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Department of State bulletin (Volume v. 46, Jan- Mar 1962) online

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demonstrate so that all the world will want to fol-
low our example — I believe that freedom and
prosperity can move hand in hand, and I am proud
today to stand on this platform with your dis-
tinguished President, who has been working in
this field for so many years and who now is show-
ing the people of this coimtry and hemisphere
what real progress for the people can mean.

I express our thanks to you, and I can tell you
that the people of my country — in good times and
bad — are committed to the progress of your people
and this hemisphere.

Thank you very much.

JOINT COMMUNIQUE, CARACAS, DECEMBER 17

White House press release (Caracas, Venezuela) dated Decem-
ber 17

During their meeting in Caracas on December
16, 1961, the Presidents of the United States of
America and of the Republic of Venezuela, John
F. Kennedy and Eomulo Betancourt, agreed to
make the following declaration :

1. They reaffirm the irrevocable friendship of
the two peoples and governments.

2. They confirm their adherence to the prin-
ciples and standards of the United Nations and
Vi\% Organization of American States which are
dedicated to respect for human rights — to the ef-
fective practice of representative Democracy, with
equal opportunity for all — to free self-determina-
tion by the people and to non-intervention.

3. They have confidence that freedom will pre-
vail in all American countries and that the prob-
lems troubling America and the world will be
solved peacefully.

4. The two Presidents expressed their deter-
mination to achieve the objectives of the Aliama
para el Progreso in accord with the principles of
the Act of Bogota ^ and Punta del Estc charter,'
and they discussed mutual Venezuelan and United
States actions which are necessary for this pur-
pose. Venezuela's achievement in formulating
and implementing a realistic long-range plan for
economic and social development, especially in the
fields of industrial and agricultural development,



' For text, see iUd., Oct. 3, 19C0, p. 537.
' For text, see ihld., Sept. 11, 1061, p. 463.



90



Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bo//efin



land refonn, educat ion, housing and water supply,
were reviewed in connection with the need to mo-
bilize additional domestic and external resources.
Substantial new loans, in addition to those already
provided, are under consideration by the Inter-
American Development Bank.

5. Both Presidents agreed that a special effort
is necessary in 1962 to assure large-scale develop-
ment of industry and commerce, both to reinforce
the present pattern of recovery from Venezuela's
1960-1961 recession and to achieve sustained levels
of economic growth with rapid improvements
in living standards of underprivileged groups not
yet reached by the development process.

6. Both Presidents expressed their conviction
that far-reaching efforts in the social field in ac-
cordance with the spirit of the Alliance for Prog-
ress should go hand in hand with economic devel-
opment programs. The prices of basic conunodi-
ties and commercial practices of importing coim-
tries must give effective recognition to Latin Amer-
ica's dependence on exports. Such recognition is
a vital factor in carrying out the spirit and letter
of the charter of Punta del Este.

7. The Presidents discussed the great impor-
tance to the Venezuelan people of the large Guri
Hydro-electric Dam as the base for intensive de-
velopment of the Guayana Eegion. Special con-
sideration was given to Venezuelan programs for
slum clearance, low-cost housing and municipal
and community development. The Presidents be-
lieve also that this stimulating approach should
have wide applicability in accelerating local devel-
opment, in solving the most important local prob-
lems and, equally important, in taking advantage
of local economic opportunities through com-
mimity initiative.

8. During the next few months Venezuelan and
United States officials will discuss in detail de-
velopment loans and technical assistance to be
provided by the United States Agency for Inter-
lational Development and other measures to sup-
port the Venezuelan Development Program and
strengthen United States- Venezuelan economic re-
ations. President Kennedy pledged all possible
United States support and assistance to enable
Venezuela to implement its development program
)n schedule, complementing Venezuelan efforts to
his end.

9. President Kennedy and President Betancourt
oined in expressing their hope that this state-



ment made today in the birth place of Simon
Bolivar will be received by the peoples of this
continent as a message of faith and optimism.

