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cil and the administering authority (for Somaliland) be
guided by the principle of nomination and election in
establishing the local council, rather than by the principle
of appointment.

"The discussion and voting record of Committee 1 on
this section is contained in U.N. docs. A/C.l/SR.322-323.

" Calling for independence after 3 years of direct U.N.
trusteeship and incorporating provisions similar to the
Indian annex for the Somaliland resolution.



June 5, 7950



915



FOOTNOTES— Conhreued



" U.N. doc. A/C.1/5.35.

"It was to review views of the administering power,
other governments, representatives of the people, includ-
ing minorities, etc. The commission was to take into
account :

1. the wishes and welfare of the inhabitants including
views of the various racial, religious, and political groups
of the provinces, and their capacity for self-government ;

2. the interests of peace and security in East Africa ;

3. the "rights and claims of Ethiopia."

" Ethiopia, Pakistan, Egyi)t, and New Zealand spoke in
favor of separate resolutions. Argentina, Peru, Guate-
mala, U.S.S.R., China, and the Netherlands argued for a
single resolution.

"U.N. doc. A/C.l/536/Rev. 1. This proposal super-
seded an earlier joint draft by Argentina and Turkey
which asked the Interim Committee merely to study the
boundaries question and report with conclusions to the
next Assembly ; cf. U.N. doc. A/C.1/536.

"^ For a full analysis of the Committee discussion on
this proposal, see U.N. doc. A/AC. 18/103, a working paper
prepared by the U.N. Secretariat for use of the Interim
Committee's meeting on February 7, 1950 to consider this
question.

'" The Argentine amendment to the final part of section
B (Somaliland) of the resolution is given in U.N. doc.
A/C.1/541.

" The Chilean amendment to the foregoing is in U.N.
docs. A/C.1/545 and 548.

°' This draft was known as Conference Room Paper No. 3.

" Calling on the Secretary-General to arrange appro-
priate remuneration for the commissioner, traveling ex-
penses, and i^er diem for members of the advisory coun-
cil, and to provide staff and facilities to carry out the task
assigned to them. U.N. doe. A/C.1/533.

™ U.N. doc. A/C.1/SI{.324.

^For: Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Belgium,
Brazil, Burma, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa
Rica, Cuba, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, France, Greece, Guatemala,
Haiti, Honduras, Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Leba-
non, Liberia, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, Nica-
ragua, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Phil-
ippines, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Thailand, Turkey, Union of
South Africa, U.K., U.S., Uruguay, Venezuela, Yemen.

Against: None.

Abstentions: Byelorussia, Czechoslovakia, New Zealand,
Poland, Sweden, Ukraine, U.S.S.R., Yugoslavia.

" For: Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Bra-
zil, Burma, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica,
Cuba, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El
Salvador, France, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras,
Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Lebanon, Luxembourg,
Mexico, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Para-
guay, Peru, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Thailand,
Turkey, Union of South Africa, U.K., U.S., Uruguay, Vene-
zuela, Yemen.

Against: Byelorussia, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia, Poland,
Ukraine, U.S.S.R., Yugoslavia.

Abstentions: Liberia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Sweden.

'''For: Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Bra-
zil, Burma, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica,
Cuba, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El
Salvador, France, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Iceland,
India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Mexico,
Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Pakistan,
Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Thailand,
Turkey, Union of South Africa, U.K., U.S., Uruguay, Ven-
ezuela, Yemen.

Agaiyist: Byelorussia, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Ukraine,
U.S.S.R.

Abstentions: Ethiopia, Greece, Liberia, Philippines,
Sweden, Yugoslavia.

" For : Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Bra-

916



zil, Burma, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica,
Cuba, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El
Salvador, France, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras,
Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Lebanon, Liberia, Lux-
embourg, Mexico, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Paki-
stan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Saudi Arabia,
Syria, Thailand, Turkey, Union of South Africa, U.K.,
U.S., Uruguay, Venezuela, Yemen.

Against: Ethiopia.

Abstentions: Byelorussia, Czechoslovakia, New Zealand,
Poland, Sweden, Ukraine, U.S.S.R., Yugoslavia.

"Messrs. Pearson (Canada) and Eutezam (Iran) re-
spectively.

"U.N. doc. A/C.1/522, p. 22. Cf also U.N. doc.
A/C.l/SR. 324.

" U.N. doc. A/1089, pp. 22-28. See also annex 26.

" Ibid. The officers to constitute the nominating com-
mittee were the President, the two Vice-Presidents from
Brazil and Pakistan, and the Chairman of Committee I
and the Ad Hoc Political Committee.

