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ticipation in this global effort. Even very small
contributions by developing coimtries which pro-
duce more than their own needs of a certain com-
modity will serve to broaden the base of active
participation and will make for a truly multi-
lateral program. In such a fashion, by partici-
pating together, we can learn together.

As I have just noted, we should like to see this
program expand after experience has demon-
strated its value. "We should like it to place in-
creasing emphasis on economic and social develop-
ment. "We believe that the role of the U.N. will
grow naturally as this emphasis grows. Keeping
this evolution in mind, we regard the administra-
tive arrangements here proposed as tentative and

This concept is embodied in the second operative
paragraph of this part of the resolution, which re-
quests the Secretary-General, in cooperation with
the Director General and other interested agen-
cies, to keep the relationships between their re-
spective institutions imder review and to under-
take studies which would aid in the future
development of multilateral food programs.

Benefits of Multilateral Food Aid Program

Mr. Chairman, I have not dwelt at length on the
detailed arrangements and procedures incorpo-
rated in the resolutions now before us. Both in

economic concept and in institutional arrange-
ment this is a complicated program. But our pre-
occupation with its complexity should not distract
us from the fundamental importance of what we
are doing here today.

We have today the opportunity to establish the
first multilateral program of food aid for economic
development. There are many benefits which
could flow from such a first step, but I shall men-
tion only two.

In the fii-st place the establishment of this pro-
gram could be a modest but significant step toward
strengthening the rule of law in international
connnodity trade. The value of such a step is
founded on the hard fact that, due to the technical
revolution in agriculture, more and more countries
will be in a position to distribute food abundance
to others on special terms as this decade proceeds.
We do not wish to disturb existing bilateral ar-
rangements, for which satisfactory principles have
already been developed, but there are areas and
functions in which a multilateral program can best
serve the interests of all.

In the second place a multilateral program of
the kind we are now considering can give new
vitality to the U.N. and to its family of agencies.
It can, by providing new resources, promote a
more effective relationship between the organs of
the U.N. in implementing economic development
at the country level. It can strengthen the fabric
of common interest in the U.N. and thus promote,
however gradually, more effective political

As I noted at the outset, Mr. Chairman, our col-
leagues have been meeting in another chamber of
this house to discuss the peaceful uses of outer
space. Let their preoccupation with this new
dimension in man's existence be a challenge to us
here. Let it inspire us to renewed determination
to resolve the oldest dimension of man's existence —
the problem of finding food.

As our Secretary of Agriculture, Mr. Orville
Freeman, said at the FAO Conference last month
in Eome:

"Let it never be said of our generation that we
were able to send men into space, but were unable
to put bread and milk into the hands of hungry

"Let it never be said that we had the scientific
knowledge and the technical skill to destroy civili-
zation, but that we did not have the ability, the

January 22, 1962


vision, and the will to use that knowledge to pro-
duce and distribute the abundance that science and
technology offer to a world at peace." ^



Robert E. Lee as Deputy Assistant Secretary for Con-
gressional Relations, effective January 2. (For bio-
graphic details, see Department of State press release 2
dated January 3. )

of notes at Rio de Janeiro October 27, 1961.
into force October 27, 1961.



Agreement amending the agricultural commodities agree-
ment of October 6, 1959, as amended (TIAS 4.S37 and
4747). Effected by exchange of notes at Bogota No-
vember 9 and 20, 1961. Entered into force November
20, 1961.


General agreement for economic cooperation. Signed at
Tehran December 21, 1961. Entered into force De-
cember 21, 1961.


Agreement amending and extending the agreement of Au-
gust 11, 1951, relating to agricultural workers, as
amended and extended (TIAS 2331. 2.-)31, 2.5S6, 2928,
2932, 3043, 3054, 3454, 3609, 3714, and 4374). Effected
by exchange of notes at Mexico December 29, 1961.
Entered into force December 29, 1961.


Current Actions



Protocol of amendment to the convention on the Inter-
American Institute of Agricultural Sciences. Opened
for signature at Washington December 1, 1958.'
Ratification deposited: Colombia, January 3, 1962.


