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1947. In Hong Kong another million refugees
have manifested little or no mobility since 1950.

Thanks to the almost global generous response
to the appeals made during the World Refugee
Year, the United Nations High Commissioner for
Refugees is optimistic in his belief that, with
funds available and within plans already under
way, all of the official camps in Europe will be
closed and the difficult-to-resettle camp popula-
tions either resettled or locally integrated by the
end of this coming year. This is truly a modern
miracle and stands out as a reassuring beacon of
generous love of mankind in our present-day
atmosphere otherwise so clouded with jealous
nationalism and political invective and intrigue.

But there is danger in being too smug over the
splendid results of World Refugee Year. There
is even greater danger in making an assessment
of the phenomenal economic recovery of most
European countries to conclude that the govern-
ments of first asylum can and should assume the
full costs of the residual refugee problem.s in those
countries as well as care for the constant stream
of new escapees to whom they continue to grant
political asylum. The barriers of language and
the centuries-old suspicions, prejudices, and even
hatreds between peoples have not been erased by
the bonds of United Nations membership, NATO,
the Common Market, and other worthy alliances.
In consequence the refugee is at best a poor com-
petitor with the people of his host country. He
is the last to be hired and the first to be fired.

Even to obtain benefits offered him by govern-
ments whose generosity varies country by country
is a most difficult task for one whose lack of knowl-
edge of the language is exceeded only by his ig-
norance of the laws and customs of the country
to which he has fled. To overcome these obstacles
and to achieve the most rapid and satisfactory
resettlement or permanent integration of the
refugee, international funding on a somewhat de-
creased scale is still required to provide adequate
counseling and to stimulate the maximum usage
of all available resources to meet the residual and
ongoing problems for the estimated 40,000 un-
settled anti-Communist refugees still remaining
in Europe.



January IS, 7962



101



I have mentioned the shift of focus from
Europe to Africa. Let me give you a quick
summary of the refugee problems which have de-
veloped over the past few months.

Current Refugee Problems in Africa

The historic tide of nationalism in Africa and
the burgeoning independence of a number of
African states have left in their wake unrest,
disorder, and political conflict which have pro-
duced a growing number of new refugee problems.
Within the former Belgian Congo some 250,000
Baluba refugees in the Kasai Province and an-
other 40,000 in Katanga have been displaced from
their homes as a result of bitter tribal antagonism
and are being precariously maintained by the
United Nations with the aid of food donations.
There are also 140,000 refugees from Angola who
fled into the Congo during 1961 as a result of
mounting tension and strife within Angola.
These refugees have found hospitable asylum
from the Congo authorities and populace and re-
ceive necessary relief assistance from the U.N.
Operations Command in the Congo (supported
by U.S. financial contributions and major amounts
of U.S. agricultural commodities), voluntary
agencies, and the League of Red Cross Societies
under the overall coordination of the U.N. High
Commissioner for Refugees. A further 8,000 An-
golan refugees from the Portuguese-administered
Cabinda enclave have fled into the former French
Congo, where they are being well taken care of
by the Government and natives of that newly
independent country.

Some 6,000 residents of former British Togo-
land, which in 1957 was incorporated within the
newly created state of Ghana, have fled into neigh-
boring Togo, which acquired its independence a
little more than a year ago. In Togo these
refugees have been sheltered and assisted by their
Ewe tribal kinsmen, whose resources are now
nearly exhausted. As in the case of the Angolan
refugees the U.N. High Commissioner for
Refugees will exercise his good offices in promot-
ing and coordinating international assistance for
the relief and resolution of this problem.

Within the country of Ruanda, presently ad-
ministered by Belgium as a U.N. ti-usteeship,
ancient antagonisms between native ethnic groups
have flared into open violence and pillage as that



country moves toward early independence. A
considerable proportion of the fonnerly dominant
minority Tutsi ethnic group of some 375,000 in
Ruanda — or 125,000 persons — have already be-
come refugees; 40,000 were displaced and homeless
within Ruanda (although of that number approxi-
mately 30,000 have been resettled as a result of the
joint efforts of the Belgian administration and the
local authorities), 20,000 have fled to Unmdi and
reportedly 40,000 to the Kivu Province of the Con-
go, while 20,000 have entered Uganda and several
thousand more have fled to Tanganyika, which
receives its complete independence this week.
The concerned authorities in the several asylum
states are doing their utmost to meet the needs of
the refugees in the face of many other serious
problems, and the U.N. High Commissioner for
Refugees is presently conducting a factfinding
study of the still-developing refugee problems in
Uganda and Tanganyika at the request of the
authorities in those countries.

