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Yet if we are to take these risks it is essential
that our policies be grounded on a firm foundation
of public understanding. That understanding is
not easy to achieve. The Congo is not only a re-
mote country but relatively little known to Amer-
ica, and the actors in the drama of the Congo have
unfamiliar names and speak unfamiliar lines.

Yet I am not concerned about the ultimate
judgment of America. Events in the Congo are
complex ; but the major issues of policy are never-
theless quite simple. And if those issues are fully
exposed to debate, I have no question whatever as
to the outcome. We Americans have come a long
way in the last few decades. We have learned to
face facts, tough facts, without flinching. .Ind
we have learned the stern lesson that comes with
leadership — that the rewards of hard decisions,
provided they are also right decisions, are not
necessarily reflected in the next day's headlines —
or even in the approbation of columnists — but
only in tlie slow, patient, and implacable judg-
ment of history.



Attorney General'and^Mrs. Kennedy
To Visit Japan in February

Press release 902 dated Decemher 22

Secretary Rusk announced on December 22 that
Attorney General Eobert F. Kennedy will visit
Japan this coming February. Mrs. Kennedy will
accompany him.

In visiting Japan the Attorney General is ac-
cepting a longstanding invitation from the Min-
ister of Justice and the Young People's Commit-
tee for Better International Understanding, Mr.
Rusk said.



50



Department of State Bulletin



The Attorney General will be the gaest of the
Japanese Government for the first 2 days of a 6-
day stay. Thereafter he will be the guest of the
Committee and will visit Tokyo and a number of
other cities. The Attorney General and Mrs. Ken-
nedy will be in Japan from February 4 to 10.



NATO IVIinisters Examine Problems
Confronting the Alliance

Secretary Eusk attended a Ministerial Meeting
of the North Atlantic Council at Paris Decembei
13-15. Following is the text of a coTumuniquc
issued at the conclusion of the meeting on De-
cember 15.

Press release 892 dated December 18

The North Atlantic Council met in Ministerial
session in Paris from the 13th to the 15th of De-
cember, 1961. A thorough examination was made
of the problems confronting the Alliance. The
world-wide Communist threat to freedom, the
problem of relations between the North Atlantic
Alliance and the Soviet bloc, in particular Berlin,
were its central concern.

The aim of the peoples of the Atlantic Com-
munity is a stable order in which no man and no
nation need fear for their existence, their liberty
or their future. World peace cannot indefinitely
rest on a precarious balance of mutual terror.

The Alliance seeks peace and disarmament, but
this desire has consistently been frustrated by the
Soviet bloc. The Western Powers have presented
a series of plans for general and complete disarma-
ment.^ The Soviet Government has, however, so
far refused to accept an effective and imivereally
applicable system of international control, without
which no nation could have confidence in a dis-
armament agreement. It envisages only verifica-
tion of the anns destroyed, while rejecting control
of the arms that remain. It is still the earnest
hope of the Alliance that despite previous disap-
pointments disarmament negotiations wlien re-
sumed will yield useful results.

On the question of the abolition of nuclear tests,
the Soviet Union has argued, evaded and ob-
structed for over three years, and through more



than three hundred meetings. The Soviet Union,
while professing to negotiate in good faith, must
for many months past have been secretly prepar-
ing the longest series of nuclear tests yet carried
out, culminating in the largest nuclear explosion
yet known. ^

At the same time as the Soviet Union has been
attempting to intimidate the peoples of the free
world with demonstrations of its nuclear strength,
it has intensified its efforts to get the whole of
Berlin at its mercy, to impose a discriminatory
status on Germany, to perpetuate her divided state,
and to break up the Atlantic Alliance. With
these ultimate aims in mind, the USSR has arti-
ficially provoked a crisis over Berlin. Disregard-
ing obligations it has imdertaken, the Soviet Union
has cut Berlin in two. The walling in of the peo-
ple imder its control has once more demonstrated
to the world the real nature of the Conununist
system and the irresistible attraction of a free so-
ciety. Ministere expressed their sympathy with
all those for whom the raising of this wall in Ber-
lin has meant the separation of families and the
denial of escape to freedom in the West. They
also expressed their admiration of the courage and
attachment to freedom of the people of Berlin, and
reiterated their conviction that a just and peace-
ful solution of the problem of Germany, includ-
ing Berlin, must be found on the basis of self-
determination.