'"U.N. doc. A/1110. The Polish amendments sought,
inter alia: (a) independence for Libya by January 1, 1'Jol ;
(b) Czechoslovakia, Haiti, and Liberia to replace France,
United Kingdom, and the United States on the Libyan
council; (c) independence for Italian Somaliland after 3
years of direct United Nations trusteeship; (d) independ-
ence for Eritrea after 3 years of direct United Nations
trusteeship.

"■ U.N. doc. A/1082. [See also annex 1.]

^\ U.N. doc. A/PV 247-250.

'" After the final vote on November 21, Mr. Medhen again
called attention to the fact that "no delimited frontiers
exist between Ethiopia and Somaliland" and warned that
during consideration of a Somaliland trusteeship agi-ee-
ment by the Trusteeship Council there should be no thought
of proposing the occupation by Italian authorities of ter-
ritory claimed by Ethiopia. He also asserted that Ethi-
opia was the state most "directly concerned" with any such
trusteeship and referred, in that connection, to article 79
of the Charter which says that terms of trusteeship shall
be agreed upon by the states directly concerned.

'= U.N. doc. A/PV 250.

" For: Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Bo-
livia, Brazil, Burma, Canada, Chile, Cliiua, Colombia,
Costa Rica, Cuba, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecua-
dor, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Greece, Guatemala,
Haiti, Honduras, Iceland. India, Iran, Iraq, Israel,
Lebanon, Liberia, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands,
Nicaragua, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines,
Saudi Arabia, Syria, Thailand, Turkey, Union of South
Africa, U.K., U.S., Uruguay, Venezuela, Yemen.

Against: None.

Abstaining: Byelorussian S.S.R., Czechoslovakia,
France, New Zealand, Poland, Sweden, Ukrauian S.S.R.,
U.S.S.R., Yugoslavia.

■^ For: Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Bo-
livia, Brazil, Burma, Canada, Chile. China, Colombia,
Costa Rica, Cuba, Denmark, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador. Egypt, El Salvador, France, Greece, Guatemala,
Haiti, Honduras, Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel,
Lebanon, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, Nicaragua,
Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Saudi
Arabia, Syria, Thailand, Turkey, Union of South Africa,
U.K., U.S., Uruguay, Venezuela, Yemen.

Against: Byelorussian S.S.R., Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia,
Poland, Ukrainian S.S.R., U.S.S.R., Yugoslavia.

Abstaining : Liberia, New Zealand, Sweden.

"For: Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Bo-
livia, Brazil, Burma, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia,
Costa Rica, Cuba, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Krua-
dor, Egypt, El Salvador, France, Guatemala, Haiti, Hon-
duras, Iceland, India. Iran, Iraq, Israel, Lebanon,
Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicara-

Departmenf of State Bulletin



FOOTNOTES— Conhnued



gun. NiM'wny. I'likistiin, I'aiuiuin, IVrii, Snudi Arabia,
Syria. Thailaml, Turkey, I'liion of South Africa, U.K.,
U.S., Uruguay. Veuozuela, Vonioti.

Ai/ainsI: Byelorussian S.S.U., Czechoslovakia, Poland,
Ukrainian S.S.R., U.S.S.K.

Absldiiiimj: Philippines, Sweden, Yugoslavia, Ethiopia,
Greece, Liberia.

" For: Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Bo-
livia, Brazil, Burma, Canada, Chile, China, C^olombia,
Cosia Kica, Cuba, Denmark, Dominican Uepublic, Ecuador,



Egypt, El Salvador, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Ilondura.s,
Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Lebanon, Liberia, Lux-
einbonrg. Mexico, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Pak-
istan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Syria,
Thailand, Turkey, Union of South Africa, U.K., U.S.,
Uruguay, Venezuela, Yemen.

Aijnintil: Etliio])ia.

Abstuiitiiitj: Byelorussian S.S.R.,
France, New Zealand, Poland, Sweden,
U.S.S.K., Yugoslavia.



Czechoslovakia,
Ukrainian S.S.R.,



U.N. Documents: A Selected Bibliography'



Economic and Social Council

ESconomic Development of Under-Developed Countries:
Methods of Financing Economic Development of
Under-Developed Countries. Methods of Increasing
Domestic Savings and of Ensuring Tlieir Most Ad-
vantageous Use for the Purpose of Economic Develop-
ment. E/15C2, December 16, 1049. 3,54 pp. mimeo.