It was my good fortune last August to be as-
signed the task of investigating the refugee situa-
tion in both Congos. I was particularly gratified
to see firsthand the fine work being done by the
United Nations Operation in the Congo (UNOC)
and the League of Red Cross Societies. Fine as
was the performance of these agencies, I was even
more impressed with the operations of the three
major relief agencies carrying on a completely
coordinated program. Caritas, the Congo Protes-
tant Relief Agency, and the Congolese Red Cross
have each assumed responsibility for a geographic
segment of the Angolan border containing ap-
proximately equal portions of the roughly 140,000
Angolan refugees. Surely every American can
take pride in the extent of American aid going into
this program and in the excellent job being done.
He can truly be gratified for the manner in which
the missionaries of his denomination and other
denominations are serving in this remarkable effort
and laboring under the most arduous conditions
imaginable.

To the problems of refugees in Africa which I
have just mentioned must be added the continuing
tragic plight of tlie almost 300,000 Algerians in
Tunisia and Morocco. Here again the League of
Red Cross Societies and the U.N. High Commis-
sioner for Refugees are conducting an exception-
ally important humanitarian program in a tense
and uncertain political situation. Tlie United



102



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin



States continues to make major contributions to
these programs both in cash and in surplus foods.

Private citizens, vohnitary agencies, and your
Government continue to have great interest in the
more than a million refugees from Red China in
Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwim. Of even more
dramatic appeal is the problem involving the
35,000 Tibetan refugees in India and 20,000 in
Nepal. Here again the problems faced by the host
governments in their relationships with the gov-
ernment of Red Cliina, coupled with limited eco-
nomic resources available to the indigenous popu-
lation, have affected the extension of adequate
assistance to these escapees from Red Chinese
aggression.

With this rapid review of various refugee prob-
lems, even though it has not included all and has
only alluded to the pressing problems we face in
caring for the 70,000 or more Cubans presently
in this counti-y, it is readily apparent that many
new people are on the move.

Basis for U.S. Concern for Refugees

Perhaps you wonder why these new refugees
are of concern to the United States. You may
even be thinking that we as a nation have done
enough. "Wliy, then, should we continue to help
solve the problems of the extant refugee groups for
whom we have done so much? Why do we need
to concern ourselves with the new problems aris-
ing in Africa?

The basis of our concern for the refugees in
Africa is a graphic reason which when outlined
explains much of our interest in refugees
generally.

As the inevitable march of independence moves
forward in Africa to bring full self-rule to states
which are now dependent, sheer realism compels
us to conclude that the attendant political meta-
morphoses will surely produce still further refu-
gee problems. The United States must continue
to exert its influence and use its resources to help
meet and solve these problems. To do so is indis-
pensable to the attainment of our basic objectives
in Africa: to demonstrate the friendship and
helpfulness of the United States toward these
newly emerging African nations, and to produce
political and economic stability and well-being in
Africa as the essential groundwork for the orderly
transition of these coimtries from dependent states
to independence and true democracy. To resolve



these arising refugee problems is to reduce sig-
nificantly the content of want, confusion, and
despair affecting millions of people. These are
the birth pangs of independence — conditions
which, we know only too well, if allowed to persist
will surely foster the inception and growth of
totalitarianism. Thus our assistance to refugees
in these localized refugee problems — in Africa as
in the Near East and elsewhere — is a blow struck
in the cause of freedom.

But there is one refugee problem which is world-
wide in scope. I refer to the problem of refugees
fleeing from communism and its attendant per-
secution of the individual. Wlierever Communist
regimes exist — in Europe, Asia, the Far East, and
even in the Western Hemisphere — the pattern is
basically the same : the agonized flight of oppressed
peoples seeking, no matter what the price, to reach
a land of freedom and, just as inevitably, the es-
tablishment by the Communists of cruel and fiend-
ish border and internal security controls, designed
to preclude escape at any cost.

