United States. Dept. of State. Office of Public Co.

Department of State bulletin (Volume v. 22, Apr- Jun 1950) online

. (page 96 of 116)
Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 22, Apr- Jun 1950) → online text (page 96 of 116)
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Russian ellort to deprive us of even this method
of reaching the Soviet peoples. We have been
hit with Ihe greatest jamming operation in history.


Department of Slate Bulletin

"We liave trian^iiliited at least 250 Russian stations
tliat are devoted exclusively to janiniing the Voice
of America and tiie BBC riie Russians are
spending more money on their jamininji than we
are spentlinj; on our entire radio output. This
jamuiini; is, of course, in clear violation of the
international agreements which the Russians
signed as members of the International Telecom-
munication Union.

Overriding Soviet Jamming

We are doing something about that. We now
have a concerted campaign to override the Soviet
jamming which reached its high point of etl'ective-
ness a few months ago. To cut through the jam-
ming, our radio people have already joined with
the Britisli in massing our transmitters so that 70
British and American transmitters are broadcast-
ing to the Russians in Russian at the same time
every day — for a half hour in the morning and a
half hour in the evening. We arc making stren-
uous efforts to step up the total number of stations
engaged in this etl'ort. We hope to persuade some
of the other free nations which have transmitters
capable of penetrating the Iron Curtain to join
in this program of transmitting the truth behind
the curtain.

We are also achieving some results by the
process that our technicians call by the cozy term
"cuddling."' This is simply putting certain of our
transmitters on frequencies so close to those used
by the Russians themselves that they cannot jam
us without jamming out their own broadcasts.
They do jam both on occasion, but they also let
some through. Also, we are broadcasting in slow
Morse code to Russia — in the knowledge that some
thousands of Russian communication people, ham
operators and so on, will listen in. And we are
repeating our Voice programs to Russia on a 24-
hour basis.

We hope, as soon as the funds and pereonnel
can be made available, to increase our Voice of
America output to the satellite nations, from
which our other information operations are now
being steadily pushed out. Although details have
not been worked out, we hope at least to double
our radio output to these nations. This is im-
portant. So far the satellites have not been able
technically or financially to do much jamming.
We have conclusive evidence that in the satellite
areas, the people hang on to what we have to saj'.
We are reaching practically the entire population
of those countries with whatever message we beam
to them.

In the many areas of the world still free of
Soviet domination but where we must meet un-
ceasing Soviet propaganda, there are multiple in-
formation needs and problems which must be
analyzed and met. Who is going to do the job?
Are the American press, radio, private organiza-
tions, and plain ordinary American citizens and

tourists going to do it? Yes, they are, in part —
antl I repeat, in part.

To begin with, there are many critical world
areas which private American agencies reach
either most inadequately or not at all. Also, vir-
tually all tliose who have studied the i)roblem —
including an ASN'E connnittee and our own ad-
visory committee of Mark P^tiiridge, Ervvin Can-
ham, and othei-s — are convinced the job cannot be
done by jjrivate organizations alone. The picture
of America must be continuously corrected and
brought back into balance. Private enterprise is
not a corrective agency.

Information and Exchange Programs

Accordingly, we must have the full range of the
Department's information and exchange of per-
sons programs which finally got a green light
from the Congress 2 years ago. The parts of
the whole program, broadly speaking, are as
follows :


The first and best-known I have already men-
tioned — the radio Voice of America. The Voice
now operates from 38 short-wave transmitters
strategically located throughout the United States
and beams a direct radio signal to target areas
around the world. Most impoi'tantly, these trans-
mitters feed relay stations in England, Germany,
Tangier, Greece, Hawaii, and the Philippines.
The relay stations boost the programs along on
both short- and medium-wave transmitters.

The Voice is on the air daily around the clock
with an output of 70 programs in a total of 25
languages. On an over-all average, the programs
consist of 31 percent news, 56 percent analysis and
features, and 13 percent music. To Iron Curtain
countries, we send 47 percent news, 52 percent
analysis and features, and only 1 percent music.
The news reports, analysis, and features aim at
giving a full and fair picture of what goes on in
the world, what American policies and aims really
are, and what America is really like.

