director, Interim Office for Technical
Cooperation and Development, Office of the Assistant
Secretary for Economic Affairs, Department of State

Ivan B. White, Economic and Finance Adviser, Bureau
of Inter-American Affairs, Department of State

Seoretarj/

David DeL. Jones, Division of International Conferences,
Bureau of United Nations Affairs, Department of
State.



ICAO Telecommunication Meeting

On March 21 the Department of State an-
nounced tlie United States delegation to the Inter-
national Civil Aviation Organization (Icao)
Special African-Indian Ocean and Middle East
Regional Communication Conmiittee Meetings on
Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunication Services
and on Frequency Assignment Planning opening
at Paris. The delegation is as follows :



' Bulletin of Mar. 13, 1950, p. 417.



Delegation and Chairman

Harlan E. Hall, Aeronautical Communications Specialist,
Civil Aeronautics Administration, Department of
Commerce

Alternate Delegate and Vice-Chairman

James D. Durkee, Chief, International Branch, Aviation
Division, Federal Communications Commission

Advisers

Alick B. Currie, Aeronautical Communications Specialist,
Civil Aeronautics Administration, Department of
Commerce

Capt. Kenneth R. Edwards, USAF, Headquarters, Military
Air Transport Service, Andrews Air Force Base

Floyd Hermansen, Pan American World Airways, Inc.,
LaGuardia Airport, New York City

Capt. William N. Manley, USAF, Assistant Communica-
tions Officer, Headquarters USAFE, Wiesbaden,
Germany

Col. David C. G. Schlenker, USAF, Communications Offi-
cer, Headquarters USAFE, Wiesbaden, Germany

Capt. Justus W. Smith, USAF, Assistant Communications
Officer, Headquarters USAFE, Wiesbaden, Germany

These special meetings are being convened by the
IcAO Council and are expected to be in session ap-
proximately 3 weeks. The United States Govern-
ment is vitally interested in these combined
meetings because United States aircraft operate
in the African-Indian Ocean and Middle East
regions.

On the agenda for the meeting on fixed telecom-
munication services are the compilation of infor-
mation concerning aircraft movement in and
through the two regions and determination of
the deficiencies in the existing aeronautical fixed
telecommunications network. The Frequency As-
signment Planning Meeting will consider a coor-
dinated plan of radio frequency assignments to
aeronautical stations serving the major world air
routes traversing the regions and a plan of radio
frequency assignments for special aeronautical mo-
bile services.



Commission on Human Rights

On March 22, the Department of State an-
nounced that Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt, the
United States representative on tlie United Nations
Commission on Human Rights will attend the
sixth session of the Commission, scheduled to meet
at Lake Success, March 27-May 20. Advisers
designated to assist this Government's represen-
tative are :

Herzel Plaine, Special Assistant to the Attorney General,
Department of Justice

James Simsarian, Office of United Nations Economic and
Social Affairs, Department of State

Marjorie Whiteman, Office of the Legal Adviser, Depart-
ment of State

The Conunission at its forthcoming session will
have as its major objective the revision of the draft
International Covenant on Human Rights and the
preparation of measures for its implementation.



536



Department of State Bulletin



Terms of Reference for U.N. Representative
in lndia-Pal(istan Negotiations



U.N. doc. S/14fi9

Resolution adopted Mar. 14, 1950

Having received and noted the reports of the United
Nations Commission for Indiu and Pakistan, established
by the resolutions of 20 January and 21 April 1948;

HA^^No ALSO kecetved and noted the report of General
A. G. L. McNaughton on the outcome of liis discussions
with the representatives of India and Pakistan which
were initiated in pursuance of the decision taken by the
Security Council ou 17 December 1949;

Commending the Governments of India and Pakistan
for their statesmanlike action in reaching the agree-
ments embodied in the United Nations Commission's
resolutions of 13 August 1948 and 5 January 1949 for a
cease fire, for the demilitarization of the State of Jammu
and Kashmir and for the determination of its final dis-
position in accordance with the will of the people through
the democratic method of a free and impartial plebiscite
and commending the parties in particular for their action
Id partially implementing these resolutions by

(1) The cessation of hostilities effected 1 January 1949

(2) The establishment of a cease fire line on 27 July
1949 and

(3) The agreement that Fleet Admiral Chester W.
Nimitz shall be Plebiscite Administrator,

Considering that the resolution of the outstanding
difficulties should be based upon the substantial measure
of agreement on fundamental principles already reached,
and that steps should be taken forthwith for the demili-
tarization of the State and for the expeditious determina-
tion of its future in accordance with the freely expressed
will of the inhabitants ;

The Securitij Council,

1. Calls upon the Governments of India and Pakistan
to make immediate arrangements, wthout prejudice to
their rights or claims and with due regard to the require-
ments of law and order, to prepare and execute within a
period of five months from the date of this resolution a pro-
gramme of demilitarization on the basis of the principles
of paragraph 2 of General McNaughton's proposal or of
such modifications of those principles as may be mutually
agreed ;