In the spirit of the agreed policy of the Alliance,
the Ministers recalled their communique on Berlin
of 16th December, 1958,' and reaffirmed their de-
termination to protect and defend the liberties of
West Berlin, and ensiire to its people the condi-
tions for a free and prosperous life.

Established rights and obligations, solemnly
confirmed in international agreements, cannot be
extinguished unilaterally by the stroke of a pen,
by the signature by the Soviet Government of a
"peace treaty," with a regime whicli i-epresents
no one but its Soviet masters. The Three West-
em Powers who bear special responsibilities for
Berlin stand by their clear obligation to protect
those who have put their trust in them. Acting
in close cooperation witli their NATO allies, they
have taken the necessary measures to maintain
their i-ights and to fulfill their obligations. Con-
firming their agreement on this policy, the mem-



' For text of a U.S. proposal submitted to the United
Nations on Sept. 25, 1961, see Bulletin of Oct. 16, 1961,
p. 650.



' For background, see Hid., Nov. 20, 1961, p. 844.
' For text, see ibid., Jan. 5, 1959, p. 4.



January 8, 1962



51



bers of the Alliance reaffirmed the responsibilities
■which each member state has assumed in regard
to the security and welfare of Berlin and the
maintenance of the position of the Three Powere
in that city. They agreed to maintain close con-
sultation on this qiiestion.

The Council heard statements on Berlin by the
Foreign Ministers of the countries most directly
concerned, and was informed of the intention to
resume diplomatic contacts with the Soviet Union,
in accordance with the aims which the West is
pursuing for the maintenance of world peace and
in the hope that these contacts might serve to deter-
mine whetlier a basis for negotiation could be
fomid. Their colleagues approved the resumption
of diplomatic contacts and expressed the hope that
a negotiated settlement could be achieved. After
full discussion of the situation, the Council agreed
that the Alliance must continue on its resolute
course, combining strength and firmness of pur-
pose with a readiness to seek solutions by peaceful
means.

Ministers noted the improvements made by
member countries in their force contributions,
particularly in response to the aggravation of the
military threat arising from the deterioration in
the Berlin situation. Units have been reinforced
and their state of readiness enhanced. A mobile
Task Force has been established. There have been
advances in cooperative programs for defense re-
search and production, as well as in communica-
tions and infrastructure. Ministers also noted
the progress made by the Council in its study of
the long term problems of improving the deter-
rent and defensive strength of the Alliance.
They instructed the permanent Council to con-
tinue its examination of these urgent questions
at an early date.

The North Atlantic Treaty Alliance threatens
no one. In the world as it is today the Alliance
must more than ever look to its defense, in view
of the ever increasing military capability of the
Communist bloc and its manifest intention to ex-
pand its domination. So long as the Communist
bloc is unwilling to agree to real disarmament, the
coimtries of the Alliance must continue to
strengthen their forces and modernize equipment
so as to be able to deal with any form of attaclc.
Only by an increased defense capability can the
Alliance continue to deter Communist aggi-ession.
This will require still further dedication and ef-
fort from the NATO nations, but the clear and



growing threat they face leaves no alternative.

In considering civil emergency planning, par-
ticularly the protection of the civilian population,
the Council recognized that such measures repre-
sented an essential element in the defense effort
of NATO countries.

In the economic field the Council noted that a
mission of high ranking personalities had been
set up in conformity with a decision taken at the
last Ministerial Meeting to study ways and means
of assisting the efforts of Greece and Turkey to
speed up their development programs and improve
the living standards of their peoples. The mis-
sion will report to the Council before the end of
April, 1962.

Ministers emphasized the importance for mem-
ber states, not only of raising the living standards
of their peoples, while maintaining an economic
structure capable of supporting an adequate de-
fense system, but also of expanding aid to the de-
veloping countries. The economies of the NATO
countries are far stronger now than when the Al-
liance was formed. Ministers stressed the need
to strengthen and deepen co-operation between all
member countries in order to continue this prog-
ress.