The daily audience reached by the Voice is esti-
mated at 300 million people. Many methods of
measurement are used — for example, letters from
listeners. In 1949, letters from listeners aver-
aged 10,000 a month. The rate has now risen to
25,000 a month.

The Voice is a big operation, but, even so, we
are doing in international radio oidy a part of
what BBC is doing and about half of what
Moscow is doing. It is my conviction that we
should do more — that the Voice should speak in
evei-y important language of the world and reach
loud and clear to every radio receiving set in the
world. That decision, of course, is up to the
American people and their representatives in

June 79, 7950



The second component in our information pro-
gram is the Wireless Bulletin and related services.
Six days a week, by Morse-code radio transmis-
sion, we send a stream of factual information
which is released throufjh about 130 American mis-
sions overseas. With verbatim texts of important
official documents, speeches, and other backjrround
press material, we give a detailed presentation of
United States policies and the official United
States view on international questions of the mo-
ment. This material reaches foreign govern-
ments, foreign editors, and the general public in
many countries. The overseas representatives of
American newspapers, radio networks, and press
services have frequently been glad to have this
Department program available, for we always give
them this textual material before it is publicly

I hope you will agree with me that the press
services have an even more weighty reason to
welcome these information activities of the United
States Government. Among the objects of the
Government is to keep it possible for a free press
to exist and operate throughout the world. Con-
trary, therefore, to what we sometimes hear, the
information programs of this nation are in har-
mony with the most fundamental interests of the
American press services and in no way impair
their objectivity and integrity. I hope the great
press services will see their way, in this crucial
period, to increase their aid to the Government's
efforts in this field.

to run another editorial straightening out the pic-
ture we have given of your country."


Fifth, we have our libraries and information
centers and cultural exchange centers which are
visited day after day by a yearly total of 4 million
foreigii citizens. I myself was once skeptical of
these operations, but I have been immensely im-
pressed by their effectiveness as I have traveled
overseas. We don't have to guess at why the
Soviet Union became worried and forced the
Czechoslovaks to close our center in Praha. It
was being visited by almost 7,000 Czechoslovaks a
month, eager to find out more about America and
about the free way of life.


Sixth, we have an exchange of persons pro-
gram — still too small in the opinion of many of
us but, nevertheless, important and effective. We
bring leadei's and potential leaders of other na-
tions to America for visits, to study and to work
with their colleagues here. We show them every-
thing, the good and the bad — the worst slums, for
example, along with the best housing projects with
which we are replacing slums. We find that this
frankness impresses them as much as the strength,
the determination, and the fundamental decency
of America. We have no better advocates than
these visitors when they get back home.


Third, we have our film program. Movies de-
picting the ways of democracy and the decent
things for which we stand are shown throughout
the world to audiences totaling 10 to 12 million
a month. The films are shown in schools, clubs,
and theatres. Thej' are shown in backward areas
by experimental jeep mobile units which we re-
cently developed and which have proved extraor-
dinarily effective — so much so, in fact, that we
hope soon to get approval for a great many more.


Fourth, and in some cases the most important,
is the incessant, day-to-day contact work between
our Public Affairs Officers overseas and the lead-
ing editors, educators, and heads of organizations.
I heard a leading British editor say during a
recent visit here : "I can't tell you how useful it
is to have your information officers keep in touch
with us and supply us with important official in-
formation. They are so discreet that I don't even
mind their calling up to straighten us out when we
have written an editorial they consider mislead-
ing. They generally supply us with the facts and
somehow they are fiendishly good at persuading us



Seventh, we give all the support we can to pri-
vate organizations — labor unions, business con-
cerns, film companies, press associations, and
publishers — to help with their overseas interests
and to get their assistance in our task of spreading
a true, fair, and objective picture of this nation
throughout the world. They are an essential and
very major part of the real Voice of America, and
many of them are doing a superb job of helping to
promote friendship and understanding between
the American and other free peoples.

Results Achieved

There are other activities, but these give the
picture of how we are operating and the scale of
our information programs. How is it working
out? What results are we getting?

After our Minister, Donald Heath, was recalled
from Bulgaria, he told me the Voice of America
was the most effective single instrument used on
our side of the cold war and that he believed it
could be made even more effective by stepping up
the Bulgarian output of the Voice.