Co-ordination Between the United Nations and the Spe-
cialized Agencies. Sixth Heport of the Administra-
tive Committe on Co-ordination to the Economic and
Social Council. E/1572, January 17, '1950. 12 pp.
mimeo.

Technical Ai?sistance for Economic Development. Third
Reiwrt by the Secretary-General on Activities under
General Assembly Resolution 200 (III). E/1576.
December 28, 1949. 59 pp. mimeo.

Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East: Action
Arising Out of Resolutions of the Fifth Session.
E/1.j7S, January 12, 1950. 34 pp. mimeo.



' Printed materials may be secured in the United States
fnim the International Documents Service, Columbia Uni-
versity Press, 29fi0 Broadway, New York 27, N. Y. Other
materials (mimeographed or processed documents) may
l.- consulted at certain designated libraries in the United
States.

The United Nations Secretariat has established an Offi-
< inl Rcrordx series for the General Assembly, the Security
I 'uncil, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship
I'liuncil, and the Atomic Energy Commission; which in-
' Indes summaries of proceedings, resolutions, and reports
"f the various commissions and committees. Publications
in the Official Records series will not be listed in this
'li'partment as heretofore, but information on securing
subscriptions to the series may be obtained from the In-
ternational Documents Service.



Survey of Forced Labour and Measures for its Abolition ;
E/15S8, January 13, 1950. 19 pp. mimeo.

Report of the Fifth Session of the Economic and Em-
ployment Commission to the Economic and Social
Council. E/1600, E/CN.1/79, January 31, 1950.
35 pp. mimeo.

Economic Development of Under-Developed Countries :
Methods of Financing Economic Development of
Under-Developed Countries. Survey of Policies Af-
fecting Private Foreign Investment. E/1G14, Febru-
ary 15, 1950. 103 pp. mimeo.

Major Economic Changes in 1949. E/1601, February S,
1050. 101 pp. mimeo.

United Nations International Children's Emergency E^md.
Report of the Executive Board on its G3rd and 65th
Meetings Held at Lake Success (y-t March 1950.
E/ICEF/145. March 20, 1950. 38 pp. mimeo.

Department of Public Information
Research Section

The Economic and Social Council. Part Two — Decisions

of the Council. Background Paper No. 53. 72 pp.

mimeo.
The Security Council (Part One). Background Paper

No. 55, December 15, 1949. 18 pp. mimeo.
Structure of the United Nations (Third Revision).

February 24, 1950. 61 pp. mimeo.

Atomic Energy Commission

International Control of Atomic Energy. Communication
Received by the Secretary-General from the Represen-
tatives of Canada, China, France, the United King-
dom, and the United States of America Dated 27
January 1950. A/1253, January 30, 1950. 11 pp.
mimeo.



June 5, T950



917



U.S. Protests East German Remilitarization



[Released to the press May 23]



U.S. NOTE OF MAY 23, 1950

Following is the text of a note released, to the press on
May 23, that the American Amhassador at Moscorv pre-
sented to the Soviet Foreign Office on May 23. The note
was simiiltaneoiiKly released at Moscow, Frankfort, and
Berlin. The decision to make this protest results from
the recent London Conference of Foreign Ministers of the
United States, United Kingdom, and France.

I have the honor to express to you the United
States Government's grave concern at a develop-
ment in eastern Germany which is already known
to the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics.

There has been created in the part of Germany
that is subject to Soviet control a police force
which has, by reason of its military training and
equipment, the character of an army. This or-
ganization is called the Main Administration for
Training (Hauptverwaltung Fuer Ausbildung),
and it amounts to about 50,000 men. It is not
an ordinary police force, and it does not have
ordinary police duties. It receives basic infantry,
artillery, and armored training and is equipped
with military weapons, including machine guns,
howitzers, anti-aircraft cannon, mortars, and
tanks. It must be regarded, therefore, as a mili-
tary force.

The Soviet Union has many times expressed
its adherence to the principle of the complete dis-
armament and demilitarization of Germany. In
particular, you will recall the following interna-
tional agi-eements to which the Soviet Government
was a party :

A. Joint Eeport of February 11, 1945, following
the Anglo-Soviet-American Conference in the
Crimea :

It is our infloxible purpose to destroy Herman mili-
tarism and Nazism and to ensure tliat Germany will never
ajinin be able to disturb the peace of the world. We are
determined to disarm and disband all German armed
forces ; break up for all time the German General Staff
that has repeatedly contrived the resurgence of German



militarism ; remove or destroy all German military equip-
ment ; . . .