2. Decides to appoint a United Nations Representative
for the following purposes who shall have authority to



perform his functions in such place or places as he may
deem appropriate :

(a) to assist in the preparation and to supervise the
implementation of the programme of demilitarization
referred to above and to interpret the agreements reached
by the parties for demilitarization,

(b) to place himself at the disposal of the Govern-
ments of India and Pakistan and to place before those
Governments or the Security Council any suggestions
which, in his opinion, are likely to contribute to the
expeditious and enduring solution of the dispute which
has arisen between the two Governments in regard to the
States of Jammu and Kashmir,

(c) to exercise all of the powers and responsibilities
devolving upon the United Nations Commission by reason
of existing resolutions of the Security Council and by
reason of the agreement of the parties embodied in the
resolutions of the United Nations Conmiission of 13 Au-
gust 1948 and 5 January 1949,

(d) to arrange at the appropriate stage of demili-
tarization for the assumption by the Plebiscite Adminis-
trator of the functions assigned to the latter under
agreements made between the parties,

(e) to report to the Security Council as he may con-
sider necessary submitting his conclusions and any
recommendations which he may desire to make ;

3. Requests the two Governments to take all necessary
precautions to ensure that their agreements regarding the
cease fire shall continue to be faithfully observed, and
calls upon them to take all possible measures to ensure
the creation and maintenance of an atmosphere favourable
to the promotion of further negotiations ;

4. Extends its best thanks to the members of the United
Nations Commission for India and Pakistan and to Gen-
eral A. G. L. McNaughton for their arduous and fruitful
labours ;

5. Agrees that the United Nations Commission for India
and Pakistan shall be terminated, and decides that this
shall take place one month after both parties have in-
formed the United Nations Representative of their ac-
ceptance of the transfer to him of the powers and
re.sponsibilities of the United Nations Commission re-
ferred to in paragraph 2(c) above.



April 3, 1950



537



The United States in the United Nations



[March 25-31]



Transport and Communications Commission

Opening its fourth session at Lake Success on
March 27, the Transport and Communications
Commission approved a 12-item agenda, inchiding
such subjects as existing barriers to the inter-
national transport of goods; the unification of
maritime tonnage measurement; coordination of
inland transport; and action in the field of inter-
national road transport. J. J. Oyevaar (Nether-
lands) was reelected chairman. At the opening
of the first meeting the Soviet representative
moved that the "Kuomintang Representative" be
expelled. The chairman ruling that the motion
was out of order was sustained; whereupon, the
U.S.S.R., Czechoslovak, and Polish representa-
tives walked out.

Two proposals concerning the question of bar-
riers to the international transport of goods were
accepted in principle by the Commission. One in-
volved a suggestion that the Secretary-General
indicate to governments the desirability of pro-
ceeding, on national basis, with consideration of
customs simplification measures. The second ex-
pressed approval of the work of the International
Civil Aviation Organization (Icao) in reducing
barriers to international transport by air. Gov-
ernments would be urged to take further action
wherever possible, to incorporate in their national
regulations Icao's standards and recommended
practices in this respect, and to eliminate as many
deviations as possible.

Turning to the four maritime items, the Com-
mission noted the Secretariat's report dealing with
the pollution of sea water by oil and agreed to
ask the Secretariat to draft a resolution for adop-
tion by the Commission, asking governments
whether, pending the coming into being of the
Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organ-
ization (Imco), further steps should be taken to
deal with this problem, including the possible con-
vening of a group of experts. The resolution
would also ask the views of governments as to
whether the League of Nations draft convention
is adequate as a basis for consideration and if the
oil ])roblem might be expanded to include the
pollution of sea water by atomic waste when this
is used by ships as a means of propulsion.

Noting that only tlie United Kingdom, Canada,
and the Netherlands have so far ratified the Imco
Convention, the Connnission agreed to a resolu-
tion expressing the hope that Imco would soon



be established. Twenty-one countries "of which
seven shall have a total tonnage of not less than
1 million gross tons of shipping" must accept the
Convention before the Organization can come into
being. The item on "Unification of Maritime
Tonnage Measurement" was referred to the Imco.
Since there were only two replies to the Secretary-
General's request for views on "Problems of Mari-
time Shipping Affecting Latin America," this item
was dropped from the agenda, with the under-
standing that the Economic and Social Council
would be advised that the matter could best be
handled by the Economic Commission for Latin
America or some other inter- American body.

After discussing the problem of coordinating
inland transport, the Commission agreed in prin-
ciple to recommend that the regional commissions
continue their activities in this field, and also to
ask the Secretariat to continue its study and report
to the next session, wliether the governments
should be approached directly.

The Commission agi'eed to request the Secre-
tary-General to appoint a group of not more than
seven experts to study the problem of establishing
a common world-wide system of road signs and
signals, to prepare a draft convention embodying
such a system, and to report to the next session.
The Commission also expressed satisfaction with
the road traffic convention, the protocol on road
signs and signals, and the three customs conven-
tions which had been concluded by the United Na-
tions Conference on Road and Motor Transport.

