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U.N. ECOSOC Commission on Status of Women: 16th Session. . . . New York Mar. 19-

WMO Commission for Synoptic Meteorology: 3d Session Washington Mar. 26-

CENTO Military Committee London Mar. 28-

Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences: 7th Meeting of Tech- Turrialba, Costa Rica .... March

nical Advisory Council.

' Pn'ijared in the Oflice of International Conferences, Dec. 15, 1961. Following is a list of abbreviations: CENTO,
Central Treaty Organization; ECAFE, Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East; ECLA, Economic Commission
for Latin America; ECOSOC, Economic and Social Council; FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization; IAEA, Inter-
national Atomic Energy Agency; ICAO, International Civil Aviation Organization; ILO, International Labor Organi-
zation; IMCO, Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization; OAS, Organization of American States; OECD,
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; U.N., United Nations; UNESCO, United Nations Educational,
Scientifie and Cultural Organization; WHO, World Health Organization; WMO, World Meteorological Organization.

36 Department of Sfofe Bulletin



Tanganyika Admitted
to United Nations

Statement by Adlai E. Stevenson

VJS. Representative to the United Nations ^

Tlie United States is most happy to welcome the
application of Tanganyika for membership in the
United Nations. And we acknowledge with warm
appreciation the competent speeches of welcome
we have lieard here this morning.

For my part, I shall long remember the charm-
ing and informative address about Tanganyika
by our colleague, the distinguished Ambassador
of Ceylon. I did not overlook liis reminder that
the Olduvai skull, the oldest human remain, was
found in Tanganyika and is sometimes called the
Nutcracker Man. If American slang is not for-
bidden, I could express the hope that the United
Nations might find in Tanganyika another "nut-
cracker man."

There is little for me to add to what has already
been said, but I can repeat that Tanganyika was
the largest of the trust territories, both in area and
population. It is the most recent of the trust ter-
ritories to emerge as an independent nation from
the trusteeship process of the United Nations.
The United States is one of the countries that has
from the beginning taken an active interest in
the United Nations trusteeship system. We may,
therefore, be forgiven if we feel a special pride
and satisfaction as this large and promising new
nation enters our ranks. Closely associated as we
are with the work of the Trusteeship Council, we
are well aware of the part that the United King-
dom has played and happily continues to play in
Tanganyika. A firm foundation has been laid by
many devoted and talented English men and
women who furnish what promises to be a fruitful
and close relationship between two great countries
in the future.

We are honored to know that Prime Minister
Julius Nyerere and representatives of the Tan-
ganyika Government have come to the seat of the
United Nations for this memorable event, and we
extend to them our warm welcome. They are, to
use the words of my country's representative on
the Trusteeship Council [Jonathan B. Bingham],
symbols of African hopes, African dignity, and
African success, and they give us a glimpse of the

iMade in the Security Council on Dec. 14 (U.S./U.N.
press release 3SS9).



U.S. Congratulates Tanganyika
on Independence

Following is the text of a message from President
Kennedy to the Oovernment and people of Tan-
ganyika, whioh teas delivered to Prime Minister
Julius Nyerere at Dar-es-Salaam on December 9
by Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr., Personal Representa-
tive of the President at the Tanganyika independ-
ence celebrations.

White House press release (Palm Beach, Fla.) dated
December 8

On behalf of the people of the United States of
America, I extend the heartiest congratulations to
the government and people of Tanganyika on the
occasion of their independence.

Tanganyika's leaders, above all Prime Minister
Julius Nyerere, and its people have brought their
land to Freedom and equality among nations in a
manner that has won the admiration of all Ameri-
cans. For Americans also cherish individual liberty
and national independence, and they share with
Tanganyikans the knowledge that these goals are
achieved and maintained only at the cost of un-
remitting labor and sacrifice.

Americans also share with the people of Tan-
ganyika a profound respect for the principles of
the United Nations Charter. Tanganyika has
passed to independence through a period of United
Nations trusteeship under British administration.
It is gratifying that this period ends with continu-
ing cooperation between these two sovereign friends
of the United States. Gratifying also is this new
nation's example in the exercise of human rights
in which Tanganyikans of different racial origins
band as one to the task of economic and social
progress. This new nation brings to world councils
a welcome sense of responsibility and a stanch
independence.

The people of the United States of America shall
work to multiply and strengthen bonds of friend-
ship with the government and people of Tanganyika.
We look forward to working together with Tan-
ganyikans in the cause of freedom, dignity and
peace.



tremendous contribution which the peoi^le of
Africa can make to this upset world of ours. Tan-
ganyika has had notable success in establishing a
harmonious multiracial society. The representa-
tive of the United Kingdom in the Trusteeship
Council, Sir Hugh Foote, has called Tanganyika's
achievement one of the most striking and success-
ful ventures in racial harmony and freedom ever



seen.