REMARKS AT TECHO, COLOMBIA, DECEMBER 17

White House press release (Bogotii, Colombia) dated Decem-
ber 17

Mr. President, I have come here today to reply
to a speech which your distinguished President
gave more than a year ago in Washington : "I do
hope," said Lleras Camargo, "that as we come to
imderstand our reciprocal problems better, by vir-
tue of our same faith in our democratic system
and in the creative power of liberty ... we shall
go on shaping in this part of the world a better
dwelling place for men."

We have come to this open field today to join
in making this a better dwelling place for men.
And it is, I know, a source of pride to my people,
as I am sure it is to yours, to see this great effort
to provide better housing for our people in this
hemisphere.

We all of us believe in freedom. Tlie great
fight over the past decade in this hemisphere has
been the fight against tyranny and dictatorship in
countries which have been part of our sister
republics.

The great fight in the next 10 years, now that
we have seen a whole system of new, progressive
democracies established — the great fight in the
next 10 years will be to make it possible for peo-
ple to live under a system of freedom. Those of
us who love freedom realize that a man is not
really free if he doesn't have a roof over his head,
or if he cannot educate his children, or if he can-
not find work, or if he cannot find security in his
old age.

It is our responsibility, in this decade of the
sixties, to provide the kind of life for our people
that will permit freedom not only to survive but
prevail — here and around the world, in every part
of our hemisphere, in every part of the globe.

The Alianza para el Progreso is a phrase, but I
think its real significance is here in this field.
This is a battlefield, and I am glad that the Co-
lombian Government under the leadership of your
President and all of the people of this country —
joining their efforts with the Inter-American
Bank and the United States AID program — are
going to see filling this field in the next months



^anuatY 15, 1962



91



and years to come home after home for people
who desperately need it, schools for people who
need to be educated, and a steady rise in the stand-
ard of living for all of our people.

I therefore want to express my appreciation
to all of you for your generosity in permitting
us to be here today in Techo and in this and other
communities such as this across this country and
across this hemisphere. And we are going to con-
tinue our efforts until in every part of our hemi-
sphere the whole concept of progress and freedom
is general.

We wish you well, and we are joined with you
in this effort in the future, as we have on so many
occasions in the past. We wish you well, and
we want you to know that in my country we are
committed to this effort, and we shall not desist
from it until it has been completed.

Thank you.



ADDRESS AT BOGOTA, DECEMBER 17 <

White House press release dated December 17 ; as-delivered text

Mr. President, I want to express our great ap-
preciation to the President for his generous words
tonight, and also to the people of this city and to
this country for their heart-warming welcome to
Mrs. Kennedy and myself. I must say that,
though we are far from home, you made us feel
at home; so we want to express our thanks to
you and all of the citizens of your city and
country.

In 1934 one of the greatest of my predecessors,
President Franklin Roosevelt, was the first Presi-
dent of the United States to visit this country.
He came in pursuit of a new policy — the policy of
the "good neighbor." This policy, based on the
ideas of Bolivar and San Martin and Santander,
recognized the common interests of the American
states, denied that any nation in this hemisphere
had the right to impose its will on any other na-
tion, and called for a great cooperative effort to
strengthen the spirit of human liberty here in the
Americas.

I am here today — the second American Presi-
dent to visit Colombia — in that same spirit. For
our generation also has a new policy — la Aliama
para el Progreso. Today again, that policy calls
for a joint effort to protect and extend the values



of our civilization, gouig beyond the good-neigh-
bor policy to a great unified attack on the prob-
lems of our age. Today again, we deny the right
of any state to impose its will upon any other.
And today again, these new policies are based
upon the vision and the imagination of the great
statesmen of Latin America.

In 1960 your distinguished President, Dr.
Lleras Camargo, addressed the United States
Congress,^ of which I was a Member. He spoke
of the need for iho. American states to work to-
gether to conquer the evils of poverty and injus-
tice. He called for participation by the United
States. And, later in the same vnsit, he said that
"it is necessary to make a supreme effort in each
country, with the cooperation of all the others, to
prevent Western civilization from being threat-
ened within the very stronghold that has defended
it."

Those warnings of your President have been
heard. The cooperative effort of our great free
nations has begun. Help has already begxm.
And the stronghold of our civilization — the in-
dividual dignity of the indi^adual, free men — has
begun to strengthen the bulwarks of freedom.