After noting the Secretary-General's report on
the progi-ess made bv member governments in re-
ducing and simplifying passport and fi'ontier
formalities by means of bilateral and multilateral
agreements, the Commission accepted the Secre-
tariat's suggestion that a further inquiry on this
matter be made of the member governments be-
fore the next session of the Commission.

Commission on Human Rights

Tlie sixth session of the 18-meinber Commission
on Human Rights opened at Lake Success March
27. The Commission unanimously reelected Mrs.
Franklin U. Roosevelt as chairman and adopted
its agenda of 15 items.

At the oi)ening of the session, the Soviet repre-
sentative moved that the "re])resentative of the
Kuomintang" be excluded. Following a vote in
which the Commission upheld the chairman's rul-
ing that tlio motion was out of order, the Soviet
representative declared he would not participate



538



Department of State Bulletin



in the work of the session nor would liis govern-
ment recofrni/'P the decision of the Conunission
and tlien left the chamber.

Prior to its conveninji, Mrs. Roosevelt enrpha-
sized the importance of this session of the Com-
mission. She explained that the Commission
would have before it the draft of an International
Covenant on Human Rifilits and the comments of
member governments on tliis draft. The United
States hoped, she said, that tlie Commission could
complete the Covenant at this session, so that it
could be forwarded for approval to the summer
meeting of the Economic and Social Council and
to the General Assembly in the fall and be placed
before all governments for consideration and rati-
fication before the end of this year.

"The Covenant," Mrs. Roosevelt continued, "is
being drafted in the form of a treaty to be legally
binding on countries which ratify it. It will give
substance to the fii"st fifteen basic civil and politi-
cal rights set forth in the Universal Declaration
of Human Rights approved by the General Assem-
bly in December 1948. The Declaration set an
objective; the Covenant moves toward that
objective. The nations which sign and ratify the
Covenant will pledge themselves, in the most sol-
emn public fashion, to enforce certain standards
for the people in their countries."

International Refugee Organization

The General Council of the International Refu-
gee Organization (Iro) concluded its fifth session
on March 23 at Geneva. At the meeting, the Di-
rector-General reported that negotiations were
concluded, particularly with the Western Euro-
pean governments, for the transfer, before the
final termination of all Iro services on March 31,
1951, of Iro responsibilities regarding refugees
and displaced persons remaining in their terri-
tories. The Council, in the interest of securing
the maximum resettlement of approximately 150,-
000 persons in the extended period after June 30,
1950, authorized the Director-General within the
limits of available resources to maintain in camps
pending resettlement those for whom clear pros-
pects of resettlement were available and who
would qualify under continuing resettlement
schemes. The Council also voted to send a com-
mimication to the United Nations stating that
certain provisions of the Iro Constitution, regard-
ing the protection of refugees under the auspices
of the High Commissioner for Refugees, who will
assume office on January 1, 1951, appeared no
longer applicable in the light of the present day
situation. This communication would urge that
the High Commissioner be instructed not to apply
the listed provisions of the Iro Constitution in the
performance of his functions and further not to
apply any decisions previously made by the Iro
restricting its services to refugees and displaced



persons for purely financial or administrative
reasons.

The Council examined the financial report and
urged the administration and the external audi-
tors to present, in the future, more readable
reports wliich would show currently the exact
iiiumcial position of the organization in order that
the Council might insure that all of its available
resources would be applied to the tasks facing Iro
before its final termination on March 31, 1951.

At the meeting, tlie Director-(icneral rejwited
substantial progress in making provisions for the
permanent care of those i-ef ugees who will require
institutional treatment after the termination of
Iro. In this connection, the French Government
announced its willingness to accept 900 aged per-
sons now resident in Germany for permanent care.

Trusteeship Council

After nearly 4 weeks of consideration, the Trus-
teeship Council completed, on March 31, its third
reading of the draft statute for Jerusalem and
scheduled the final vote on the statute as a whole
for April 4. Article 41, the last one to be ap-
proved, provides that the statute will come into
force at a date to be determined by a resolution
of the Council. This text, proposed by Belgium,
was favored by the United States, Australia, the
Dominican Republic, and France ; it was opposed
only by Iraq, but Argentina, China, New Zealand,
the Philippines, and the United Kingdom ab-
stained in the vote.

On March 28, the Council adopted an omnibus
resolution sponsored jointly by the United States
and Iraq relating to five General Assembly resolu-
tions concerning Trust Territories. This resolu-
tion takes note of the General Assembly's recom-
mendations on petitions and visitinf^ missions and
political, economic, social, and educational ad-
vancement in the Trust Territories. It defers
action on migrant labor and penal sanctions pend-
ing expert advice from the International Labor
Organization, recommends abolition or corporal
punishment and whipping, urges that the adminis-
tering authorities insure that no discriminatory
laws or practices exist in the Trust Territories,
and that steps be taken to implement the Assembly
resolutions in question.

A Chinese-Philippine proposal that the United



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 22, Apr- Jun 1950) → online text (page 7 of 116)