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Department of State bulletin (Volume v. 46, Jan- Mar 1962) online

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between the two Governments and some sort of
peaceful settlement reached; but we're not in a
position of formal mediation.

Q. Do you actually expect that the Indonesians
IV ill use force?

A. I wouldn't want to speculate on that. I think
the use of force in a situation of this sort would



* For a Department announcement and text of the sum-
mary section of the report, see p. 129.



^ For text of Declaration of San Jos6, see Bulletin of
Sept. 12, 1960, p. 407.



January 22, ?962



125



itself be a very serious matter and -would, I think,
be contrary to Indonesia's obligations.

Q. Mr. Secretary, to conclude on a more philo-
sophical vein, the neio editor of the Saturday
Evenimg Post said in his editorial columm, the other
day, "/ feel that we, collectively, have grown
fearful and hesitant. . . . There is a danger that
in our maturity tve have become tired and cynical,
overzealous for security, afraid to live and afraid
to die.''"'

I wonder, sir, how you feel about this rather
melancholy statement.

A. Well, my guess is that if we could consult
the historians we would find expressions of that
sort made regularly for the last two or three cen-
turies, as people look at the scene of their own
time. I do not myself underestimate the whirl,
the capacity, the concern, the dedication, the com-
mitment, of the American people and the people
of the free world to continue this great struggle
for freedom. We, I think, in times of peace, in
times of relative ease, tend to think that we're
going soft in some way; but when you think of
the generation that grew up in a rather pacifist
period during the thirties and remember that that
was the generation that fought and won World
War II, when you think of the great performance
of young people who came through the flapper age
of the twenties, I am not one to lose confidence
in free peoples, and I think we'd make a great
mistake if we felt that the peoples of the free
world are not prepared to do what is necessary
to continue this great historical fight for freedom.

Q. Mr. Secretary, one additional question.. In
your immediate future you have to look to the
convening of Congress on the 10th of this month,
and I knoiu that problems ivill be faced there.
Would yoxb like to discuss your relations with
Congress so far and the foreign relation.^ commJf-
tees in pai'ticxdar?

A. Well, I believe, Mr. Batchelder, as I ran
over some time ago for another purpose a quick
count, I met conmiittees or a considerable group
of Congressmen some 45 times during the last
session. This is not only an indispensable part
of the relationships between the executive and
legislative branch, but from my point of view it is
a most valuable experience. I myself do not regret
this time whatever. If you will look around
Washington and you look for the people who



have had a responsible relationship with foreign
affairs over a long period of time, you will find
many of those people on the key committees of
the Congress. People in the executive branch come
and go, as you know. These are very, very valu-
able exchanges, particularly in the executive ses-
sions of these committees, where both the executive
and the legislative can look at these problems in
all of their depth and complexity and look at the
alternatives. I can assure you that in those dis-
cussions partisanship almost never enters into the
picture.

Moderator: Thank you very much. Secretary
Rusk.



Secretary Rusk Interviewed
on Hearst Metrotone/Telenews

Following is the transcript of an intervieio of
Secretary Rusk by Charles Shiitt of Hearst Metro-
tone/Telenews.

Press release 919 dated December 30, for release January 1

Mr. Shutt: As we begin a new year, Mr. Secre-
tary, what do you consider the prospects of achiev-
ing peaceful settlements in 1962 in the Congo,
Southeast Asia, and Berlin ?

Secretary Rusk : Well, Mr. Shutt, one of the pri-
mary tasks of foreign policy is to try to protect
the vital interests of our country, by peaceful
means if possible. The situation in each of these
three cases is somewhat different.

In the Congo, you will recall that in 1960 the
United Nations was called into the Congo to pre-
vent that country from settling into complete
chaos and to avoid its becoming a battleground of
great contending forces from the outside. Now
they have had a difficult year, but we believe that
there is a fair prospect that the Congolese leaders
themselves can continue their talks, agree on a
constitutional arrangement which is satisfactory
to them, and establish a moderate government un-
der which that potentially rich countiy can take
up again the great tasks of economic and social
development. I would be inclined to be optimistic
about the Congo.