No American has contributed more to this jjrog-
ress than your President, who is universally
admired as one of the great statesmen of this
hemisphere. As a principal architect of the Rio
Treaty and as Director General of the Organiza-
tion of American States, he has striven to perfect
the inter-American system which was the dream
of the man who once lived in this house — Simon
Bolivar. And, recently, his bold initiative has
strengthened the OAS against those extraconti-
nental forces which seek to impose a new tyranny
upon the Americas. As your President, he has
restored democratic government, strengthened
your economy, and worked, within the free institu-
tions, to improve the welfare of all Colombians.
His concept of progressive, democratic govern-
ment is at the heart of la Alianaa para el Progreso.
Aiid I leave this comitry tonight strengthened in
purpose and undei'standing by his wise counsels.

But I Imow that Dr. Lleras Camargo would be
the first to agree that even these impressive ac-
complishments of the past are inadequate in the
face of the immense and urgent problems which
now confront us.



' Broadcast and televised from the San Carlos Palace
following a state dinner.



92



' For text, see Bulletin of May 2, 19C0, p. 701.

Department of State Bulletin



Bolivar, in a letter written when he was in exile
and the cause of liberty seemed dim, wrote : "The
veil has been torn asunder. We have already seen
the light and it is not our desire to be tlii-ust back
into the darkness." In our time the veil again
has been toni asunder. The millions of our people
who have lived in hopeless poverty, patiently suf-
fering hunger, social injustice, and ignorance, have
now glimpsed the hope of a better and more
abundant life for themselves and their children.
And they do not intend to be thrust back into
darkness.

LaAlianza para el Progreso is designed to trans-
form this hope into a reality. It calls for a vast
and immediate effort on the part of all the
Americas to satisfy the basic needs of our people
for work and land and homes and schools. It ex-
pects within the next 10 years — the Decade of De-
velopment — to be well on the way toward satisfy-
ing these basic needs.

Much has already been done since la Alianza
fara el Progreso was announced on March 13.
And today at Techo I saw some of the results of
this effort. There President Lleras and I, in the
presence of the families of hundreds of workers,
dedicated a housing project in wliich more than
80,000 people will, for the first time, know what
it will be like to live in a home in which they would
want to raise their children. We also dedicated
one of 18 schools — in which 30,000 children — the
most valuable asset of this hemisphere — will be
given their opportimity to study and to learn and
to build their lives.

And along with the social progress symbolized
by the Techo project will also come an intensive
effort to develop and industrialize the economies
of Latin America, reducing dependence on raw
materials and steadily narrowing the relative gap
between the wealthy industrialized coimtries and
the Republics of Latin America.

Thus la Alianza para el Progreso is a program
which is revolutionary in its dimensions. It calls
for staggering efforts by us all and imprecedented
changes by us all. It raises far-reaching aspira-
tions and demands difficult sacrifices. And al-
though we have already done much in a short time,
we must do much more and act much more swiftly
in the months to come. For on the success of the
Alliance — on our success in this hemisphere — de-
pends the future of that human dignity and na-
tional independence for which our forebears in
every country of the hemisphere struggled.



After the American wars of independence, the
President of Colombia, Santander, said: "Arms
have given us independence; laws will give us free-
dom." These prophetic words, I think, indicate
the history of our hemisphere. For our real prog-
ress has not come about through violence or tyr-
anny but under the guidance of democratic lead-
ers who realized the great capacity of free society
for peaceful change, men such as Franklin Roose-
velt in my own country and your distinguished
President in your country.

It is this knowledge and experience which is the
great contribution of our nations to the other na-
tions of the world. There are those who tell us
that the only road to economic progress is by vio-
lent Communist revolution, followed by the com-
plete subjection of man to the will of the state.

They come with banners proclaiming that they
have new doctrines, that history is on their side.
But, in reality, they bring a doctrine which is as
old as the Pharaohs of Egypt and, like the Phar-
aohs of Egypt, doomed by history.

They promise free elections and free speech and
freedom of religion. But once power is achieved,
elections are eliminated, speech is stifled, and the
worship of God is prohibited.