While Tanganyika has reason to be proud of its
achievements, its people and its leaders still face,



January 1, 1962



37



needless to say, formidable problems in develop-
ing the economy, the education, and the social po-
tential of their comitry. Prime Minister Nyerere
and Tanganyika's other leaders are well aware
of these challenges and have declared their in-
tention to wage a silent revolution against poverty,
disease, and ignorance, in order to raise the stand-
ards of living of the people and the general cir-
cumstances of life in this new country. In tliis
we wish them all success and are prepared to ex-
tend our help and our cooperation. We extend
our sincere congratulations to the Government
and the people of Tanganyika and with great
pleasure will vote in favor of the resolution spon-
sored by Ceylon, Liberia, and the United Arab
Republic. And we look forward to a happy and
fruitful association in the United Nations with
the representatives of this great country.^



TREATY INFORMATION



Current Actions



MULTILATERAL

Automotive Traffic

Customs convention on temporary importation of private
road vehicles. Done at New Yorlt June 4, 1954. En-
tered into force December 15, 1957. TIAS 3943.
Accession deposited: Norway, October 10, 1961.

Narcotics

Convention relating to the suppression of the abuse of
opium and other drugs. Signed at The Hague Janu-
ary 23, 1912. Entered into force February 11, 1915.
38 Stat. 1912.

Notification received that it considers itself bound:
Cameroon, November 20, 19C1.

Convention for limiting the manufacture and regulating
the distribution of narcotic drugs, as amended (61 Stat.
2230; 62 Stat. 1796). Done at Geneva July 13, 1931.
Entered into force July 9, 1933. 48 Stat. 1543.
Notification received that it considers itself iound:
Cameroon, November 20, 1961.

Protocol bringing under international control drugs out-
side the scoi>e of the convention limiting the manufac-
ture and regulating the di.stribution of narcotic drugs
concluded at Geneva July 13, 1931 (48 Stat. 1.543), as
amended (61 Stat. 2230; 02 Stat. 1790). Done at



Paris November 19, 1948. Entered Into force Decem-
ber 1, 1949 ; for the United States, September 11, 1950.
TIAS 2308.

Notification received that it considers itself bound:
Cameroon, November 20, 1961.

Oil Pollution

International convention for the prevention of pollution
of the sea by oil, with annexes. Done at London
May 12, 1954. Entered into force July 26, 1958; for
the United States December 8, 1961.
Acceptance deposited: Kuwait, November 27, 1961.

Trade and Commerce

General agreement on tariffs and trade, with annexes and
schedules, and protocol of provisional application. Con-
cluded at Geneva October 30, 1947. TIAS 1700.
Admitted as contracting party: Tanganvika, Decem-
ber 9, 1961.
Arrangements regarding international trade in cotton
textiles. Done at Geneva July 21, 1961. Entered into
force October 1, 1961. TIAS 4884.
Acceptances: Australia, November 17, 1961; Austria
(with a statement), December 5, 1961; Pakistan, De-
cember 1, 1961.



2 On Dec. 14 the General Assembly by acclamation ad-
mitted Tanganyika to membership, foUovdng a recom-
mendation on the same date by the Security Council.



No.



Check List of Department of State
Press Releases: December 11-17

Press releases may be obtained from the Office of
News, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C.

Releases Issued prior to December 11 which ap-
pear in this issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 784 of
November 14 ; 801 of November 21 ; 827 of Novem-
ber 30; 832 of December 1; 860 of December 7;
864 of December 8; and 869 of December 10.

Subject

Coombs : "A New Dimension of U.S.

Foreign Relations."
Report of delegation to 19th session

of GATT.
Ball : "Reduction of Tariff Barriers

to Trade."
Ball : "Obstacles to the Trade of Less

Developed Countries."
Gudeman : "Trade in Agricultural

Commodities."
U.S. participation in international

conferences.
Ball : interview on "Meet the Press."
Development aid to Nigeria.
Ball : situation in the Congo.
Richards receives AID distinguished

service award.
Rumania credentials (rewrite).
Visit of Kalmyk people's delegation

to Department (rewrite).
Popkin appointed AID development

program officer for the Far East

(biographic details).
Bayley sworn in as AID director of

public affairs (biographic details).
Agricultural commodities agreement

with Poland (rewrite).
White : situation in the Congo.
Ambassador of Nigeria thanks U.S.

for aid.
Volta River project in Ghana.
Meeting of Congolese leaders.