B. Declaration Regarding the Defeat of Ger-
many and the Assumption of Supreme Authority I
by the Allied Powers, signed by General Eisen-
hower, Marshal Zhukov, Field ilarshal Mont-
gomery and General Tassigny on behalf of their]
respective Governments on June 5, 1945 :

The Four Allied Governments will take such steps, in-
cluding the complete disarmament and demilitarization I
of Germany, as they deem requisite for future peace and |
security.

C. Joint Report of August 2, 1945, following]
the Anglo-Soviet- American Conference in Berlin.!
(Potsdam) :

3. The purposes of the occupation of Germany by which j
the Control Council shall be guided are :

(i) the complete disarmament and demilitarizationl
of Germany ... To these ends: (a) All German land,!
naval and air forces . . . and all other military and]
quasi-military organizations . . . shall be completely and]
finally abolished in such manner as permanently to pre-
vent the revival or reorganization of German militariza-
tion and Nazism.

D. Agreement between the Governments of the
United Kingdom, the United States of America
and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and j
the Provisional Government of the French Re-
public on Certain Additional Requirements to be
Imposed on Germany, dated September 20, 1945 :

1. All German land, naval and air forces . . . and alii
other military and quasi-military organizations. . . . shall
be completely and finally abolished in accordance with
methods and procedures to be laid down by the Allied
Representatives.

2. All forms of military traininp:, military propaganda
and military activities of whatever nature, on the part of
the German people, are prohibited, as well as the forma-
tion of any organization initiated to further any aspect
of military training and the formation of war veterans'
organizations or other groups which might develop mili-
tary cliaracteristics or which are designed to carry on the
German military tradition, whether such organizations
or groups purport to be political, educational, religious,
social, athletic or recreational or of any other nature.



918



Department of State Bulletin



Article I. . . . all German land, naval and air forces,
with all their organizations, staffs, and institutions, . . .
anil all other military and (juasi-iuililary organizations,
together with all clubs and associations which serve to
keep alive the military tradition in Germany, are hereby
considered disbanded, completely dissolved and declared
lllegiU.

Article II. The maintenance, formation and reconstitu-
tion of any of the agencies or organizations enumerated
In Article I under any name or form whatsoever, and
the takin? over of all or any of the functions of such
agencies or oriranizations in the future by other agencies
is prohibited and declared illegal.

It is clear from these agreements that the Gov-
ernment of the Soviet Union is committed im-
equivocally to the principle that Germany will be
demilitarized, that her military forces will be
completely and filially abolished, and that no
revival of German niilitar}- acti^'ities will be
allowed. Tlie British, French, and American Gov-
ernments were also parties to these agreements
and are equally committed to the same principle.
They have, accordingly, taken effective steps to
prevent any fonn of i-earmament or remilitariza-
tion in their zones of occupation. The Soviet
Union, on the other hand, has directly violated all
these agreements. The establishment of a mili-
tary force, or militarized jwlice. in eastern Ger-
many could not have been accomplished without
the deliberate approval of the Soviet Government,
and it is an action squarely in opposition to the
efforts being made by the United States and other
nations to create a stable and lasting peace.

Representatives of the Soviet Government have,
on numerous occasions, spoken of the Soviet Gov-
ernment's desire for peace. Such verbal protesta-
tions, however, can hardly be expected to receive
credence among the free peoples of the world when
the Soviet Goverimient is simultaneously creating
a military force of considerable size and strength
in Germany in violation of its solemn interna-
tional commitments. By this and other like ac-
tions the Soviet Government has destroyed world
confidence in the sincerity of its promises and has
created throughout the world widespread doubt
as to its pacific intentions. If the Soviet Govern-
ment wishes to restore in some measure interna-
tional confidence in its alleged attacliment to peace,
it cannot fail to dissolve immediately the militar-
ized units which it has set up in Eastern Germany.



DATA ON EAST GERMAN
PARAMILITARY POLICE

The foUotcing data is for the information of the press
and teas not a part of the note given to the Soviets.

The Soviets have created, in the East zone of
Grermany. a military force of between 40 and 50
thousand men. This force is composed of 39
Bereitschaften (Alert Units) to train enlisted per-



sonnel and at least 11 officer-training schools. The
force is armed with standard German infantry
weapons, but its military capabilities are at pres-
ent negligible. However, in the future it could
form the nucleus of a new German army or an
internal security force to maintain Communist
control. The creation of such an organization is
in direct contravention of various international
agieements to which the Soviet Union is a party.

