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thing is not only the attitude but the competence
of people to get on with the task of development
when they have committed themselves to it as a
primary purpose.

Role of Education in Development

And here education plays the critical role. The
chart of American economic and social develop-
ment and the chart of American educational de-
velopment would show approximately the same
curve. We did not wait in our educational devel-
opment until we were rich enough to afford it. "We
could not become rich enough to afford it unless we
had built education in, with a major effort, at our
very beginnings. And we have to be a little care-
ful as Americans in ti-ying to translate our
experience into other countries.

My guess is that we might be well instructed to
try to think back for a generation, or even 50
years, to look at some of our own problems in
education somewhat earlier, if we are to be directly
responsive and relevant to the situation that we
find in many other countries.

I gather tliat we liave about 2,000 institutions
of higher education in this country, including
junior colleges. One who served in a private
foundation for a number of years got tlie impres-
sion that among these 2,000 — Dean Keppel will
perhaps forgive me— every college aspired to be a
university and every imiversity thought that it
had to have a department of veterinary medicine.
(Laughter.)

In other words our higlier education, within an
educational system which has 24 or 25 billions of
dollars at its disposal, admitted to needing more.
Our system of higher education is made possible
by the enormous resources of the country that are
already here. Now, when we turn to other coun-
tries that are somewhat nearer the beginnings of
their educational effort, wo have to remember that
it's easier to build a l)>iilding than it is to build a
faculty, that a university cannot inject an educa-
tional system downward, tliat a imiversity caps an
effective educational sj-stem which provides men
and women ready for, prepared for, a univei-sity
education. And that there could be such a thing,
perhaps, despite the generality of our own ex-
perience in this comitiy — there could be such a



20



Department of State Bulletin



thing as effective cooperation among educational
institutions, some division of labor, some sharing
of responsibility, some regional cooperation, in
order that the resources M'hich can be made avail-
able can be used to the best advantage, on a some-
what rationalized basis, within the situation in
which peoples find themselves.

One of the great challenges, I think, in relating
education to development is to find ways to mobi-
lize the resources that may be available in a par-
ticular i-egion in order that they may be made
somewhat more effective in service to all those who
might be involved.

And, Dr. Mora [Jose A. Mora, Secretary Gen-
eral of the Organization of American States], I
think we have seen many instances, and growing
instances, in which the great institutions of higher
education in Latin America are reinforcing each
other, sending their young people to each other's
campuses for specialized training, and with a total
net effect which is strengthening for all concerned.

But when we talk about people, we come back
to the point from which I started. It is that people
are those who are most immediately involved in
the attempt to build a decent world order. If you
look at the relationships which are being worked
out across national frontiers, underneath the polit-
ical level and despite the political problems, here
is the making of a kind of world scene which is
our principal hope for the future.

In this aspect of the matter, private organiza-
tions and government play an inseparably linked
role of partnei-ship. You will be talked to this
afternoon about the role of private organizations
in this field of education.

Without pointing my finger at you, I should
like to suggest to all of us, whether in government
or in the private field, that when we are talking
about education, and particularly when we are
talking about bringing yoimg people from other
countries to the United States for training, the em-
phasis had perhaps better be on the quality of the
job rather than the numbers of those who might
be somehow involved.

I may leave my colleagues in the Department of
State some explaining to do, with these remarks,
before the afternoon is over (Laughter.), but let
me put it this way : Two halves don't make a whole
in this matter. Two ill-prepared or half-prepared
young people going back to their counti"y cannot
make the contribution which one well-prepared
person can make. And if you have six yoiuig



people who come here for training, who go back
disappointed or frustrated or with a sense of fail-
ure, there may be six young people who had better
not have come in the first place.

And so I would urge both those of us in govern-
ment and those of us in private organizations to
take this business of playing with the lives of
people with the greatest of seriousness. And if
we involve young people abroad in this process of
education by any effort of ours, we do so deter-
mined to do it right, whatever the nimibers in-
volved. Fewer done well will be far more effec-
tive and important and satisfying than a larger
number done less well.

And I would urge that we consider the factors
which go for excellence, elegance, success in this
relationship, and try to cut down somewhat on the
casualties which occur in these situations. And
when we are dealing with tens of thousands of
yoimg people, of course there are going to be some
casualties. Students have been students for cen-
turies, and no one would expect young people to
act like wise older people but sometimes like fool-
ish older people. (Laughter.)

I can recall, for example, one student from a
far country to the south, in the Pacific, coming
to Minnesota for training. He had a liberal
clothing allowance, but he stopped off in Manila
on the way. And he found those lovely shirts
which all of us find so spectacular in the Philip-
pines. And there went his clothing allowance,
all of it, on about 20 of these shirts. He got to
Minnesota, sent a telegram to his sponsor saying,
"Hey, it's cold up here."

