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Recalling that this matter has been described repeatedly
in the General Assembly by all segments of opinion as
vital and crucial and that on numerous occasions its in-
scription on the agenda has been requested under rule 15
of the rules of procedure as an item of an important and
urgent character,

Recalling further the recommendation contained in Gen-
eral Assembly resolution 396 (V) of 14 December 1950
that, "whenever more than one authority claims to be the
government entitled to represent a Member State in the
United Nations and this question becomes the subject of
controversy in the United Nations, the question should be
considered In the light of the purposes and principles of
the Charter and the circumstances of each case,"

Decides in accordance with Article 18 of the Charter
that any proposal to change the representation of China
is an important question.

Soviet Draft Resolution "

The General Assembly,

Considering it necessary to restore the lawful rights of
the People's Republic of China in the United NaUons,

Bearing in mind that only representatives of the Gov-
ernment of the People's Republic of China are competent
to occupy China's place in the United Nations and all
its organs,

Resolves to remove immediately from all United Nations
organs the representatives of the Chiang Kai-shek clique
who are unlawfully occupying the place of China in the
United Nations,

Invites the Government of the People's Republic of
China to send its representatives to participate in the
work of the United Nations and of all its organs.

'U.N. doe. A/RES/1668(XVI) (A/L.372) ; adopted on
Dec. 15 by a vote of 61 to 34, with 7 abstentions.

' U.N. doc. A/L.360 ; rejected on Dec. 15 by a vote of
36 to 48, with 20 abstentions. (Subsequently, Norway
requested that its vote be recorded as in favor and not as
an abstention.)

January IS, 1962


U.S. and GATT Reaffirm Cooperation
in New World Trading Situation

Following is an exchange of messages between
E. P. Barhosa da Sil-va, Chairman, of the Contract-
ing Parties to the General Agreement on Tarijfs
and Trade, and Under Secretary George W. Ball.
Mr. Ball was the U.S. representative to the minis-
terial meeting held at Geneva November 27-30 in
conjunction with the 19th session of tJie GATT
Contracting Parties November 13-December 9.

Mr. Barbosa da Silva to Mr. Ball

December 8, 1961
The Contracting Parties today endorsed with
enthusiasm the important declaration proposed by
you to ministers and endorsed by them.^ We are
planning to go ahead actively to pursue the direc-
tions given to us by ministers. We are heartened
by the statement made by you and President
Kennedy. We look forward to GATT going from
strength to strength under the enlightened leader-
ship of the United States. Kind regards.

Mr. Ball to Mr. Barbosa da Silva

December 16, 1961
I appreciate very much your message as Chair-
man of tlie Contracting Parties to the General
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, which was trans-
mitted to me by the United States Mission in
Geneva. We too look forward to continuous
strengthening of the GATT as the instrument for
broad international cooperation in the trade field.
I certainly hope that we will be able to work
together to make some real progress in promoting
trade which will be beneficial to the developing
countries. I am confident that the resolution on
the trade of the developing countries adopted by
ministers will provide a basis for making the
GATT an increasingly effective instrument in this
respect. As you know, President Keiuiedy will
ask for legislation which seeks broad new author-
ity to enable us better to deal with the new trading
situation that exists in the world.

I am looking forward to our continuing close
cooperation in removing barriers to international

' For background and text of declaration, see BtJiiEXiN
of Jan. 1,1962, p. 3.




Chester Bowles as the President's Special Representa-
tive and Adviser on African, Asian, and Latin American
Affairs, effective December 1.


Salvatore A. Bontempo as Administrator of the Bureau
of Security and Consular Affairs, effective January 2.
(For an exchange of letters between Secretary Rusk
and Mr. Bontempo, see Department of State press release
922 dated December 30.)

Checl< List of Department of State
Press Releases: December 25-31

Press releases may be obtained from the Ofl3ce of
News, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C.

Release appearing in this issue of the BirLLBrnN
which was issued prior to December 25 is No. 838
of December 4.



904 12/26
















Japanese-American conference on cul-
ture and education (rewrite).

Williams : Sigma Delta Chi, Detroit

U.S. participation in international

Rowan: Phi Beta Sigma, Philadel-

Handley sworn in as Ambassador to
Mali (biographic details).