The recent trial of eight Soviet zone paramili-
tary police has corroborated by judicial evidence
the existence of tliis military force. On April 13,
Grerman police of the American sector of Berlin
arrested two officers and eight enlisted men of the
Soviet zone police: these men were armed with an
automatic assault rifle, two machine-pistols, and
eight automatic pistols. These men were charged
and later convicted of wearing a uniform of an
illegal paramilitary organization, illegal posses-
sion of weapons, and the transportation of war
material. Full confessions by two of the police,
Heinz Erich Nocht and Wilhelm Roloff. plus tes-
timony by Soviet zone police deserters, who had
fled from military training of the police units,
gave detailed evidence of the military nature of
the organization and of the fact that it is in no
sense an ordinary police force.

The existence of the Paramilitary Hauptverwal-
tiuig Fuer Ausbildung (Main Administration for
Training) had already been known. Tliis organ-
ization, originally designated "Verwaltung Fuer
Schulung" (Adniinistration for Schooling), was
established in August 1949 under Generalinspek-
teur Wilhelm Zaisser. It originally consisted of
several officer-training schools and a number of
schools for the military training of enlisted per-
sonnel. The latter schools, frequently referred
to as "Bereitschaften" (Alert Units), had a table
of organization strength of approximately '250
men. Pei-sonnel for both types of schools were
transferred from existing police organizations or
recruited directly from civilian life and were
armed with standard German infantry weapons.
In September, a Soviet officer was assigned to each
school as an adviser to the commander. Soviet me-
dium tanks were assigned to several schools, and
an intensive recruiting program was undertaken.
In October, the Verwaltung Fuer Schulung was
redesignated the Hauptverwaltimg Fuer Ausbil-
dung (HVA). the schools for enlisted personnel
were officially redesignated Bereitschaften. and
the entire organization was extensively reorgan-
ized and expanded.

At the beginning of 1950, Generalinspekteur
Wilhelm Zaisser. Chief of the HVA, was directly
responsible to Generalmajor (U.S. equivalent —
Brigadier General ) Petrakovsln-. a member of the
Soviet Control Commission. In February. Zaisser
was relieved as head of the HVA and appointed
as head of the new East Zone Ministry of State
Security. The name of a new chief for the HVA
has not yet been announced. The headquarters



June 5, 1950



919



of the HVA consists of sections for administra-
tion, supply and "Polit-Kultur." Its field organ-
ization consists of 11 ofEcer-training schools, with
strengths of approximately 1,000 each, and at least
39 Bereitschaf ten varying in strength between ap-
proximately 800 and 1,200. Some units are under
strength at present. Total current strength is
l^robably between 40 and 50 thousand officers and
enlisted men.

The 39 Bereitschaften, or Alert Units, are or-
ganized as military formations of a particular arm
or service (i. e., infantry, artillery, armored, sig-
nal, etc.) and are subdivided into 3 "Kommandos"
of approximately 250 men each. Units are
equipped with German small arms, light and
heavy machine guns, mortars up to 80 mm, and
light artillery. A few Soviet T-34 tanks (me-
dium) have been assigned to certain units. Am-
munition for arms is available but in short supply.

Training in the Bereitschaften is clearly mili-
tary — close and extended order drill, familiariza-
tion with and firing of individual weapons, small
unit exercises — and includes political indoctrina-
tion. Tactical training above Kommando level
has not been undertaken probably because of the
low level of individual training and lack of ap-
propriate areas. The following factors have pro-
duced a generally low state of morale: (i) sub-
stanclard personnel, poor housing, and training
facilities; (ii) severe restrictions on personal free"-
dom as compared to other police personnel ; and
(iii) lack of a motivating enthusiasm on the pait
of enlisted personnel, many of whom were virtu-
ally coerced into enlisting. As a result of the em-
phasis on military training of the Alert Units, the
number of defectors has been increasing. The
rate of defection from the Soviet zone police in-
creased from 20 per month at the end of 1949 to
80 per month at the end of April 1950.

With some exceptions, the capabilities of the
Bereitschaften for tactical employment are cur-
rently negligible. At some time in the future
they should, however, be capable of (i) providing
a cadre for an expanded German Army or (iiT
acting as a small, relatively well-trained militia to
suppress internal disorder and maintain Commu-
nist-Soviet control.

The 11 schools of the Hauptverwaltung Fuer
Ausbildung, designed to provide general and ad-
vanced training for officer candidates, are divided
according to arm or service and are organized in 10
companies of approximately 100 men each. In
addition to infantry, artillery, signal, and armored
schools, there is a school for future Polit-Kultur
officers (officers responsible for proper political in-



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