Well, of course, management has to take place.
But the thing that I am emphasizing is that we
who are sponsors must sponsor. We who are
going to take on these jobs must see them through.
We who involve ourselves must do so with the
greatest responsibility. And it's vei"y encourag-
ing to me to see in the course of the last year or
two the serious attention which so many are giv-
ing to just this part of the problem, how we can
make their exi^erience here more effective, how
we can avoid the unnecessary casualties, how we
can send them back with something which they
can take back to their own homes, their own. coun-
tries, their own universities, that can make a
great difference.

I think you would agree with me that among
the new emphases in our aid program has been
something of a shift toward the himian resources



January 1, 7962



21



that are involved in foreign aid, the rising place
of education. Of course, dams and factories arc
vital to the economic and social development.
But a dam which is not linked to the lives of the
people in the area in which it is built is relatively
sterile. And the failure of ourselves and others
to develop the human resources will be a self-
imposed limitation, not only upon their ability to
develop but our ability to contribute to it.

So we urge your most thouglitful and critical
and imaginative attention to this element of hu-
man resources in aid programs, not only in the
public field but in the private field, because this
is basic to development, development is critical
to this decent world order, and this decent world
order will decide the survival of man.



ADDRESS BY MR. NUNLEY

Press release 827 dated November 30

In speaking about world population problems
and their relationship to economic and social de-
velopment, I want to begm by identifying myself.
I do not pretend to be speaking in a purely per-
sonal capacity, although some of my observations
are necessarily personal. I am an officer of the
Department of State and have served for 15 years
under three administrations. I am currently as-
signed as a Special Assistant to the Under Secre-
tary of State. It is therefore my intention to
explain as best I can the current attitudes of the
Department of State with respect to intei'national
population problems.

The essential task of the Department of State
is to advise and assist the President in the con-
duct of international relations. As you know.
President Kennedy's administration has become
popularly known as "the New Frontier." I be-
lieve this label is altogether appropriate. Henry
David Tlioreau once defined a frontier as some-
thing that is "neither east nor west, but wherever
a man faces a fact." During the last year many
Americans have been deeply impressed by the
determination of President Kennedy and his top
officials to face the hard, undiluted, and undeco-
rated facts of our national and international life.
This willingness to face facts — to come to grips
with the facts that are known and to ferret out the
facts that are still unknown — provides the prin-
cipal explanation of the State Department's at-
tention to international jiopulation problems.



We have all heard a great deal about the "world
population explosion." However, I sometimes
suspect that this metaphor has produced more
confusion than enlightenment. For example, I
recently heard a story about a little gh'l who asked
her mother to let her watch some people explode.
At the same time, there are a handful of relatively
mature citizens who write sincere letters to the
State Department which sometimes seem to sug-
gest that we should devote less attention to such
problems as the Berlin crisis, southeast Asia, dis-
armament, international trade, collective security,
and so forth, and instead concentrate a mucli
larger portion of our diplomatic energies upon
attempting to regidate the private lives of men
and women 10,000 miles away.

Please imderstand that I am not questioning
the reality of the "population explosion." The
world's population is growing at an alarming rate.
It is probable that the three-billionth human being
was born some time this year. According to the
best available demographic estimates, 3,000 babies
will be born before I finish speaking tonight. (So
maybe I'd better hurry along.)

In the eyes of the State Department, population
problems are significant primarily because of their
economic implications. This applies to families,
communities, and nations alike. I realize that if
I had 12 children instead of 4, my house would be (
a lot noisier than it is now, although this possi-
bility sometimes seems pretty incredible. But my
big problem would still be food, clothing, shelter,
and popsicles.

I also realize that some people are worried about
the prediction that, at some future date — say,
2100 A.D. — the entire planet may require a "stand-
ing room only" sign. "Wliile such a dismal situa-
tion may indeed lie within the realm of theoretical
possibility, the prospect is not giving me and my
colleagues any sleepless nights. During the '
months and years immediately ahead we shall
probably s]'>end a great deal more of our time wor-
rying about an equally theoretical and even
drearier prospect — the possibility that liuman life
may be wholly extinct by 2100 A.D.

In any event, from the viewpoint of the State
Department the fact that India, for example, has |
about 400 million people is intrinsically neither
good nor bad. This would hold true even if In-
dia's population should increase to 600 million or
800 million. The important question is wliother
these people can be fed, clothed, and sheltered.



22



Depar/menf of State Bulletin



given the necessities of life and some of the com-
forts, given the means to educate themselves, to
preserve their freedom, and to attam greater ma-
terial and spiritual growth.

While demographic statistics are highly unre-
liable, a few broad generalizations are possible.
Any child born into the non-Communist world
today has a two-to-one chance of being born into
a nation where the average per capita income is
less than $5 per month.