In Southeast Asia the Laotian question depends
now for solution on the ability of the Laotian
leaders themselves to agree on a neutral coalition



126



Department of State Bulletin



goveriunent. That has proved to be a difficult
agreement to reach, although the international ar-
rangements for a neutral Laos have almost been
completed in the discussions at Geneva. I would
not want to predict what the outlook is in Laos at
this time.

In Viet- Nam there is an aggression being sup-
ported, stimulated, and supplied from the outside
against South Viet-Nam, and we, as you know,
have stepped up sharply our aid to that country,
and we suppose that in these next few months
there will be considerable strife as the Government
attempts to deal with the guerrillas that are active
there.

In Berlin I think that the free world has taken
an important first step toward a peaceful solution.
They have made it quite clear that the free world
considers that its vital interests are engaged in
West Berlin and that those vital interests will be
protected with whatever it takes to protect them.
The free world is united on that; the NATO al-
liance is firm on that. We are in contact with the
Soviet Government in order that there not be any
possible misimderstanding or misapprehension on
that point.

I think clarity and determination in that situa-
tion are first steps toward a peaceful settlement —
we shall see — because it will continue to be danger-
ous so long as the Soviet Union seems to be push-
ing in upon these vital interests which we have
there.

Mr. Shutt: Mr. Secretary, do you foresee any
new crises in 1962 ?

Secretary Rush: If 1962 should prove to be a
year without crises, it would be a most remarkable
and a most welcome year.

As a matter of fact, we are in the midst of great
tumultuous changes in the world. The revolution
of freedom is still the most dynamic and power-
ful revolutionary influence at work in the world
today. And that is a revolution which is a part
of our own tradition, which we welcome, and with
which we can work in different parts of the world.

We also have the great revolution of rising ex-
pectations. People all over the world are looking
for rapid economic and social development, and
we are a great part of that effort.

The free institutions of the world are under
pressure from the Communist bloc, but they are
not having as much success as they might have



hoped. It is interesting that no one of the coun-
tries which have become independent since 1945
has become a member of the Sino-Soviet bloc.
These newly independent countries are resistant
to this idea and this notion, despite the fact that
some of them say things from time to time which
we find disagreeable or imcomfortable.

Now we spend a great deal of our time in the
Department of State in trying to anticipate and
prevent crises, and, to the extent that we are suc-
cessful, these crises don't, of course, appear in the
headlines. But I don't think that we should fear
crises, as such. Because if you look back over the
crises of the postwar period, many of them have
turned out well from the point of view of the free
world. But, nevertheless, we get on with the great
job of building a decent woi-ld order — in the
United Nations, in the North Atlantic community,
in other parts of the world — through the Alliance
for Progress in Latin America. These are the
great tasks to which we have put our hands, and
these are the great constructive efforts into which
crises will take their place, and these are the great
stakes which we have in working through these
crises to a tolerable community.

I think one can see everywhere a steady building
up of the contacts across national frontiers, the
sorting out of the world's daily work on a basis
of cooperation across national frontiers. I think
there is room for confidence; certainly there is
room for effort and energy in the months ahead.

Mr. Shutt: Finally, Mr. Secretary, do you see
any possibility of having successful negotiations
with Mr. Khrushchev in 1962 ?

Secretary Rusk: Despite the great differences,
Mr. Shutt, that separate us from the Soviet Union,
I think that there ought to be responsible contacts
with them in order to discover at what points
some measure of agreement can be reached.

Now we have at the present time a first-class
crisis over West Berlin, and while we are trying to
resolve that one we should also consider the pos-
sibilities of other points at which our two policies
might draw somewhat closer together.

In 1961 we were deeply disappointed that they
were unwilling or unable to take up a nuclear test
ban treaty. We shall pursue that to see if we
can't make some headway on that effort.