Cleveland : statement on U.N. bond

Holiday entertainment fo foreign

Regional foreign policy brifing con-

Robert Kennedy travel plans.

Rusk: message to Philippine Vice
President on Rizal Day.

Stevenson : report to President on first
part of 16th session of U.N. General

U.S.-Canadian Committee on Trade
and Economic Affairs.

Harriman : Jos6 Rizal Day.

Rusk : American Historical Associa-

Extension of credits to Brazil.

Rusk: interview on Hearst Metro-

Agreement with Slesico on deliveries
of Colorado River water.

Department statement on Tshombe

Bontempo resignation : exchange of
letters with Secretary Rusk.

AID loan to Korea.

♦Not printed.

tHeld for a later Issue of the Bulletin.

t914 12/30

915 12/29













Department of State Bulletin

January 15, 1962


Vol. XLVI, No. 1177

Brazil. United States Extends Further Credits
to Brazil 105

Canada. U.S.-Canadian Economic Committee Meets
at Ottawa 105

China. United Nations Rules Out Change in Rep-
resentation of China (Stevenson, texts of resolu-
tions) 108

Colombia. President and Mrs. Kennedy Visit
Venezuela and Colombia (Kennedy) 89

Communism. Some Issues of Contemporary His-
tory (Rusk) 83

Congo (Leopoldvilk)

Some Issues of Contemporary History (Busk) . . 83
U.S. Refutes False Katangan Charges of Interfer-
ence in Negotiations 95

Department and Foreign Service

Designations (Bowles) 118

Resignations (Bontempo) 118

Economic Affairs

U.S. and GATT Reaffirm Cooperation in New World
Trading Situation (Ball, Barbosa da Silva) . . 118

U.S.-Canadian Economic Committee Meets at Ot-
tawa 105

Educational and Cultural Affairs. Cultural and
Educational Exchange To Be Discussed by U.S.
and Japan 99

Foreign Aid. United States Extends Further Cred-
its to Brazil 105


Attorney General Kennedy Completes Plans for

February Trip 99

Some Issues of Contemporary History (Busk) . . 83

Indonesia. Attorney General Kennedy Completes
Plans for February Trip 99

International Organizations and Conferences

Calendar of International Conferences and Meet-
ings 107

U.S. and GATT Reaffirm Cooperation in New World
Trading Situation (Ball, Barbosa da Silva) . . 118

Iran. Attorney General Kennedy Completes Plans

for February Trip • 99


Attorney General Kennedy Completes Plans for

February Trip 99

Cultural and Educational Exchange To Be Dis-
cussed by U.S. and Japan 99

Presidential Documents

President and Mrs. Kennedy Visit Venezuela and
Colombia 89

President Holds Talks in Bermuda With Prime Min-
ister Macmillan 94

Public Affairs. Foreign Policy Briefings To Be
Held in Illinois and Minnesota 104

Refugees. People on the Move (Brown) .... 100

Treaty Information. Current Actions 106

U.S.S.R. United Nations Rules Out Change in Rep-
resentation of China ( Stevenson, texts of resolu-
tions) 108

United Kingdom. President Holds Talks in Ber-
muda With Prime Minister Macmillan (text of
Joint communique) 94

United Nations

The United Nations Bond Issue (Cleveland) ... 96
United Nations Rules Out Change in Representa-
tion of China (Stevenson, texts of resolutions) . 108

Venezuela. President and Mrs. Kennedy Visit
Venezuela and Colombia (Kennedy, text of joint
communique) 89

'Name Index

Ball, George W 118

Barbosa da Silva, B. P 118

Betancourt, Bomulo 90

Bontempo, Salvatore A 118

Bowles, Chester 118

Brown, Richard R 100

Cleveland, Harlan 96

Kennedy, President 89, 94

Macmillan, Harold 94

Rusk, Secretary 83

Stevenson, Adlai E 108

SOCIAL sciew:es deft






United States
Government Printing Office


Washington 25, D.C.