They pledge economic progress and increased
hiunan welfare. But they have been unable to
fulfill these pledges, and their failure is etched in
the dramatic contrast between a free and power-
ful and prosperous Western Europe and the grim,
drab poverty of Conmiunist Eastern Europe, or
the hunger of China, or the wall which separates
West Berlin from East Berlin. The fact is that
the wall and the rifle squads of the last 12 months
have shown us again — if we needed to be shown —
that when such doctrines have had to face the
united will of free men, they have been defeated.

We are a young and strong people. Our doc-
trines — the doctrines lit by the leaders of your
country and mine — now burn brightly in Africa
and Asia and wherever men struggle to be free.
And here in our own hemisphere we have success-
fully resisted efforts to impose the despotisms of
the Old World on the nations of the New.

Today we face the greatest challenge to the vi-
tality of our American revolution. Millions of
our people, scattered across a vast and rich conti-
nent, endure lives of misery. We must prove to
them that free institutions can best answer their
implacable demand for social justice, for food, for



Jatmary 15, 7962



93



material welfare, and above all, for a new hope —
for themselves and for their children. And in so
proving the blessings of freedom in Latin Amer-
ica, we will be teacliing the same lesson to a
watchful and impatient world.

We in the United States have made many mis-
takes in our relations with Latin America. We
have not always understood the magnitude of
your problems or accepted our share of respon-
sibility for the welfare of the hemisphere. But
we are committed in the United States — our will
and our energy — to an untiring pursuit of that
welfare, and I have come to this country to re-
affirm that dedication.

The leaders of Latin America, the industrialists
and the landowners, are, I am sure, also ready to
admit past mistakes and accept new responsi-
bilities. For unless aU of us are willing to con-
tribute our resources to national development,
unless all of us are prepared not merely to accept,
but initiate, basic land and tax reforms, unless all
of us take the lead in improving the welfare of
our people — then that leadership will be taken
from us and the heritage of centuries of Western
civilization will be consumed in a few months of
violence.

This is the message I bring to those of us who
are here tonight, and I am grateful that I have
had an opportunity to be with you.

But I also want to talk to those beyond this
dinner table, and beyond this room and this old
house. And that message is for the millions of
people in a thousand cities and villages through-
out the mountains and lands of our hemisphere.
To all of them — to the workers, to the campesinos
on the farms, to the women who toil each day for
the welfare of their children — to all we bring a
message of hope. Every day, every hour, in my
country and in this country and in all the coun-
tries of this hemisphere, dedicated men and women
are struggling to bring nearer the day when all
have more to eat, and a decent roof over their
heads, and schools for their children, when all
will have a better and more abundant life to ac-
company that human dignity to which all men
are entitled and that love of freedom to which all
of us are committed by our inheritance and our
desire.

And tonight, here in this old city, I pledge to
you the commitment of the United States of
America to that great cause.

Thank you.



President Holds Talks in Bermuda
With Prime Minister Macmillan

Follovnng is the text of a joint communique
issued on Decemher 22 hy President Kennedy and
Prime Minister Harold Macymillan of the United
Kingdom at the close of a 2-day meeting at
Ham,ilton, Bermuda.

White House press release dated December 22

The President and the Prime Minister have had
two days of valuable discussions surveying the
world situation. Their discussions centered
mainly on the question of Berlin, on nuclear prob-
lems and on the situation in the Congo. Tlieir
talks vrill form the basis of continued United
States-United Kingdom cooperation during the
coming months on a great variety of questions.

The President and the Prime Minister ex-
amined the situation concerning Berlin in the light
of the decisions taken at the meetings of the For-
eign Ministers of the Four Powers and of the
NATO Council in Paris.^ In particular they dis-
cussed the steps to be taken in regard to the re-
newal of diplomatic contacts with the Soviet
Union. The President has agreed as a conse-
quence of the Paris meeting that the initial con-
tact would be made by the U.S. Ambassador in
Moscow and the Prime Minister has indicated
that the British Ambassador would be available
to play whatever part might be found helpful.
The President and the Prime Minister agreed tliat
the purpose should be to ascertain whether a rea-
sonable basis for negotiation can be found. Tlie
other governments directly concerned will of
course be fully consulted througliout. Consul-
tations with the other governments concerned are
continuing.