The next Ministerial Meeting of the Council
will be held at Athens from the 3rd to the 5th of
May, 1962.



Deputy Assistant Secretary Tasca
Visits Africa

The Department of State announced on Decem-
ber 21 (press release 901) that Henry J. Tasca,
Deputy Assistant Secretary for African Affairs,
will visit U.S. missions in east and south Africa to
consult with ambassadors and principal officers on
mission operations, meet informally with ap-
propriate government officials, and obtain first-
hand impressions of political, economic, and aid
developments.

Mr. Tasca left Washington on December 21 and
will visit Cairo, Addis Ababa and Asmara
(Ethiopia), Mogadiscio (Somalia), Nairobi
(Kenya), Kampala (Uganda), Dar-es-Salaara
(Tanganyika), Salisbury (Southern Ehodcsia),
Blantyre (Nyasaland), Johannesburg and Cape-
town (South Africa), and Louren^o Marques
(Mozambique). He wiU return to Washington
at the end of January 1962.



52



Department of State Bulletin



The Emerging Nations of Asia

hy U. Alexis Johnson

Deputy Under Secretary for Political Affairs *



This decade of the 1960's will, in all probability,
see man land on the moon. It will see other won-
ders of science and technology that may be put to
good or evil as man wills. The sixties will likely
see the dream of a United States of Europe sub-
stantially complete its transformation into reality.
Profound developments will doubtlessly take
place in the Communist bloc. However, when
you meet here in December 1971, I think it en-
tirely likely that you may decide that the most
significant development of the 1960's will have
been the emergence of the nations of Asia with all
of their potential.

These emerging nations may well hold the key
to the world of tomorrow. Our ability to identify
ourselves with their aspirations, indeed our ability
to permit this revolution to unfold and not be
turned back by communism, is crucial to our own
future. Thus I feel that the theme you have
chosen for this conference is particularly apt.

The theme of the emerging nations and our re-
lationship to them is a dramatic one. The theme
encompasses not only the revolution of ideals and
technology by the peoples of these countries, but
it also encompasses a counterrevolution. Com-
munism, arming itself with modern technology, is
increasingly ranged against the revolution. It is
a counterrevolution in the purest sense of the
word. In discussing these emerging nations of
Asia with you this evening, and in particular the
nations and people of the Far East, I am not just
paying a courtesy to this audience, which has al-
ways had a special interest in the Far East. I am
doing this because of the present intrinsic impor-
tance of the area and because of the richness of the



' Address made before the Institute of World Affairs at
Pasadena, Calif., on Dec. 6 (press release 842 dated
Dec. 5).



resources to be found there — the human, cultural,
and material resources, which once released will
make a contribution to the future of our globe
second to none.

Throughout this area we find that in the few
years that have elapsed since the Second World
War ancient nations, which had fallen under alien
colonial control, have regained their political in-
dependence. In the vast continental sweep from
India and Pakistan through to Japan and Korea,
we find only vestigial and minor remnants of co-
lonialism. Certainly in the non-Conmaunist areas
of Asia, as in the rest of the free world, the prin-
ciple of self-determination has met with almost
total fulfillment. This political revolution, how-
ever, is merely the prelude, a necessary prelude,
to the principal revolution. This is the social,
political, and economic revolution. It is in a very
real sense the release of the aspirations and cre-
ative energies of hundreds of millions of people.

What is happening in the Far East, as in the
otlier emerging areas of the world, is the destruc-
tion of the old society, grown static, under the
impact of new ideas and the new technology of
the West. These peoples are seeking imperatively
and urgently to create a new society, in con-
sonance with the individuality of the old but
which will be responsive to the new aspirations
and concepts which have come in and which can
no longer be denied.