On June 30, 1960, the Republic of the Congo, a former Belgian
colony, was declared a sovereign and independent state. Five days
after independence the army mutinied. A total breakdown of law
and order ensued and the Congo began falling apart. The Govern-
ment of the Congo, faced with full-scale anarchy, civil war, and the
inevitable consequences of great-power intervention, called on the
United Nations for help.

This 22-page booklet, based on an address by Under Secretary of
State George W. Ball, reviews the situation in the Congo, describes
the purposes and operations of the United Nations there, and outlines
the United States objectives for that country, namely, "a free, stable,
non-Communist government as a whole, dedicated to the maintenance
of genuine independence and willing and able to cooperate with us
and with otlier free nations in meetmg the tremendous internal
challenges it must face."

Publication 7326

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Washington 25, D.C.

Please send me.... copies of THE ELEMENTS IN OUR CONGO POLICY.

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Vol. XLVI, No. 1178

January 22, 1962




by Under Secretary McGhee 131


Secretary VTilliams 136


Richard N. Gardner 150

FIRE • Statements by Ambassador Adlai E. Stevenson . . 145


For index see inside back cover

Boston Public Library
Superintendent of Documents

r £8 'i - 1962


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents

U.S. Ooveniment I'rintinR onice

Washington 25, D.C.


62 Issues, domestic $8.50, torclRn $12.25

SlnRle copy, 25 cents

Use of funds for printing of this publica-
tion approved by the Director of the lUircau
of the Hudnet (January 19, 1801).
Note: Contents of this publication are not
co|)yriglited and items contained herein may
be reprinted. Citation of the Dki-artmest
or State Bi'i.i.etin as the source will bo
appreciated. The Bulletin is Indexed In the
Headers' Guide to Periodical Literature.

Vol. XLVI, No. 1178 • Publication 7330
January 22, 1962

The Department of State BULLETIN,
a weekly publication issued by the
Office of Public Services, Bureau of
Public Affairs, provides the public
and interested agencies of the
Government mith information on
developments in the field of foreign
relations and on tlie icork of the
Department of State and the Foreign
Service. The BULLETIN includes se-
lected press releases on foreign policy,
issued by tlie White House and
Department, and statements and >
dresses made by the President and
the Secretary of State and oth
officers of the Department, as well
special articles on various pliases <
internatiotuil affairs and the func
tions of the Department. Informa-
tion is included concerning treaties
and interiuuional agreements to
which the United States is or nwy
become a party and treaties of gen-
eral intcnmtiorutl interest.

Publications of the Department,
United Nations documents, and legis-
Uitive material in the field of inter-
rwitiomil relafiorvs are listed t-urrrntly.

Secretary Rusk Interviewed on ''Reporters Roundup"

Following is the transcrift of an interview of
Secretary Rusk hy Charles Batchelder of the Mu-
tual Broadcasting System and Endre Marton of
the Associated Press on the radio program ^'■Re-
porters Roundup^'' broadcast over the Mutual
Broadcasting System on January 7. The mod-
erator of the program was Ken French of MBS.

Press release 11 dated January 6

Q. Mr. Secretary, the central issue, of course,
reviains Berlin. After about 3 months of prax-
tically no contact with the Soviets, Ambassador
Thompson again began explori7ig what the
chances are of the Berlin settlement. The few
reports on the first Thompson-Gromyko meeting
speculated about the possibility of a very limited
agreement, some kind of a modus vivendi.

Could you say, sir, that these reports were
correct, and, generally, do you consider the first
Thompson-Gromyko conference to represent prog-
ress f

A. Well, Mr. Marton, as we move into the new
year the Berlin question, of course, remains a very
important and potentially dangerous issue. We
are now, as you intimated, engaged in exploratoi-y
talks with the Soviet Union to find out whether
there is a basis for negotiation looking toward an
agreement. Now the differences between a ne-
gotiated agreement and what has been referred to
as a jnodus vivoidi are not very great. But I
tliink the problem is how extensive, how thorough,
how complete an agreement can be found on the
one side. What will be involved will be some ar-
rangements which will protect the vital interests
of all concerned without a resort to force. It's
much premature to speculate about how these talks
may develop, but, as you know, Ambassador
Thompson's talks will continue and we are some-
what encouraged to know that this issue is in the
course of discussion and that there is responsible
contact among the Governments involved.