International whaling convention and schedule of whaling
regulations. Signed at Washington December 2, 1946.
Entered into force November 10, 1948. TIAS 1849.
Notification of withdrawal: Norway, December 29, 1961.
Effecttve June 30, 1962.



Agreement relating to a program of joint participation
in intercontinental testing in connection with experi-
mental communications satellites. Effected by exchange

' On Dec. 13 Committee II adopted by a vote of 72 to 0,
with 10 abstentions (Soviet bloc), a resolution entitled
"World Food Programme" (U.N. doc. A/C.2/L.617/Rev.3,
as modified by the sponsors) ; the resolution was adopted
in plenary on Dec. 19 by a vote of 89 to 0, with 9

' Not in force.

Check List of Department of State
Press Releases: January 1-7

Press releases may be obtained from the Ofiice
of News, Department of State. Washington 25, D.C.

Releases appearing in this issue of the Bulletin
which were issued prior to January 1 are Nos. 862
of December 8 ; 900 of December 21 ; 905 of Decem-
ber 26; 920 of December 29; and 919 and 923 of
December 30.

























U.S. participation in international

Lee appointed Deputy Assistant
Secretary for Congressional Re-
lations (biographic details).

Department releases document en-
titled "The Castro Regime in
Cuba" (rewrite).

Janow sworn in as Assistant Ad-
ministrator for Far East, AID
(biographic details).

Seasonal marketing fund for Cen-
tral American coffee.

Hamilton visit to Far East (re-

U.S. and U.K. oflScials confer on
U.N. affairs.

U.S.-Viet-Nam joint communique.

Cleveland : Woman's National
Democratic Club (excerpts).

Visit of German Vice Chancellor

Rusk : interview on "Reporters

Meeting of U.S. delegation to U.S.-
Japan cultural conference (re-

Resumption of diplomatic relations
with Dominican Republic (re-

' Not printed.

fHeld for a later issue of the Bulletin.


Department of State Bulletin

January 22, 1962


Vol. XLVI, No. 1178

Agriculture. World Food Prograui : A New

Opportunity for the United Nations (Gardner) . 150

American Republics. Department Reports on
Cuban Threats to the Western Hemisphere (text
of summary section of report) 129

Asia. Fowler Hamilton To Inspect AID Efforts

in Far East 143

Communism. Department Reports on Cuban
Threats to the Western Hemisphere (test of
summary section of report) 129

Congo (Leopoldville)

Secretary Rusk Interviewed on Hearst Metro-
tone/Telenews 126

U.S. Record on the Congo : A Search for Peaceful

Reconciliation (Williams) 136


Department Reports on Cuban Threats to the West-
ern Hemisphere (text of summary section of
report) 129

Secretary Rusk Interviewed on "Reporters Round-
up" 123

Department and Foreign Service. Appointments

(Lee) 154

Disarmament. Secretary Rusk Interviewed on
"Reporters Roundup" 123

Dominican Republic

Diplomatic Relations Resvmied Witli Dominican
Republic 129

U.S. Welcomes Dominican Solution of Political

Difficulties (Kennedy) 128

Educational and Cultural Affairs. U.S. Delegation
to U.S.-Japan Cultural Conference Meets . . . 142

Europe. Atlantic Unity — Key to World Commu-
nity (McGhee) 131

Foreign Aid

AID Approves Loan for Korean Power Project . . 143

Fowler Hamilton To Inspect AID Efforts in Far

East 143

U.S. and Viet-Nam Expand Economic Development

Programs (text of joint communique) .... 141
U.S. Welcomes Dominican Solution of Political

Difficulties (Kennedy) 128


Secretary Rusk Interviewed on Hearst Metrotone/
Telenews 126

Vice Chancellor Erhard of German Federal Repub-
lic Visits U.S 130


Secretary Rusk Interviewed on "Reporters Round-
up" 123

Security Council Considers Situation in Goa ; So-
viet Veto Bars CaU for Cease-Fire (Stevenson) . 145