The President and the Prime Minister consid-
ered the problems of the nuclear arms race. Tliey
took note of the new situation created by the mas-
sive series of atmospheric tests conducted in recent
months by the Soviet Government after long
secret preparations.'^ Tliey agreed that it is now
necessary, as a matter of prudent planning for the
future, that pending the final decision prepara-
tions should be made for atmospheric testing to
maintain the effectiveness of the deterrent.



^ For text of a NATO communique, see Buujetin of
Jan. 8, 1962, p. 51.

' For background, spc ihitl.. Nov. 20, 1061, p. 844.



94



Department of State Bulletin



Meanwhile, they continue to believe that no
task is more urgent than the search for paths to-
ward effective disarmament, and they pledge
themselves to intensive and continued efforts in
this direction.

Serious progress toward disarmament is the
only way of breaking out of the dangerous con-
test so sharply renewed by the Soviet Union. The
President and the Prime Minister believe that
the plans for disarmament put forward by the
United States in the current session of the United
Nations General Assembly ^ offer a basis for such
progress, along with the treaty for ending nuclear
tests'* which the two nations have so carefully
prepared and so earnestly urged upon the Soviet
Government.

The President and the Prime Minister reviewed
recent developments in the Congo. They noted
with satisfaction that, as an encouraging step to-
ward understanding, a useful meeting had been
held at Kitona between Mr. [Cyrille] Adoula and
Mr. [!Moise] Tshombe." They expressed their
strong hope that further progress would be made
through the efforts of both parties. It seemed to
them of first importance that the present discus-
sions should be actively continued in appropriate
ways. They agreed on the importance of avoid-
ing any renewal of armed action while genuine
efforts at consultation are going forward.

In a general discussion of the economic situa-
tion the President and the Prime Minister took
note of progress in the negotiations between the
United Kingdom and the European Economic
Community and expressed the hope that these
would be brought to a successful conclusion.



U.S. Refutes False Katangan Charges
of Interference in Negotiations



DepartTnent Statement



Press release 921 dated December 29



Katangan Provincial President [Moise]
Tshombe has addressed a telegram ^ to tliis Gov-
ernment in which he repeats a charge made in
Brussels today by Evariste Kimba, one of his min-



istei-s, that U.S. Ambassador [Edmund A.] Gul-
lion interefered in the talks at Kitona in which
Mr. Tshombe agreed to end Katangan secession
from the Congo. Air. Tshombe also accuses Am-
bassador Gullion of urgmg the United Nations to
resume military action against Katanga and
makes several other allegations. All these charges
are untrue.

Ambassador Gullion was involved in the Kitona
talks specifically because Mr. Tshombe appealed
to President Kennedy to help halt the fighting in
Katanga and arrange a meeting between Mr.
Tshombe and Prime Minister [Cyrille] iVdoula.
In response to this appeal. President Kennedy
designated Ambassador Gullion as his special rep-
resentative to facilitate arrangements for a meet-
ing.^ Because Mr. Tshombe asked for an Ameri-
can guarantee of his personal security, in addition
to the guarantee given by the U.N., the Ambassa-
dor escorted Mr. Tshombe to and from Kitona and
remained there during the talks.

At no time did Ambassador Gullion interfere
in the negotiations. He was consulted by both
parties and encouraged them to reach an accord.
The agreement was freely reached after substan-
tial compromises by both conferees and was per-
sonally signed by Mr. Tshombe.

The charge that Ambassador Gullion has urged
further U.N. military action against Katanga is
absurd. On the contrary, the Ambassador and
the Department have sought to promote an at-
mosphere of conciliation.

"VVe earnestly desire to see peace in the Congo ;
thus we welcomed the Kitona agreement.^ We
hope that the false charges against Ambassador
Gullion are not part of a propaganda campaign
designed to justify denimciation of the Kitona
agreement.

Mr. Tshombe has a great opportunity to con-
tribute to the future peace and stability of
Katanga and the Congo. We earnestly hope he



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 46, Jan- Mar 1962) → online text (page 24 of 101)