*870


12/11


871


12/11


872


12/11


873


12/11


874


12/11


*875


12/11


•876
877
878

*879


12/11
12/12
12/13
12/14


880
881


12/12
12/14



•882 12/15



•883

884

885
•886

887
888



12/15

12/15

12/15
12/15

12/16
12/17



♦Not printed.



38



Department of Sfate Bulletin



January 1, 1962 I n

Africa. The Health Frontier of the Developing
Nations of Africa (Williams) 26

ARriculture. P.L. 480 Agreement Signed by U.S.
aud Poland 35

Asia. Janow apix)inted assistant administrator for

Far East, .\ID 35

Cameroon. Immigration Quotas Set for Camer-
oon, Kuwait, Xigeria, aud Syria 25

Congo (Leopoldville)

Prisident Kennedy Asked To Facilitate Negotia-
tions Between Congo Leaders (White, Depart-
ment statement) 10

US. Supports U.N. Aid to Congolese Efforts To Re-

«niye Difficulties (Ball, Department statement) . 11

Congress, The. Department Responds to Queries
I'oneerning Oil Imports Program (Nichols) . . 31

Cuba. President Sets Cuban Sugar Quota at Zero
for First Half of 1962 34

Department and Foreign Service. Recess Appoint-
ments (Handley, Hart, Janow, Knight, Thurs-
ton) 35

Dominican Republic. Department Explains U.S.
Position on Dominican Sugar 34

Economic Affairs

Department Explains U.S. Position on Dominican

Sugar 34

Department Responds to Queries Concerning Oil

Imports Program (Nichols) 31

International Economic and Social Development

(Nunley, Rusk) 18

Issues Facing GATT in the New Trading World

(Ball, (iudeman, U.S. delegation report, text of

declaration) 3

President Sets Cuban Sugar Quota at Zero for First

Half of 1962 34

U.S. To Aid Basic Economic Project on Volta River

in Ghana 30

Foreign Aid

International Economic and Social Development

(Nunley, Rusk) 18

Janow appointed assistant administrator for Far

East, AID 35

President Responds to Request From Viet-Nam for

U.S. Aid (Diem, Kennedy) 13

U.S. Announces Intention To Aid Nigerian De-
velopment Program 25

Ghana. U.S. To Aid Basic Economic Project on

Volta River in Ghana 30

Haiti. Thurston appointed ambassador 35

Health, Education, and Welfare. The Health Fron-
tier of the Developing Nations of Africa
(Williams) 26

Immigration and Naturalization. Immigration
Quotas Set for Cameroon, Kuwait, Nigeria, and
Syria 25

International Organizations and Conferences

Calendar of International Conferences and Meet-
ings 36

The Health Frontier of the Developing Nations of
Africa (Williams) 26

Issues Facing GATT in the New Trading World
(Ball, Gudeman, U.S. delegation report, text of
declaration) 3

Kuwait

Hart appointed ambassador 35

Immigration Quotas Set for Cameroon, Kuwait,
Nigeria, and Syria 25



e X Vol. XLVI, No. 1175

Mali. Handley appointed ambassador 35

Mexico. Department Responds to Queries Concern-
ing Oil Imports Program (Nichols) 31

Nigeria

Immigration Quotas Set for Cameroon, Kuwait,
Nigeria, and Syria 25

U.S. Announces Intention To Aid Nigerian Develop^ "
ment Program 25

Poland. P.L. 480 Agreement Signed by U.S. and
Poland 35

Presidential Documents

President Responds to Request From Viet-Nam for

U.S. Aid 13

President Sets Cuban Sugar Quota at Zero for First

Half of 1962 34

U.S. Congratulates Tanganyika on Independence '. 37

Public Affairs. The Challenge to Government, the
Media, and Educational Institutions (Tubby) . . 15

Refugees. Kalmyk People Observe 10th Anniver-
sary in U.S 17

Rumania. Letters of Credence (Balaceanu) ... 25

Syria

Immigration Quotas Set for Cameroon, Kuwait,

Nigeria, and Syria [ 25

Knight appointed ambassador 35

Tanganyika

Tanganyika Admitted to United Nations (Steven-
son) 37

U.S. Congratulates Tanganyika on Independence

(Kennedy) 37

Treaty Information

Current Actions 33

P.L. 480 Agreement Signed by U.S. and Poland . '. 35

U.S.S.R. Department Responds to Queries Con-
cerning Oil Imports Program (Nichols) ... 31

United Nations

President Kennedy Asked To Facilitate Negotia-
tions Between Congo Leaders (White, Depart-
ment statement) iq