Indonesia. Secretary Rusk Interviewed on "Re-
porters Roundup" 123

Japan. U.S. Delegation to U.S.-Japan Cultural

Conference Meets 142

Korea. AID Approves Loan for Korean Power
Project 143


Secretary Rusk Intert'iewed on Hearst Metrotone/
Telenews 126

Secretary Rusk Interviewed on "Reporters Round-
up" 123

Mexico. U.S. and Mexico To Study Salinity of
Colorado River Water 144

Netherlands. Secretary Rusk Interviewed on "Re-
porters Roundup" 123

Non-Self-Governing Territories. Security Coun-
cil Considers Situation in Goa ; Soviet Veto Bars
Call for Cease-Fire (Stevenson) 145


Secretary Rusk Interviewed on "Reporters Round-
up" 123

Security Council Considers Situation in Goa ; So-
viet Veto Bars CaU for Cease-Fire (Stevenson) . 145

Presidential Documents. U.S. Welcomes Domini-
can Solution of Political Difficulties 128

Treaty Information. Current Actions 154


Secretary Rusk Interviewed on Hearst Metrotone/

Telenews 126

Security Council Considers Situation in Goa ; So-
viet Veto Bars Call for Cease-Fire (Stevenson) . 145

United Kingdom. United Nations Affairs Dis-
cussed by U.S. and U.K 140

United Nations

Current U.N. Documents 149

Security Council Considers Situation in Groa ; So-
viet Veto Bars Call for Cease-Fire ( Stevenson ) . 145

United Nations Affairs Discussed by U.S. and
U.K 140

World Food Program : A New Opportunity for
the United Nations (Gardner) 150


Secretary Rusk Interviewed on Hearst Metrotone/
Telenews 126

U.S. and Viet-Nam Expand Economic Development

Programs (text of joint communique) .... 141

Name Index

Gardner, Richard N 150

Kennedy, President 128

Lee, Robert E 154

McGhee, George C 131

Rusk. Secretary 123, 126

Stevenson, Adlai E 145

Williams, G. Menueu 136






United States
Government Printing Office


Washington 25, D.C.






On June 30, 1960, the Kepublic of the Congo, a former Belgian
colony, was declared a sovereign and independent state. Five days
after independence the anny mutinied. A total breakdown of law
and order ensued and the Congo began falling apart. The Govern-
ment of the Congo, faced with full-scale anarchy, civil war, and the
inevitable consequences of great-power intervention, called on the
United Nations for help.

This 22-page booklet, based on an address by Under Secretary of
State George W. Ball, reviews the situation in the Congo, describes
the purposes and operations of the United Nations there, and outlines
the United States objectives for that country, namely, "a free, stable,
non-Communist government as a whole, dedicated to the maintenance
of genuine independence and willing and able to cooperate with us
and with other free nations in meeting the tremendous internal
challenges it must face."

Publication 7326

15 cents

Order Form

'o: Supt. of Documents
Govt. Printing Office
Washington 25, D.C.

Please send me.... copies of THE ELEMENTS IN OUR CONGO POLICY.


Enclosed find:

Street Address :

{cash, check, or money
order payable to
Supt. of Docs.)


City, Zone, and State:











Boston Public Library-
Superintendent of Documents

Vol. XLVI, No. 1179 PEB 2 y 1962 January 29, 1962


THE STATE OF THE UNION • Address of the President

to the Congress (Excerpts) 159


Secretary Williams 170

JOSE RIZAL DAY • by Assistant Secretary Harrinian . . 174


USES OF OUTER SPACE • Statement by Ambassador
Adlai E. Stevenson and Text of Resolution 180

For index see inside back cover


Vol. XLVI, No. 1179 • Publication 7331
January 29, 1962

For sale by the Superintendent or Documents

U.S. Government Printlnp Office

Washington 26, D.O.


52 Issuea. domestic $8.50, foreign $12.28

Single copy, 26 cents

Use of funds for printing of this publlcb-
tlon approved by the Director of the Bureau
of the Budget (January 19, 1961).

Notf: Contents of this publication are not
copyriphted and Items contained herein may
be reprinted. Citation of the Department
or State Bulletin as the source will be
appreciated. The Bdllktin Is Indexed In the
Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature.