When Mrs. Oksana Kasenkina jumped from a
window of the Soviet Consulate here in New York,
the Voice put the facts on the air. A few hours

Department of State Bulletin

later the news was all over Moscow, long before
any Soviet paper printed a word about it. On
other occasions, the oilicial Soviet press has been
forced to print news it would have preferred to
suppress or distort. Last spring, for example,
the "Voice broadcast the full text of the North
Atlantic Treaty in Russian. Two days later,
Izvesfia published the full text of the pact. It is
impossible to overestimate tlie imiiortance of such
Voice feats in telling the Soviet peoples the truth
about the free nations and forcing the official
Soviet press to confirm it.

American newsmen can note with special inter-
est another example The Voice told the world
that Hungary had refused to admit Gabriel Press-
man to the court to cover tJie Cardinal Mindszenty
trial for tlie New York Timef:. The next day
Pressman himself spoke over CBS, saying, "Re-
ports came to Hungary via the Voice of America
that the Government was not permitting me in
court. It was then that the Government suddenly
discovered that there was room for a second
American correspondent." He covered the trial.

I could go on with such evidence for a long, long
time. Let me just say that it piles up and up. It
has convinced me and has convinced a large num-
ber of Members of the Congress, as well as the
President, that this activity is vital. The infor-
mation program is one of the few hard-hitting
weapons we have in the intensifying cold war. In
the last shooting war, propaganda was just an
auxiliary weapon, but in this curious and danger-
ous world situation of today, it is one of the three
major weapons we have. We have the economic.
"We have the political. And we have the

Expanding Information as Cold War Weapon

There is a deep conviction in the Department,
and I think a growing awareness in other quarters,
that we should and must expand our use of truth-
ful information as a cold war weapon ; we must in-
crease and improve everything we are now doing;
and we must, particularly, enlist the greater sup-
port of private agencies in the job. Beginning in
July, we plan to hold a series of talks with repre-
sentatives of private American media and organ-
izations to see whether we can't help each other

To me, perhaps the most impressive testimony
for greater American use of the weapon of truth
came from Lt. Gen. Albert C. Wedemeyer, Com-
manding General of the Sixth Army, in an appear-
ance before the House Appropriations Subconmiit-
tee. Speaking of "the importance of reaching the
minds and hearts of individuals with our program
and our ideas," General Wedemeyer declared :
"In my opinion, we should no longer consider our
military forces — the Army, the Navy, and the Air
Force — as our first line of defense. In my opinion,
the machinery, whether it be the Voice of America

iune 19, 1950

or a psychological warfare agency, that our Gov-
ernment sets up will make a stronger contribution
and should be considered the first line of defense
of our country."

All of you who have just heard those remarkable
words of General Wedemeyer's are just as much
involved as I am in this battle for men's minds
which we call the cold war. The Voice of Amer-
ica is the total voice of this nation. The (luestion
now is : How loud and clear shall it carry the truth
around the world? I, for one, think we must put
into it all the thought, energy, and funds that we
can soundly and effectively devote to this purpose.
The cost of our operation for an entire year now
amounts to about what this nation spent every 6
minutes during World War II.

The big question is : Can we afford not to spend
the equivalent of a few more minutes of "shooting
war" to step up our campaign of truth, our cam-
paign to break through the Iron Curtain and to
unify the nations of the free world against the
menace to us all ?

Our critics abroad have often pointed out that
it takes an emergency for Americans to pull in
harness together but that when we do recognize an
emergency and do pull together, watch out ! I
say to you in all sincei-ity that we are in an emer-
gency now. The time for total cooperation is
here. We must act together with the full power
of this nation.

Foreign USIE Employees
Visit U.S. for Orientation

Forty-one employees of the United States In-
formation and Educational Exchange programs
who are nationals of other countries will arrive
in the United States about May 15 for 2 months
of orientation and consultation, the Department
of State announced on May 9.

Objective of the visit is to increase the effective-
ness of the United States Information and Edu-
cational Exchange programs abroad by providing
selected employees with an opportunity to get a
first-hand view of Americans and American life
and to consult with units of the Department con-
cerned with the program.