Tanganyika Admitted to United Nations (Steven-
son) 37

U.S. Supports U.N. Aid to Congolese Efforts To Re-
solve Difficulties (Ball, Department statement) . 11

Viet-Nam. President Responds to Request From

Viet-NamforU.S. Aid (Diem, Kennedy) . ... 13

Name Index

Balaceanu, Petre 25

Ball, George W 3, 12

Diem, Ngo Dinh 13

Gudeman, Edward 6

Handley, William J 35

Hart, Parker Thompson 35

Janow, Seymour 35

Kennedy, President 13, 34, 37

Knight, Ridgway B 35

Nichols, C. W 31

Nunley, William T 22

Rusk, Secretary 18

Stevenson, Adlai E 37

Thurston, Raymond L 35

Tubby, Roger W 15

White, Lincoln 10

Williams, G. Mennen 26



D.S. GOVERHHENT PRINTIN6 OFFICEi t»62




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OFFICIAL BUSINESS



A Threat to the Peace

North Viet-Nam's Effort
To Conquer South Viet-Nam



Department

of

State



A detailed, two-part report of Viet Cong (Vietnamese Communist)
activities in South Viet-Nam and of the elaborate organization in
North Viet-Nam that supports these activities.

Part I, a 53-page booklet, describes the operations of the Com-
munist Hanoi government and the Lao Dong (Coimnunist) Party of
North Viet-Nam to provide support and encouragement to the illegal
movement to destroy the Republic of Viet-Nam.

Part II, the appendices, a 102-page booklet, contains reproductions
of various captured Communist documents, confessions of Viet Cong
personnel taken prisoner, excerpts from articles and speeches of North
Viet-Nam Communist Party and government officials, and other ma-
terials, which clearly demonstrate that the so-called "liberation" move-
ment in South Viet-Nam is directed and supported by North Viet-Nam.



Publication 730S



Part 1-25 cents
Part 11-55 cents



Order Form

ro: Supt. of Documents
Govt. Printing Office
Washington 25, D.C.

Enclosed find:



{cash, check, or money
order payable to
Supt. of Docs.)



Please send me copies of:

A Threat to the Peace: North Viet-Nam's Effort To Conquer South Viet-Nam

a Part I
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Name:

Street Address:

Citv 7.nnf>- anrf Statue:



THE. DEPARTMENT OF STATE




Vol. XLVI, No. 1176



January 8, 1962



CiAL

KLY RECORD



THE ELEMENTS IN OUR CONGO POLICY • Article

by Under Secretary Ball ,. 43

NATO MINISTERS EXAMINE PROBLEMS CON-
FRONTING THE ALLIANCE • Text of Communique . 51

THE EMERGING NATIONS OF ASIA • by Deputy Under

Secretary Johnson ..................... 53

AFRICA'S CHALLENGE TO AMERICAN ENTER-

PRISE • by Assistant Secretary Williams 60

GENERAL ASSEMBLY SETS UP COMMISSION TO
IIVIPLEMENT COLONIALISM DECLARATION •

Statement by Jonathan B. Bingham and Text of Resolution . 69



FED STATES
EIGN POLICY



For index see inside back cover



THE DEPARTIVIENT OF STATE




Vol. XLVI, No. 1176 • Publication 7325
January 8, 1962



Uoston Public Librarj
Superintendent ot Documents

JAN 26 1962



DEPOSITORY



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents

U.S. Government Printing Office

Washington 25, D.C.

Price;

62 Issues, domestic $8.60, torelgn $12.25
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Use or funds for printing of this publica-
tion approved by the Director of the Bureau
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Note: Contents of this publication are not
copyrighted and Items contained herein may
be reprinted. Citation of the Depahtmunt
o» State Bulletin as the somce will be
appreciated. The Bulletin Is Indexed In the
Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature.



The Department of State BULLETIN,
a tceekly publication issued by the
Office of Public Services, Bureau of
Public Affairs, provides the public
and interested agencies of the
Government with information on
developments in the field of foreign
relations and on the tcor/c of the
Department of State and the Foreign
Service. The BULLETIN includes se-
lected press releases on foreign policy,
issued by the White House and the
Department, and statements and ad-
dresses made by the President and by
tlie Secretary of State and other
officers of the Department, as well as
special articles on various phases of
internatiotuil affairs and tlie func-
tions of the Department. Informa-
tion is included concerning treaties
and international agreements to
which the United States is or may
become a party and treaties of gen-
eral international interest.

Publications of tlie Department,
United Nations documents, and legis-
lative material in the field of inter-
national relations are listed currently.