The Department of Stnte BULLETIN,
a weekly publication issued by th«
Offif^e of Public Services, Bureau of
Public Affairs, provides the public
and interested agencies of the
Government tcith information on
developments in the field of foreign
relations and on the tcork of the
Department of State and the Foreign
Service. The BULLETIN includes se-
lected press releases on foreign policy,
issued by the White House and the
Department, and statements and ad-
dresses made by the President and by
the Secretary of State and other
officers of the Department, as tcell as
special articles on various phases of
international affairs and the func-
tions of the Department. Informa-
tion is included concerning treaties
and international agreements to
tvhich the United States is or may
become a party and treaties of gen-
eral international interest.

Publications of the Department,
United Nations documents, and legis-
lative material in the field of inter-
national relations are listed currently.

The State of the Union


In the past year I have traveled not only across
our own land but to other lands — to the north and
the south, and across the seas. And I have found —
as I am sure you have, in your travels — that people
everywhere, in spite of occasional disappoint-
ments, look to us, not to our wealth or power but
to the splendor of our ideals. For our nation is
commissioned by history to be either an observer
of freedom's failure or the cause of its success.
Our overriding obligation in the months ahead is
to fulfill the world's hopes by fulfilling our own

Our Goals Abroad

All of these efforts at home give meaning to our
efforts abroad. Since the close of the Second
World War a global civil war has divided and
tormented mankind. But it is not our military
might or our higher standard of living that has
most distinguished us from our adversaries. It is
our belief that the state is the servant of the citizen
and not his master.

This basic clash of ideas and wills is but one of
the forces reshaping our globe, swept as it is by
the tides of hope and fear, by crises in the head-
linos today that become mere footnotes tomorrow.
Both the successes and the setbacks of the past year
remain on our agenda of unfinished business. For
every apparent blessing contains the seeds of
danger, every area of trouble gives out a ray of
hope, and the one unchangeable certainty is that
nothing is certain or unchangeable.

Yet our basic goal remains the same : a peaceful
world community of free and independent states,

' Delivered on .Tan. 11 (White House press release; as-
delivered text) ; also printed as H. Doc. 251, 87th Cong.,
2d sess.

free to choose their own future and their own sys-
tem so long as it does not threaten the freedom of

Some may choose forms and ways that we would
not choose for ourselves, but it is not for us that
they are choosing. We can welcome diversity —
the Communists cannot. For we offer a world of
choice — they offer the world of coercion. And
the way of the past sliows clearly that freedom,
not coercion, is the wave of the future. At times
our goal has been obscured by crisis or endangered
by conflict, but it draws sustenance from five basic
sources of strength :

— the moral and physical strength of the United
States ;

— the united strength of the Atlantic com-
munity ;

— the regional strength of our hemispheric re-

— the creative strength of our efforts in the new
and developing nations; and

— the peacekeeping strength of the United

The United Nations

But arms alone are not enough to keep the
peace; it must be kept by men. Our instrument
and our hope is the United Nations, and I see little
merit in the impatience of those who would aban-
don this imperfect world instrument because they
dislike our imperfect world. For the troubles of
a world organization merely reflect the troubles
of the world itself. And if the organization is
weakened, these troubles can only increase. We
may not always agree with every detailed action
taken by every officer of the United Nations, or
with every voting majority. But as an institu-

January 29, 1962


tion it should have in the future, as it has had in
the past since its inception, no stronger or more
faithful member than the United States of

In 1961 the peacekeeping strength of the United
Nations was remforced. And those who preferred
or predicted its demise, envisioning a troika in
the seat of Hammarskjold — or Eed China inside
the Assembly — have seen instead a new vigor, un-
der a new Secretary-General and a fully independ-
ent Secretariat. In making plans for a new
forum and principles on disarmament, for peace-
keeping in outer space, for a decade of develop-
ment effort, the U.N. fulfilled its charter's lofty

Eigliteen months ago the tangled, turbulent
Congo presented the U.N. with its gravest chal-
lenge. The prospect was one of chaos — or certain
big-power confrontation, with all of its hazards
and all of its risks, to us and to others. Today the
hopes have improved for peaceful conciliation
within a united Congo. This is the objective of
our policy in this important area.