Q. Mr. Secretary, let me ask a question at this
time thafs pertinent to this. Does or does not
President de Gaulle of France support this ne-
gotiation or this inquiry?

A. Well, there is complete agreement among
the principal Western Powers on the basic issues
in the Berlin question. General de Gaulle has
some very considerable reluctance about engaging
ill fonnal negotiations until it is quite clear that
there is an adequate basis for such negotiations.
My understanding is that he does not object to
these exploratory talks wliich are now going on.

The Laotian Question

Q. Mr. Secretary, could loe go over to another
area of unpleasant news? The three princes of
Laos apparently got noiohere, having met after
xoeeks of procrastination. Could you explain now,
sir, how much i^ really at stake if we are not going
ahead with the task of unification and what are
the alternatives?

A. The Laotian question has moved very far
toward a settlement insofar as the Geneva con-
ference is concerned.^ There, on the international
side, governments have worked out, or come very
close to working out, arrangements wliich would
be designed to safeguard the independence and
neutrality of Laos. Now these negotiations in
Geneva can't get much further until there is in
fact a government in Laos which can speak for
the entire country and can midertake the respon-
sibilities and obligations of neutrality and inde-
pendence. That, of course, depends upon the
ability of the Laotian leaders themselves to work
out some sort of government which will be able to
pursue a neutral, independent policy. These talks
are, at the present time, in a state of suspension.
I myself do not believe that they have been ter-

' For baeki^ound, see BuiiETiN of June 5, 1961, p. 844 ;
June 26, 1961, p. 1023 ; and July 10, 1961, p. 85.

January 22, ?962


minated. These are not matters which can be
worked out quickly and easily, because the feelings
are high and memories are long and the experience
in that country has been bitter. We expect that
there will be additional talks with and among these
Laotian leaders, and we're not by any means
abandoning hope that an arrangement can be

India and Goa

Q. Could we move to another scene, Mr. Secre-
tary, and that is India. What is your reaction at
this time to the change — apparent change — in at-
titude of Mr. Nehru by using force against Goa and
against the Portuguese group over there? Does
this weaken his position in the world among the
neutral nations, so-called?

A. Well, the attitude of the United States to-
ward the use of force in Goa was made very clear
indeed by Ambassador Stevenson during the dis-
cussion in the Security Council in the United
Nations.^ We made vigorous representations in
India with respect to the use of force before this
event occurred, and Ambassador Stevenson indi-
cated our attitude toward it.

I do think that India has delivered something
of a shock to opinion in many other countries. I
do not myself believe that this anticipates a major
change in orientation in Indian foreign policy.
This particular problem has been there for a long
time and had many special characteristics of its
own ; but I think that we can't know for a while
yet exactly how this will affect India's position
among other coimtries, including the neutrals.

Q. You mentioned something tliat brings up
still another phase of the Goa question, and that
is this. Of course Portugal has threatened
through Premier Salazar to withdraw from the
United Nations. Do you think that that, in this
case, would make the United Nations stronger or
less important during J 062, or would it affect their
place in the world?

A. Well, I think that any use of force contrary
to the charter does to that extent weaken the
peacekeeping machinery of the United Nations,
and from that point of view this was most un-
fortunate. I myself hope very much that Portugal

will not withdraw from the United Nations. I
think it still is the most important international
forum for the settlement of problems and for
achieving cooperation on a worldwide basis — on
a general basis — and I would hope very much that
it would continue to play that role with as wide
membership as possible. I feel quite certain that
Portugal has much to gain from continued mem-
bership in the U.N. and the U.N. has much to gain
from having Portugal there.

Q. Mr. Secretary, another related question.
Does this incident, or whatever you may call it,
affect our thinking on aiding India?

A. Well, I think that we have a basic American
interest in the economic and social development
of India and that we have not abandoned that
policy or that interest as a result of this Goa

Q. Have you revised your thinking?

A. I would not say that we have revised our
approach to this problem. We do have commit-
ments, as you know, to the Indian longtime devel-
opment program, and I would expect that we
would continue on those commitments.