The attainment of independent nationhood im-
mediately following the disruption of the Second
World War has been sought — and fought for —
so long that independence seemed to provide the
answer to all problems. In fact, of course, it
solved few problems, created many new ones, and
sharpened the necessity for immediate solutions
to the horde of needs that pressed in on the new
nations. There is no need to catalog these prob-



ianuaty 8, 1962



53



lems ; they may be summarized in the word "pov-
erty." There was economic and financial poverty
of the starkest sort, poverty of trained pei-sonnel,
poverty of experience, poverty of administrative
ability, poverty of even basic literacy. The gap
between available resources and the aspirations of
nationhood was great. This gap has narrowed
appreciably in the case of a few nations, notably
Japan, the Republic of China, Thailand, and
Malaya, to cite a few examples. It has begun to
narrow in the case of such a comitry as India.
In a few cases, such as that of Laos, the gap has
tragically widened.

Communism's Objectives

This last category brings me to the role played
by communism in the struggle of the emerging
nations. The problems confronting these coun-
tries are gigantic. They are all-consuming even
without the menace of subversion and aggression
from across their frontiers. If you add to these
problems the necessity for maintaining a large
defensive military force to meet an external threat
and the calculated sabotage of subversion, the
difficulties exceed the human and material re-
sources available for progress.

Communism has as large a stake in the emerg-
ing nations as does the free world. The Com-
munist effort is to disrupt and to destroy and to
seek profit in the ruins. Progress in these coun-
tries directly lessens the chances of Communist
control. Disillusionment, chaos, and insecurity
directly increase the Commimist opportimity.
Every stress and strain in the process of adjust-
ment to changed conditions and modernity is ex-
ploited by the Communists. Every effort is made
to increase these stresses and strains. The objec-
tive is to make the pressures of adjustment too
great, to make the rate of progress too slow, to
make the basic economic and social problems ap-
pear insurmountable, so that, in the desperation
of their impatience, the people will turn to the
draconian methods of communism in their search
for a solution.

It is for these reasons that we find the Com-
munist world maintaining a state of tension and
unease in southeast Asia. Threats against one
country require it to direct a crippling proportion
of its national income into defense. Blandish-
ments are used against another where there ap-
pears to be an opportunity for increasing direct



54



Communist influence. Throughout the brief his-
tory of Laos a Communist-controlled military or-
ganization, supplied and directed from neighbor-
ing Communist territory, has denied that tragic
country the time and opportunity to even face the
issue of social and economic progress. Laos'
neighbor. South Viet-Nam, has been subjected to
every form of Communist pressure. Guerrilla
operations and direct Communist aggression have
imposed a crushing defense burden on the nation.
Kidnaping, assassination, torture and terrorism,
economic sabotage, disruption of communications,
are all part of the Communist catalog of weaponry
for what they cynically refer to as the "liberation"
process. Perhaps the most telling evidence of
Commimist motivations to be found in Viet-Nam
is the organized Conomimist campaign against
social and economic progi-ess." Viet Cong harass-
ment against efforts to eradicate malaria has re-
sulted in the murder of many members of the
spraying teams and the kidnaping of others. The
"Agroville" program of land and economic re-
form has been a particular military target.
Bridges and roads designed to permit the peasant
to market his produce have been sabotaged. No
effort has been spared by the Communists to pre-
vent the Government from improving the lot of
the people of Viet-Nam. Stability and progress
are the prime Communist targets.

The challenge to the emerging nations, then, is
a double one. The people of these nations are
faced with the tremendous difficulties inherent in
the creative revolution in which they are engaged.
At the same time they must meet the destructive
and disruptive activities of tlie Communists. This
threat is posed with varying degrees of intensity.
However, the common denominator is that com-
munism thrives on instability and finds scant foot-
hold where orderly progress is being achieved.

The challenge is a great one and one which will
require the greatest dedication and effort on the
part of the peoples of these new countries. It will
also require the wholehearted support, encourage-
ment, and assistance of the United States and the
other nations of the world who support the emer-
gence of truly independent nations. Despite some
setbacks, as in Laos, and the savagery of the Com-
munist attack in Viet-Nam, progress in meeting
the challenge has been encouraging. The stakes



• For background, see Bulletin of Jan. 1, 1962, p. 13.
Department of State Butletin



are large. The future of east Asia, the role it will
play in the world, is a great one.