This is the really important fact. It is impor-
tant not only to the child himself, his family, his
community, and his nation, but it is also immensely
important to the United States of America. It
is important in terms of our ethical and religious
values, in terms of our domestic prosperity, in
terms of our political freedom, and in terms of
our ultimate survival. Wlien an American under-
stands this fact, it doesn't matter very much
whether his heart is dripping with the milk of
human kindness or whether he is as selfish as
Scrooge. It is no longer possible for any man or
nation to be safe in a world where two-thirds of
the people are on the verge of starvation.

Some Truths and Uncertainties

"What I have said leads to some fairly obvious
conclusions. The State Department has given
little attention to the population problems of the
economically advanced nations, which are able to
provide a fairly decent standard of living to most
of their citizens. We are concerned primarily
with the population problems of the lesser devel-
oped nations. Even here, we are not concerned
with population problems per se but only with
population problems as they may relate to eco-
nomic and social development.

"Wlien we begin to consider this relationship,
we find ourselves upon a small island of miscel-
laneous truths surrounded by a vast ocean of ig-
norance and uncertainty. Let me give some
examples.

First, we know there is a substantial and intri-
cate relationship between economic growth and
population growth. More specifically, we know
that our economic assistance programs have a con-
tinuing impact upon population growth, although
( Ins impact has never yet been deliberate and is
usually unconscious. However, the nature and
extent of the interaction between economic de-
velopment and population growth is often hazy.



For example, public health programs tend to re-
duce the death rate and thus accelerate popula-
tion growth, but also mcrease the productive
capacity of the labor force. Similarly, rural de-
velopment may reinforce a village way of life
favorable to high fertility but may simultaneously
produce new opportunities for women which com-
pete with the traditional role of childbearing.

Second, we know that worldwide economic
growth is well ahead of worldwide population
growth. But this doesn't mean much to people
who are hungry. Moreover, as we look into the
future we cannot be sure whether the problems
produced by population growth will ultimately
be resolved by reducing the rate of population
growth, by technological breakthroughs in the
production of goods and services, by commercial
arrangements which permit a better distribution
of goods and services, by mass emigration, or by
various combinations of these alternatives.

Third, we know there are tremendous variations
in the population problems of difi'erent countries.
In some lesser developed covmtries the present
ratio between economic development and popula-
tion growth is favorable. In other instances the
rate of population growth is so high that a par-
ticular country is not yet achieving, even with
considerable American economic assistance, a per
capita rate of economic growth that is sufficient
to satisfy the aspirations of its people and to as-
sure political and social stability. In two or three
countries the current rate of population growth
is actually higher than the rate of economic
growth. In many countries, however, we are un-
able to draw any very useful conclusions, because
there is no reliable information about the actual
rate of population gi'owth, the actual rate of eco-
nomic growth, the relationship between the two,
the probable social and political consequences, and
probable future trends.

Fourth, we know that certain citizens in foreign
countries believe that their governments need a
deliberate policy and effective program of popula-
tion control. However, these citizens suffer many
uncertainties. They are often imclear as to exist-
ing facts and future probabilities concerning both
population growth and economic growth. They
sometimes fail to appreciate the difference between
population control and birth control and also do
not know what techniques are available in each
case. Population growth, of course, is affected
by a great many factors other than birth control.



January 1, 1962



23



These may include the mobility of workers, the
minimum marriage age, kinship obligations, the
system of land tenures, urbanization, and so forth.
But no one knows very much about the methods
by which governments may deliberately bring
these factors into play so as to produce predict-
able results.

The citizens mentioned often do not know how
to persuade their governments to adopt a definite
program, and the govei-nment itself may not yet
know how to obtain the cooperation of its popula-
tion or how to achieve the results desired without
conscious cooperation. Even where all other con-
ditions are favorable, a government may lack the
resources or technology to carry out an effective
population control program.

As a consequence, very few governments have
as yet adopted anything resembling an active
program of population control, although several
have adopted measures which make it easier or
harder for individual families to regulate births.
Moreover, I can say quite categorically that no
government has ever yet requested any specific
assistance from the United States in controlling
population growth.

Need for More Knowledge

I could spend several hours in describing the
areas of knowledge and the areas of uncertainty,
but my time is limited and I want to make one
positive suggestion. At the outset, I want to pay
tribute to the large number of individuals and
institutions who have done valuable research into
population problems and have produced a signifi-
cant body of knowledge. More than anything
else at this moment, we need additional knowledge.
We need knowledge about general population
problems and specific population problems. We
need more knowledge about the relationship be-
tween population growth and economic develop-
ment. We need technological research, physio-
logical research, social research, economic
research, and political researcli. We need to know
more ; and we even need to know more about what
we need to know.