No policeman is universally popular, particu-
larly when he uses his stick to restore law and
order on his beat. Those members who are will-
ing to contribute their votes and their views — but
very little else — have created a serious deficit by
refusing to pay their share of special U.N. assess-
ments. Yet they do pay their annual assessments
to i-etain their votes, and a new U.N. bond issue,
financing special operations for the next 18
months, is to be repaid with interest from tliese
regular assessments. This is clearly in our in-
terest. It will not only keep the U.N. solvent but
require all voting members to pay their fair share
of its activities. Our share of special operations
has long been much liigher than our share of the
annual assessment, and the bond issue will in effect
reduce our disproportionate obligation. For
these reasons I am urging Congress to approve our

With the approval of this Congress we have
undertaken in the past year a great new effort in
outer space. Our aim is not simply to be first on
the moon, any more than Charles Lindbergh's real
aim was to be the first to Paris. His aim was to
develop the techniques of our own country and
other countries in the field of air and the atmos-
phere, and our objective in making this effort,
which we hope will place one of our citizens on the


moon, is to develop, in a new frontier of science,
commerce, and cooperation, the position of the
United States and the free world.

This nation belongs among the first to explore
it, and among the first — if not the first — we shall
be. We are offering our know-how and our co-
operation to the U.N. Our satellites will soon be
providing other nations with improved weather
observations. And I sliall soon send to the Con-
gress a measure to govern the financing and opera-
tion of an international communications satellite
system in a manner consistent with the public
interest and our foreign policy.

But peace in space will help us naught once
peace on earth is gone. World order will be se-
cured only when the whole world has laid down
these weapons which seem to offer us present se-
curity but threaten the future survival of the
liuman race. That armistice day seems very far
away. The vast resources of this planet are be-
ing devoted more and more to the means of de-
stroying, instead of enriching, human life.

But the world was not meant to be a prison in
which man awaits his execution. Nor has man-
kind survived the tests and trials of thousands of
years to surrender eveiything — including its exist-
ence — now. This nation has the will and the
faith to make a supreme effort to break the logjam
on disarmament and nuclear tests, and we will
persist until we prevail, until the rule of law has
replaced the ever-dangerous use of force.

Latin America

I turn now to a prospect of great promise : our
hemispheric relations. The Alliance for Progress
is being rapidly transformed from proposal to
program. Last month in Latin America I saw
for myself the quickening of hope, the revival of
confidence, and the new trust in our country —
among workers and farmers as well as diplomats.
We have pledged our help in speeding their eco-
nomic, educational, and social progress. The
Latin American Republics have in turn pledged a
new and strenuous effort of self-lielp and self-

To support this historic midertaking I am pro- •
posing, under the authority contained in the bills i
of the last session of the Congress, a special long- 1
term Alliance for Progress finid of $;l billion.
Combined with our Food-for- Peace, Export-Im-
port Bank, and other resources, this will provide jj

Department of State Bulletin


more than $1 billion a year in new support for
the Alliance. In addition we have increased
twelvefold our Spanish- and Portuguese-language
broadcasting in Latin America and improved
hemispheric trade and defense. And while the
blight of communism has been increasingly ex-
posed and isolated in the Americas, liberty has
scored a gain. The people of the Dominican Re-
public, with our firm encouragement and help, and
those of our sister Republics of this hemisphere,
are safely passing the treacherous course from
dictatorship through disorder toward democracy.

The New and Developing Nations

Our eli'orts to help other new or developing na-
tions, and to strengthen their stand for freedom,
have also made progress. A newly miified Agency
for International Development is reorienting our
foreign assistance to emphasize long-term develop-
ment loans instead of grants, more economic aid
instead of military, individual plans to meet the
individual needs of the nations, and new stand-
artls on what they must do to marshal their own

A newly conceived Peace Corps is wimiing
friends and helping people in 14 coimtries, supply-
ing trained and dedicated young men and women
to give these new nations a hand in building a
society and a glimpse of the best that is in our
country. If there is a problem here, it is that we
cannot supply the spontaneous and mounting

A newly expanded Food-for- Peace Program is
feeding the hungry of many lands with the
abundance of our productive farms, providing
lunches for children in school, wages for economic
development, relief for the victims of flood and
famine, and a better diet for millions whose daily
bread is their chief concern.

These programs help people, and by helping peo-
ple they help freedom. The views of their govern-

Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 46, Jan- Mar 1962) → online text (page 35 of 101)