Disarmament Discussions

Q. Mr. Secretary, the new negotiating body on
dlsar^nament will m^eet on March Hth. Now, in
view of the basic difference between the American
and Soviet philosophy on how to achieve disar-
mament, is there any basis or hope that a new
round of talks will bring us any Jiearer to this

A. We felt that the establislmient of the forum
itself was at least a small step toward a serious dis-
cussion of disarmament. Earlier we had agreed
on certain principles governing disarmament with
the Soviet Union,' but that statement of principles
also reflected a far-reaching and most fundamen-
tal disagreement. To put it briefly, the Soviet
Union is willing to have inspection of those arms
which are destroyed or given up but is not willing
to have inspection of those arms which are re-
tained, and we believe that we cannot have an
effective disarmament without complete assur-
ance and verification to the rest of us that the

• See p. 145.

' For text of a joint stiitement of agreed principles, see
Bulletin of Oct. 9, 1'JCl, p. .%SS>.

Deparfmenf of Sfa/e Bw//e/in

conditions of any agreement, the provisions of
any agreement, are in fact being carried out.

Now this particular point of disagreement, Mr.
Marten, is both fundamental and far-reaching,
and I think one would not wish to be optimistic
about a particular discussion that might convene
on March 14th or thereabouts; but nevertheless the
issue of disarmament, particularly in light of
modern weapons, is so important, the dangers of
the alternatives are so great, that we feel we must
keep gnawing at it, working at it, trying our best
to find a practical and safe means by which man-
kind can move into a period of reduced arms and
to some limitation on the arms race.

The Cuban Issue

Q. Mr. Secretary, could I hring this Soviet
threat just a little closer home — in other xoords,
could loe dbicuss Cuba a hit? The State Depart-
ment has issued a white paper* a cornplete review
of the Red infiltration of Guha and Castro's af-
filiation. What can the United States do now
about Cuba?

A. Well, we have been very much encouraged
to find that throughout Latin America there is an
increasing awareness of the nature of the develop-
ment in Cuba, the threat of that particular kind
of penetration of this hemisphere by outside in-
fluence and outside elements, and the threat which
that poses to the rest of the hemisphere. We shall
be coming up to a meeting January 22d of the for-
eign ministers of the American states, and we be-
lieve that the meeting will clearly record the con-
cern of the hemisphere in this development and
that various measures will be effectively discussed
looking toward an isolation of Castroism and this
type of penetration in this hemisphere, as a part
of the basic protection of the hemisphere written
into the basic charters of the American systems.

Q. Is there any way this government could be
overthrown from the outside?

A. Well, I wouldn't at tliis point want to get
into that question, Mr. Batchelder. I believe that
basically the overthrow of the Cuban government
is a problem for the Cuban people. Of course, if
there were overt acts of aggression against Cuba's

neighbors, that would raise some very serious prob-
lems indeed.

Q. Mr. Secretary, the latest question first. Isn't
there a danger that this issue, the Cuban issue,
will be sort of watered down again as it happened
in San Jose? "

A. Well, I wouldn't want to speculate today,
Mr. Marton, about what the results of the meeting
will be. We are in very active discussion with the
other governments of the hemisphere about that.
Now I would not think that the problem would be
watering down to the point where the hemisphere
would appear to be unconcerned about this matter.
I think that this is a matter about which there is
very great interest throughout the hemisphere.

The West New Guinea Problem

Q. May I ash a question, too? Well jump to
another hemisphere, Mr. Secretary, and that is
the problem which is occurring in Indonesia and
the Netherlands and Dutch West New Guinea.
The United States, it is said, has at one time
offered its service as mediator, and then that has
again been denied. Do you care to clear ics up
on that?

A. Well, we have not at any time formally of-
fered our services as mediator. This is one of those
many, many issues which come to our desk be-
cause, when friends of ours in different parts of
the world find themselves in disagreement with
each other, each comes to us to ask if we can be of
some assistance in the dispute.

We have been involved in a certain sense with
this question since the late forties at the time of
the first movement for Indonesian independence,
and the West New Guinea problem is something
that was not clarified completely in the minds of
both Governments at that time. We see no reason
why this matter cannot be effectively discussed

Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 46, Jan- Mar 1962) → online text (page 29 of 101)