We have agreed recently in the United Nations
to constitute a new forum to take up once again the



January 22, 1962



127



question of general disarmament.^ And there has
been some little progress made in the matter of
cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space;
and there will come up, I suppose, further discus-
sions in our cultural exchange programs. We
don't know how successful we shall be in any of
these negotiations, but the discussions ought to
be continued, the contacts kept alive, because it
is important for us to find even slender threads
of common interest reaching through and across
the Iron Curtain.

Mr. Shutt: And as long as we continue to talk,
that is at least a plus.

Secretary Rusk: Well, I think there is advantage
in talking. And I tliink that there are times when
talking, among other things, makes it clear what
we are in there after, and, if we are fortmiate, talk-
ing might find points of agreement.

Mr. Shutt: Thank you, Mr. Secretary.



U.S. Welcomes Dominican Solution
of Political Difficulties

Statement by President Kennedy

White House press release (Palm Beach, Fla.) dated December 20

I want to make special note of die most en-
couraging developments in the Dominican Repub-
lic. The solution to the political difficulties in that
country, the principal feature of which is the im-
mediate creation of a council of state, was an-
nounced by President Balaguer on December 17
and has now been accepted by the principal ele-
ments of the democratic opposition. It repre-
sents, in my judgment, an impressive demonstra-
tion of statesmanship and responsibility by all
concerned. This accomplishment by the demo-
cratic opposition and the Dominican Government
is all the more remarkable when it is recalled that
only recently the Dominican Republic emerged
from three decades of a harshly repressive regime
which dedicated itself to stifling every democratic
Dominican voice. This victory of the Dominican
people and its leaders is a striking demonstration
of the fact that dictatorship can suppress but can-



not destroy the aspirations of a people to live in
freedom, dignity, and peace.

The Dominican people still face long and diffi-
cult efforts to transform their aspirations into an
effective, soimdly based democratic system. In
this struggle, they have the assurance of our sym-
pathetic and tangible support. I understand that
the Organization of American States is now con-
sidering the lifting of the sanctions imposed upon
the Dominican Republic by collective action in
August 1960 and January 1961.' If the Council
of the OAS takes such action — and our represent-
atives are supporting that step — we will resume
diplomatic relations with the Dominican Republic
promptly. When this takes place the Depart-
ment of Agriculture will authorize purchases
under the Dominican allocation of nonquota sugar
for the fii-st 6 months of 1962.

In addition, I propose to send, upon the installa-
tion of the new council of state, a United States
economic assistance mission, headed by Ambassa-
dor Teodoro Moscoso of AID [Agency for Inter-
national Development] and including Deputy
Assistant Secretary of State Milton Barall, to visit
the Dominican Republic. Its purpose will be to
explore emergency requirements and the possibili-
ties for longer range cooperative programs under
the Alliance for Progress, which can be of direct
benefit to the Dominican people. I expect that
this mission will arrive in the Dominican Republic
late this month or very early in January.

I imderstand that Mr. Felipe Herrera, President
of the Inter-American Development Bank, will
head a high-level mission to the Dominican Re-
public in the near future to begin discussions and
inquire into economic and social development
projects.

These actions are intended to assist the new
Dominican Government and people in developing
a sound economic and social structure, which is
indispensable to an enduring democratic political
system.

Tlie Dominican people and their leaders con-
front a great and seldom given opportunity : the
construction of a democratic society on the ruins
of tyraimy. It is a noble task, but it is not an
easy one. We wish them well, and we assure them
of our desire to assist them in their efforts.



' Bulletin of Dee. 18, 1961, p. 1023.



' For background, see Bulletin of Sept. 5. 1960, p. 358 ;
Feb. 20, 1961, p. 273 ; and Dec. 4, 1961. p. 929.



128



Department of State Bulletin



Diplomatic Relations Resumed
With Dominican Republic

The Department of State announced on Jan-
uary 6 (press release 13) that the Government of
the United States and the Government of the
Dominican Republic had on that day announced
that they have resumed diplomatic relations. The
action follows the decision by the Council of the
Or



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 46, Jan- Mar 1962) → online text (page 30 of 101)