The Elements in Our Congo Policy



iy Under Secretary Ball



I want to discuss the Congo — why it is impor-
tant, what has been happening there since July
1960, and what your Government, under both the
Eisenhower and Kennedy administrations, has
sought to do about it, both directly and through
the United Nations. We should not permit the
outpouring of current news on the Congo to ob-
scure the difficult, long-term problems and the
actions necessary to bring stability to that tor-
mented new nation.



The Keystone of Central Africa

As the map quite clearly reveals, the former
Belgian colony called the Congo is the keystone
of central Africa. It has a long frontier with
each of three major areas into which we divide the
African contment south of the Sahara Desert:
west Africa, already independent and divided
into a number of states of varying sizes ; east Af-
rica, now rapidly evolving from British tutelage
into what we hope will be a stable and prosperous
independence ; and the southern part of the conti-
nent, beset with critical problems that are only
aow beginning to emerge in sharp relief on the
world scene.



• This article is based on an address made hy
Mr. Ball iefore the Town Hall at Los An-
geles, Calif., on December 19 {press release
893) . It has heen released in pamphlet form
as Department of State publication 7326 and
is for sale by the Sxhperintendent of Docu-
ments, U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington 25, D.C., price 15 cents.




Occupymg this central and strategic position is
the Congo, a country vast, exotic, and remote. It
is one-third the geo-
graphical size of the
United States. It has
a population of almost
14 million people.
Wliat happens to this
land and its people
will obviously play a
decisive role in what
happens to the areas
around it. Should the
Congo crumble into
chaos and become a
successful object of
Communist penetration, the Soviet bloc will have
acquired an asset without price — a base of opera-
tions in the heart of Africa from which to spread
its tentacles over this newest of continents. The
avoidance of this very real danger is the immediate
objective of our policy in the Congo.

Our Long-Term Objective

But what in the longer run do we seek to achieve
in the Congo? The same thing that we seek to
achieve in other areas of Africa : a stable society
under a stable and progressive government. That
government may be "non-aligned" in its interna-
tional policies. That is for it to decide. But it
should be strong enougli and determined enough
to safeguard its real independence. And it is
important that it maintain with us, and with the
European states that are contributing to its suc-
cessful development, the kind of friendly and con-
structive relations that will serve our mutual
purposes.

Equally important, we wish to avoid the crea-
tion in Africa of a new Korea or a new Laos. We



^anuatY 8, 7962



43



wish to insulate the African Continent from the
kind of military intervention by the Sino-Soviet
bloc that has created such problems in other parts
of the world.

The United States could, of course, not sit idly
by in the case of sucli a direct intervention. It
would be compelled to act even at the risk of a
direct confrontation between the free world and
the bloc — a confrontation that could lead to an-
other Korean war, that could, in fact, blow the
flames of a bi'ush-fire conflict into the horrible
firestorm of nuclear devastation.

Fortunately the United Nations has served so
far to make such a confrontation unnecessary.

Breakdown of Orderly Government

On that bright June day 18 months ago, when
the King of the Belgians and the President of the
Congo joined in declaring the Congo a sovereign
and independent state, there were hopes for the
success of this large and relatively prosperous
African country. But stability and well-being
were unfortunately more apparent than real. As
subsequent events have amply shown, the country
was not yet able to maintain its independence
without outside help. The structure of local in-
stitutions on which the success of a nation depends
was largely lacking. In the absence of solid
civilian institutions peace and stability were de-
pendent entirely vipon the continuing loyalty and
discipline of the 28,000-man army.

Five days after independence, the army muti-
nied. A total breakdown of law and order en-
sued. Faced with a tragic choice, the Belgian
Government sent in Belgian paratroopers to pro-
tect the lives and property of 80,000 to 100,000 of
its citizens who were then still living and working
in the Congo. Many Congolese recognized tlie
need for some outside force to prevent utter chaos
in the country, but Belgian force was symbolically
unacceptable. The presence of these paratroop-
ers seemed a throwback to an earlier colonial day.
Their presence caused resentment and pushed
even moderate Congolese leaders to take extremist
and anti-Western positions.

Within a matter of days the Congo began fall-
ing apart. Tribal groups all over the countiy —
including Mr. Moi'se Tshombe in the southern Ka-
tanga — undertook to proclaim their independence,
contributing further to the breakdown of orderly
government throughout the country. Congolese
leaders at the national, provincial, and tribal lev-



44



els invited various types of foreign involvement.
The Congo faced full-scale anarchy, civil war, and
the inevitable consequences of great-power inter-
vention. It was moving rapidly down a slippery
slope toward chaos — and dragging the great pow-



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