In the past, most of the research concerning
population problems has been conducted by pri-
vate organizations and individuals. I suspect
this will be true in the future. There are people
in this audience who know far more about the
subject than I do, and there are certain individ-



uals here who know more about particular aspects
of the subject than is known by the entire Depart-
ment of State. There are several private organi-
zations in this country, including religious
organizations with differing views, which have
already done more about direct population con-
trol than the Department of State is likely to do
in tlie foreseeable future.

If what I have said sounds confusing, let me
assure you that the basic facts are confusing.
However, I want to urge the members of this
audience — and evei-y other person in the United
States who may be interested in population prob-
lems — to undertake or stimulate further research
into all aspects of these problems, especially with
reference to their relationship to economic and
social advancement in the lesser developed
coimtries.

Meanwhile I can tell you fairly simply what the
Department of State is doing and what it is not
doing. Fii"st, we are thinking about population
problems and talking about them. Second, we
are attemptmg to get other people to think and
talk about these problems — to stimulate individ-
uals, organizations, and governments to add to the
total store of knowledge on this subject. Finally,
we are prepared to consider, on their merits, cer-
tain types of requests for assistance to other gov-
ernments. In fact, we have already begun to
advise and assist a few governments in their
efforts to acquire additional knowledge about
their own population problems, specifically in the
conduct of censuses.

I haven't the slightest idea what we will be do-
ing 1 year or 10 years from now, because we are
standing at the edge of a jungle that is largely
imexplored. However, there are certain things
which I feel certain that the United States Gov-
ernment will not do. We will not attempt to
impose population controls upon other govern-
ments or peoples. We will not make population
control a condition of our economic assistance to
other countries. We will not advocate anj' par-
ticular technique of population control in pref-
erence to other teclmiques.

Our refusal to do these things is not based upon
])olitioal timidity. It is based in part upon the
lack of information by our Government and other
governments. It is also based upon certain in-
escapable facts of international political life — the
nature of the relationships among free govern-



24



[ispat\men\ of State Bvlhtin



ments and the relationship of governments to
peoples.

In any event, our ultimate objective is clear.
Our Government intends to continue providing
economic assistance to the lesser developed nations.
I do not know whether or not the United States
Government will ever consciously provide specific
assistance in controlling population growth, and
I am even less certain whether we will ever offer
assistance in support of birth-control programs.
At the present moment, incredible as it may seem
to some Americans, birth control is not a major
issue in most parts of the world. It certainly is
not a policy objective of the United States Gov-
ernment. Our real objective was stated by Under
Secretary [George W.] Ball in Vienna only a
few weeks ago,^ when he said that what we want
to do is to make sure that every birth eveiywliere
in the world will some day be accompanied by a
birthright.



Immigration Quotas Set for Cameroon,
Kuwait, Nigeria, and Syria

White House press release (Palm Beach, Fla.) dated December 7

The President on December 7 signed a procla-
mation establishing and revising annual immigra-
tion quotas as follows :

Cameroon 151

Kuwait 100

Nigeria 149

Syria 100

The increase in the quotas for the Federal
Kepublic of Cameroon and the Federation of
Nigeria is due to the division of the former U.N.
Trust Territory of British Cameroons into two
parts, the northern portion of which, with 49
percent of the population, joined the Federation
of Nigeria, the southern portion, with 51 percent
of the population, uniting with the former Ee-
public of Cameroon to form the Federal Republic
of Cameroon. Nigeria and Cameroon are the first
countries to benefit by the amendment of section
202(E) of the Immigration and Nationality Act
by the act of September 26, 1961, to provide that,
when a quota area has been subject to a change of
administrative arrangements, change of bounda-
ries, or other political change, the annual quota of
the newly established quota area shall not be less

'/6iV/., Oct. 9, 1961, p. 579.

January J, 7962



than the sum total of quotas in efl'cct immediately
preceding the change.

The establishment of a quota for the Syrian
Arab Republic, which was extended de jure recog-
nition by the United States on October 10, 1961,
following its withdrawal from the United Arab
Republic, recalls the former provisions of the Im-
migration and Nationality Act. Before Syria and
Egypt formed the United Arab Republic, each
country had a minimum quota of 100. The United
Arab Republic, however, could not be accorded
more than a minimum quota of 100 imder legisla-
tion then in effect.

The State of Kuwait, the former Sheikdom of
Kuwait, has now been extended de jure recogni-
tion by the United States.

Letters of Credence

Rumania

The newly appointed Minister of the Rumanian
People's Republic, Petre Balaceanu, presented his
credentials to President Kennedy on December 12.
For texts of the Minister's remarks and the Pres-
ident's reply, see Department of State press re-
lease 880 dated December 12.

U.S. Announces Intention To Aid



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 46, Jan- Mar 1962) → online text (page 12 of 101)