Our fundamental concern for the individual, our
traditional and deep-seated sympathy for the po-
litically oppressed, make the well-being of those
fortunate persons who do escape a matter of vital
national interest. Beyond that, our assistance
demonstrates in concrete form to the enslaved
millions in Communist-dominated lands the in-
herent humanity of free society. It gives assur-
ance of the continuity of our friendship for those
who are denied freedom. The anti-Commimist
refugee places his full reliance in the basic human-
itarianism which is the very life and blood of free,
democratic society. He is a symbol of the repudia-
tion of a regime which, ostensibly interested in
promoting the well-being of masses of individual
human beings, instead makes captives of them all
and with utter cynicism and brutality stamps out
those who seek to exercise the impulses of freedom
innate in all human beings. The tragic closure of
the East Zone border in Berlin by the Communists
on August 1'3 — fresh in the minds of you all — is a
classic illustration of the gulf between the human-
ity of the free world and the inhumanity of com-
munism. In this context the significance of ref-
ugee problems in the framing of our foreign
policy may be clearly recognized.

To give a succinct summary of our traditional
concern for refugees and the basis by which that
concern is woven into our foreign policy I call



January 15, 1962



103



your attention to the statements of President Ken-
nedy himself. Quoting from the text of a letter^
which he transmitted July 21, 1961, to the Presi-
dent of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House
of Representatives along with the administration's
proposed legislation for refugee and migration
programs, the President states :

The United States, consistent with the traditional
humanitarian regard of the American people for the in-
dividual and for his right to a life of dignity and self-
fulfillment, should continue to express in a practical
way its concern and friendship for individuals in free-
world countries abroad who are uprooted and unsettled
as the result of political conditions or military action.

The successful re-establishment of refugees, who for
political, racial, religious or other reasons are unable
or unwilling to return to their country of origin or of na-
tionality under conditions of freedom, dignity, and self-
respect, is importantly related to free-world political
objectives. These objectives are: (a) continuation of the
provision of asylum and friendly assistance to the op-
pressed and persecuted; (b) the extension of hope and
encouragement to the victims of communism and other
forms of despotism, and the promotion of faith among
the captive populations in the purposes and processes
of freedom and democracy; (c) the exemplification by
free citizens of free countries, through actions and sacri-
fices, of the fundamental humanitarianism which con-
stitutes the basic difference between free and captive
societies.

Some refugee problems are of such order of magnitude
that they comprise an undue burden upon the economies
of the countries harboring the refugees in the first in-
stance, requiring international assistance to relieve such
countries of these burdens.

President Kennedy went on to express his be-
lief that the Congress shares with him and with
the people of America pride in the generous and
successful efforts of the United States in helping
the homeless and stateless victims of war and
political oppression to live again as free men,
stressing too the decidedly political interests of
the United States to maintain and continue to en-
hance our policy and leadership with respect to
assisting refugees. He concluded with the follow-
ing statement :

This country has always served as a lantern in the dark
for those who love freedom but are persecuted, in misery,
or in need. We must and will continue to show the
friendship of the United States by doing our share in the
compassionate task of helping those who are refugees
today as were so many of our forefathers in the years
past.



' Bulletin of Aug. 7, 1961, p. 255.
104



It is my hope that, with the meager outline which
I have given you of who and where the refugees
are, coupled with the compelling words of Presi-
dent Kennedy as to why it is in our national inter-
est to help them, those of you in attendance who
are dedicated to the task of helping people on the
move will become reassured of the importance of
your tasks. May those of you here whose interest
in these unfortunate victims of oppression and mis-
fortune has been only casual become convinced of
the important role of private citizens and your
Government in continuing the support of the pro-
grams designed to bring hope, security, and peace
to all people forced to move. For it is you, your
organizations, your Government, and the people of
the entire free world in which you live who must
remember that today millions of refugees through-
out the world are in desperate want and thousands
more will be added to their numbers unless the
yearned-for miracle of a just and lasting peace is
soon forthcoming. But just to remember is not
enough. We must be prepared to act promptly
and effectively to meet the pressing problems posed
by these unfortunate victims of war and violence.
To do less would be to forsake our heritage and
renege upon our obligations to humanity itself.