Employees, carefully chosen from 36 United
States posts overseas for ability and devotion to
the USIE program, are engaged in press, radio,
motion picture, library, and exchange activities.
The United States will benefit from the increased
knowledge and understanding of this country, its
policies, and its people which, it is expected, the
employees will derive from their visit.

Civic groups in several areas of the United
States are arranging programs for these employ-
ees to give them an opportunity to observe many
aspects of American life, including industries,
homes, communities, schools, churches, parks,
shrines, newspapers, and radio stations.


"... the objective of our efforts is peace, not conflict."

Address l)y the Presidenf^

Today, our foreign policy is tliat of one of the
strongest nations in the world. But the future
welfare of our country still depends upon our for-
eign policy just as it did in Jefferson's time.

This is true not only because the world has
shrunk in terms of space and time — it is true also
because in our day totalitarian tyrannies have
sprung up in the world. These tyrannies, whether
of the left or of the right, have threatened free
institutions and free governments everywhere.

In this situation, our country has been impelled
by the principles of freedom for which we stand,
and by the needs of our national security, to take
a leading role in the search for a just and perma-
nent peace among nations.

We liave taken the position of leadership that
President Wilson wanted us to take after the First
World War. Our aim today is the same as his aim
was then — to establish a peaceful world order in
wliich disputes between nations can be adjusted
without bloodshed, and the individual can l)e sure
of justice and freedom in his daily life. The cre-
ation of such a world order requires an interna-
tional organization of free and independent na-
tions, cooperating voluntarily in the maintenance
of peace. It also requires collective action to
prevent aggression.

We refused to assume our responsibilities as a
nation after the First World War. But by the end
of the Second World War, we had learned our

Steps Toward International Cooperation

Since that time, we liave joined with other
nations in the formation of a world organization
to keep the peace. We have used our resources
to aid tlie recovery of war-shattered economies.
We have aided in carying on international ac-
tivities in economic, social, and cultural fields.
We have helped to build a gi-eater degree of in-

'Dplivered at St. Louis, Mo. on June 10 and released
to the press by the White House on the same date.


ternational cooperation than the world has ever
known before.

Our actions for peace have had the support of
the American people without regard to political
affiliation. Our foreign policy has been biparti-
san, and I am confident that it will remain

The steps we have taken toward international
cooperation offer real hope and opportunity to
mankind. But they have not yet provided us with
the assurance of a permanent peace.

The reason is clear. In the 5 years that have
passed since the end of the war, we have been con-
fronted with a new, powerful imperialism. We
had hoped that our wartime ally, the Soviet Union,
would join in the efforts of the whole community
of nations to build a peaceful world. Instead, the
Soviet leaders have been an obstacle to peace.

By means of infiltration, subversion, propagan-
da, and indirect aggression, the rulers of the Soviet
Union have sought to extend the boundaries of
their totalitarian control.

With a cynical disregard for the hopes of man-
kind, the leaders of the Soviet Union have talked
of democracy — but have set up dictatorships.
They have proclaimed national independence —
but imposed national slavery. They have preached
peace — but devoted their energies to fomenting
aggression and preparing for war.

The result of these tactics has been to spur the
free nations on to greater cooperation and more
vigorous efforts for the improvement and the
defense of their own institutions. These efforts
have been without parallel in history. Five years
ago, we would not have dreamed that stich joint
efforts as the European Recovery Program or the
Atlantic defense program were possible in time of
peace. Measures of even closer cooperation are
now being planned and set up.

Dangers of Isolationism

We have made good progress so far. Because
of this progress, we are confident that we can es-

Deparfment of Stafe Bullefin

tablish the conditions necessary to a pi-iiuine peace.
We know that the free work! lias both tlie will and
the means to insure its own siirvi\al. But I would
like to emphasize the dill'erence between confidence
and complacency. We cannot be complacent.
Our ultimate success depends on sustainetl fuither
eflFort. We have joined with other nations in
establishinji a new and stronger kind of interna-
tional association than we have known before.
But there is a lonji road ahead.

There are, of course, some people wlio are urpino;
us to pull out of these joint efforts to achieve a

Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 22, Apr- Jun 1950) → online text (page 96 of 116)