The. area I am discussing has today well over
11^ billion people, more than half of the popula-
tion of the globe. The people of this vast area
have already made tremendous contributions to
the world of today. I thmk it is important for
us to remind ourselves that not until the industrial
revolution did the West pull ahead of the East.
Viewed historically the balance of trade in ideas
and social and political organization has not long
or heavily been weighted in favor of the West.
There is certainly no reason to believe that the
technological advantage that the West gained dur-
ing the industrial revolution of the last century
and a half is necessarily a permanent one. With-
in the last 10 years vast changes have occurred in
Asia. Within the next 10 years we can confidently
expect an even greater transformation.

Japan

Two underdeveloped areas of Asia, by virtue of
their size and population and by virtue of the key
roles which they play, merit particular attention
in tins discussion. These are India and Com-
munist China. But first I would like to cite the
example of Japan.

Japan, until the end of the 19th century, was
as underdeveloped as any countiy in Asia today.
Japan today suggests what other nations of Asia,
with leadership, hard work, and the support of
friendly countries, can achieve in a brief span of
years. And Japan's immediate hopes and pros-
pects provide an inkling to the accelerating pace
of development which is possible once the initial
economic and social base is achieved.

Today Japan has the highest standard of liv-
ing and the largest reserve of skilled manpower
in all Asia, and one of the highest rates of literacy
in the world. Japanese industry, while satisfying
a soaring domestic demand for increasingly
sophisticated products, is also known and respected
throughout the world. Its products are competi-
tive in price and quality with the products of
Western Europe and the United States. Japan
is now the fourth largest industrial complex in
the world. Japanese science, technology, art, and
literature are recognized and are having an in-
creasing impact throughout the world. Parallel-
ing the growth of industry and following on the
enlightened land-reform program of the postwar
years, the Japanese farmer, only recently a land-



less peasant, is increasingly a prosperous business-
man who through hard work and advanced tech-
niques has made the 93 million Japanese virtually
self-sufficient in rice.

The gross national product of Japan in 1950
was $10.96 billion ; today it is $40.4 billion. Dur-
ing the period between the end of the Second
World War and today Japan has achieved the
highest economic growth rate in the world. This
has been achieved by the Japanese people through
a high rate of investment, which in recent years
has been averaging 25 percent of the gross national
product annually. Despite this stress on devel-
opment funds for capital outlay, total personal
consumption expenditures in 1958 on a per capita
basis were about one-third above the 1934-36 level,
despite an almost 50 percent increase in popula-
tion.

The present enviable situation of Japan,
achieved despite the wartime destruction of the
economy, is however only a harbinger of the de-
velopment to come. Within the context of the free
enterprise system that has fostered Japan's pres-
ent high degree of development and prosperity,
the Japanese Government is engaged in a plan
to double the national income of Japan within
the next 10 years. This plan envisages an annual
economic growth rate of 7.2 percent, actually con-
siderably lower than the growth rate experienced
in the last few years. Upon the successful carry-
ing out of the plan, Japan will have a per capita
national income of about $579, the equivalent of
present-day Austria's.

Japan should not necessarily be cited as a model
for the emerging nations of Asia. Each country
is an individual entity and has its own special cir-
ciunstances. Each country is at a different stage of
economic development. Each coimtry must work
out its own destiny. It is important to remark,
however, that what is most typical of Japan, what
separates it most distinctly from its fellow Asian
nations, is the poverty of its material resources.
Japan has few minerals. It must import 15 per-
cent of its food. Less than 16 percent of its total
area is arable. Progress in Japan, therefore, has
not been achieved by the tapping of unexploited
natural resources, as that term is normally used.
Kather, its progress has been achieved by well
utilizing that most important of all resources —
the human resource.

In Japan we see what an Asian people can ac-
complish when they assimilate modem political



January 8, 1962



55



concepts and technology, together with a free en-
terprise system, enriching their own ancient cul-
ture. In Japan's present important world role
and in the cordiality of its partnership with the
free world we see the important position of pres-
tige, power, and leadership which an Asian nation
can achieve when it has won the first crucial
battles of the revolution in which we are all en-
gaged.

India

India is in another stage, an earlier stage, of



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 46, Jan- Mar 1962) → online text (page 17 of 101)