Foreign Policy Briefings To Be Held
in Illinois and Minnesota

Press release 911 dated December 29

The Department of State will hold regional for-
eign policy briefing conferences at Chicago, 111.,
on February 1, 1962, and at Minneapolis-St. Paul,
Minn., on February 2. Representatives of the
press, radio and television, and nongovernmental
organizations concerned with foreign policy will
be invited to participate.

The Cliicago conference, which the Chicago
Council on Foreign Relations is sponsoring, will
bring together participants from Illinois and In-
diana. The Minneapolis-St. Paul meeting, to
which media and organization representatives
from North and South Dakota, Minnesota, and
Wisconsin are being invited, is being sponsored by
the Minnesota World Affairs Center and the Uni-
versity of Minnesota.

Chester Bowles, the President's Special Repre-
sentative and Adviser on African, Asian, and Latin

Department of State Bulletin



American Affairs, and other principal officers of
the Department of State and otlaer Government
agencies concerned with foreign affairs will take
part in both conferences.

These regional meetings continue the series
which was inaugurated in July of this year at San
Francisco and Denver and continued in October
at Kansas City and Dallas. Their purpose is to
provide opportunity for discussion of interna-
tional issues between those who inform the public
on the issues and the senior officers of the execu-
tive branch who have the responsibility for deal-
ing with them.



United States Extends
Further Credits to Brazil

Press release 918 dated December 29

The U.S. Government through the Agency for
International Development (AID) and the Ex-
port-Import Bank announced on December 29
that it is making available to Brazil credits of
$40 million. $15 million will be made available
out of AID funds and $2'5 million from the Ex-
port-Import Bank. The AID funds are provided
by an amendment to the loan signed on November
20, 1961, for $50 million.^ The AID loan makes
available $65 million of a total of $100 million
in credits earmarked for Brazil. The Export-
Import Bank funds constitute an advance under a
$168 million credit authorized by the Bank in
May 1961.

The purpose of the loans is to provide further
assistance to the Brazilian Government's program
of promoting economic and social progress under
conditions of financial stability. These objectives
are an essential part of the Alliance for Progress
concept, as expressed in the Chai-ter of Punta del
Este.=

The loans mark a further step in the imple-
mentation of the financial agreements concluded
between the United States and Brazil in May
1961.^ At that time the United States announced
$338 million in new credits, which were accom-
panied by new credits from other governments,
from private sources, and from international



' Bm-LETIN of Dee. 18, 1961, p. 1003.

" For text, see ibid., Sept. 11, 1961, p. 463.

'/6!(?.,June5, 1961, p. 862.



financial institutions. At the same time, arrange-
ments were made for the rescheduling of Brazilian
debts abroad. Of the $338 million, $100 million
was conditional upon the action taken by the
United States Congress on the foreign aid pro-
gram for 1962. The passage of the Act for In-
ternational Development has enabled the United
States to implement this part of the arrangement.

The funds made available on December 29 will
bring total drawings on U.S. Government credits,
under the May arrangement, to $209 million. This
represents a little more than 60 percent of the
total commitment of AID and Export-Import
Bank funds made under the financial agreement
in May of this year.

The proceeds of the loans will be used to help
Brazil finance essential imports from the United
States and assist the stabilization program which
is so necessary for the continued economic growth
of Brazil. In order to contribute most effectively
to the objective of easing Brazil's foreign debt re-
payment obligations, particularly during the next
few years, repayment of the AID loan will be
made in 40 years. Eepayment will be in dollars.
There will be a small credit fee of three-quarters
of 1 percent of the balance outstanding each year.

The Export-Import Bank loan is likewise a
long-term loan.



U.S.-Canadian Economic Committee
Meets at Ottawa

Press release 915 dated December 29

The seventh annual meeting of the joint United
States-Canadian Committee on Trade and Eco-
nomic Affairs will be held in Ottawa January 12
and 13, 1962.

Canada will be represented by the Honorable
Howard C. Green, Secretary of State for External
Affairs ; the Honorable Donald M. Fleming, Min-
ister of Finance; the Honorable George Hees,
Minister of Trade and Commerce; and the Hon-
orable Alvin Hamilton, Minister of Agriculture.

The United States will be represented by the
Honorable C. Douglas Dillon, Secretary of the
Treasury ; the Honorable Stewart H. Udall, Secre-
tary of the Interior; the Honorable Orville L.
Freeman, Secretary of Agriculture ; the Honorable
Luther H. Hodges, Secretary of Commerce; and



January 15, 1962



105



the Honorable George W. Ball, Under Secretary
of State.

The annual meeting of the Joint Committee pro-
vides an opportunity for officials at the Cabinet
level to review recent economic and trade devel-
opments of interest to the United States and Can-
ada. The meetings have been valuable over the
years in furthering understanding between the
two governments on questions affecting their eco-
nomic relations. The last meeting was held in
Washington March lS-14, 1961.^



TREATY INFORMATION



Current Actions

MULTILATERAL



Atomic Energy

Amendment of article VI.A.3 of the Statute of the In-
ternational Atomic Energy Agency (TIAS 3873).
Done at Vienna October 4, 1961.'

Acceptances deposited: Norway, December 22, 1961 ;
Sweden, December 28, 1961 ; Tunisia, December 22,
1961; United Kingdom, December 12, 1961.

Germany

Agreement to supplement the agreement between the
parties to the North Atlantic Treaty regarding the
status of their forces, signed at London June 19, 1951
(TIAS 2846), with resi)ect to foreign forces stationed
in the Federal Republic of Germany, and protocol of
signature. Signed at Bonn August 3, 1959.'
Ratification deposited: Canada, December 11, 1961.

Agreement to implement paragraph 5 of article 45 of the
agreement of August 3, 1959, to supplement the agree-
ment between the parties to the North Atlantic Treaty
regarding the status of their forces with respect to for-
eign forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Ger-
many. Signed at Bonn August 3, 1959."
Ratification deposited: Canada, December 11, 1961.

Property

Convention of Paris for the protection of industrial
property of March 20, 1883, revised at Brussels Decem-
ber 14, 1900, at Washington June 2, 1911, at The Hague
November 6, 1925, at London June 2, 1934, and at Lisbon
October 31, 1958. Done at Lisbon October 31, 1958.
Entered^ into force: January 4, 1962.

Telecommunications

International teleeommimication convention with six
annexes. Done at Geneva December 21, 1959. Entered



' For text of a joint communique issued at the close of
the meeting, see BtniETiN of Apr. 3, 1961, p. 487.
" Not in force.



into force January 1, 1961 ; for the United States Octo-
ber 23, 1961.

Accessimi as associate member deposited: Singapore-
British Borneo group (Singapore, Brunei (Protected
State), North Borneo, Sarawak), December 9, 1961.



BILATERAL

Brazil

Agreement relating to the establishment of a Peace Corps
program in Brazil. Effected by exchange of notes at
Rio de Janeiro November 11, 1961. Entered into force
November 11, 1961.

El Salvador

General agreement for economic, technical, and related
assistance to El Salvador. Signed at San Salvador
December 19, 1961. Enters Into force on the date of
the communication by which the Government of Bl
Salvador notifies the Government of the United States
that it has been ratified.

Ethiopia

Agreement for financing certain educational exchange
programs, with exchange of notes. Signed at Addis
Ababa December 6, 1961. Entered into force December
6, 1961.

Mexico

Agreement further extending the agreement of August
11, 1951, relating to agricultural workers, as amended
and extended (TIAS 2331, 2531, 2586, 2928, 2932, 3043,
3054, 3454, 3609, 3714, and 4374). Effected by exchange
of notes at Mexico December 11, 1961. Entered into
force December 11, 1961.

Panama

General agreement for technical and economic coopera-
tion. Signed at Panami December 11, 1961. Enters
into force on the date of the communication by which
the Government of Panama notifies the Government of
the United States that it has been ratified.

Philippines

Agricultural commodities agreement under title I of the
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 46, Jan- Mar 1962) → online text (page 26 of 101)