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with African needs but with free- world objectives.
That development can be brought to fruition if the
free world maintains and enlarges its support to
African nations. In this great effort we must do
our share.

American Responsiveness

Recognizing these realities. President Kennedy,
in the great tradition I referred to at the start,
has given us the framework for our new African
policy. This he outlined in his inaugural ad-
dress,^ in which he saluted the new nations and at
the same time warned the enemies of freedom of
our determination to defend that world of free
choice which is ever enlarging. As you may re-
call, he went on to pledge this coimtry's best efforts
to help these peoples help themselves — "not be-
cause the Communists may be doing it, not because
we seek their votes, but because it is right."

Our policy has been to vmdergird the stability
of the nations of Africa by assisting them in the
fight against poverty, illiteracy, and disease. We
seek to strengthen newly won independence in

We have done so by according African nations
and leaders full recognition, full assurance of our
desire to consider their problems on their own
merits and to cooperate in solving them. We have
welcomed to America such distinguished African
leaders as President Bourguiba of Tunisia. Presi-
dent Youlou of the Congo (Brazzaville), Prime
Minister Balewa of Nigeria, President Abboud of
the Sudan, President Tubman of Liberia, and
President Senghor of Senegal. Vice President
Johnson, Attorney General Robert Kcnnedj',
Labor Secretary Arthur Goldberg, Commerce Sec-
retaiy Luther Hodges, Ambassador Chester
Bowles, and Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr., have rep-
resented the United States on official missions to
Africa. My own acquaintanceship with African
leaders, and that of my associates, has been very
broadly developed in three extensive and valuable
trips to Africa.

In launching the Decade of Development, Presi-
dent Kennedy has developed a new concept within

'/&»?.. Feb. 6, 1961, p. 17.-.

Department of State Bulletin

which our efforts to promote economic growth are
being carried forward and luider which we are
seeking to mobilize the resources of the free workl/

We have taken this concept and translated it
into new aid principles calling for longer term,
planned contributions to somid economic develop-
ment. Already in Nigeria and Tanganyika those
principles govern our aid programs. We have cal-
culated our risks with great care in deciding to
assist the Volta River project in Ghana and are
confident that our national interest, as well as
African advancement, is served by this decision.
Our aid projects are typified by the decision to
help build a vital port in Somalia and a great
university in Ethiopia, and by turning over to
Liberia the port facility we built at Monrovia dur-
ing the war. Our special interest in education is
reflected by our sending of 150 teachers to east
Africa and by support to more than a dozen Afri-
can educational institutions.

Another significant program is the Peace Corps.
Dedicated, talented young Americans of the Peace
Corps are putting their shoulders to the wheel of
African development.

We have, finally, seen the United Nations Op-
eration in the Congo through thick and thin, en-
abling the Congolese to throw off a threatened
Communist infection which could have spread

In support of these efforts we have sought to
bring out tlie very best in our official representa-
tives stationed in Africa. We have armed our am-
bassadors with full authority to direct the activi-
ties of all our officials in these countries, and Am-
bassador Bowles and I met personally with the
ambassadors and their principal aides to reinforce
this directive and to sound out how well it was
being applied.

I am happy to say that the year past has given
me a great respect and admiration for the level of
competence, dedication, and professional skill of
these men and women who are representing
America, often under difficult conditions demand-
ing real sacrifices. Properly supported by under-
standing and a sense of commitment here at home,
and by an aid program more nearly approaching

' For an address by President Kennedy before the U.N.
General Assembly on Sept. 2.'i, 1961, see ibid., Oct. 16, 1961,
p. 619 ; for a statement by Philip M. Klutznick, U.S. Rep-
resentative to the General Assembly, made in Committee
II on Oct. 6, 1961, see ibid., Dec. 4, 1961, p. 939.

January 29, 1962

624S56— 62 3

the needs of these nations, our team in Africa can
be counted on to give new substance to our historic
role in support of freedom, in raising of living
standards, and in the elevation of human dignity.

The Dependent Territories

For those parts of Africa which are still in a
dependent status, our policy has two chief aspects.
First, as President Kennedy told the U.N. Gen-
eral Assembly in September, the "continuing tide
of self-determination, which runs so strong, has
our sympathy and our support." Second, as I
have intimated above, we regard deliberate, ex-
peditious preparation for self-goveniment as es-
sential not only to African advancement but to
the avoidance of increased tensions which could
jeopardize the remarkable progress that so far
characterizes the political evolution of Africa.

It is not our policy to intervene in the vital
processes of constitutional transition and racial
accommodation which are presently in train in
most of the dependent areas. They must be re-
solved, we recognize, primarily by the peoples and
governments concerned, and much credit is due to
European administrators and African nationalists
who have registered the progress which I had the
privilege to see on my visits in east and central
Africa. Wliere our comisel is sought, or where
it is incumbent on us to define our position, we
declare our interest in political, economic, and so-
cial progress and assert that we believe such
progress should occur without reference to the
race of individual citizens and certainly without
the derogation of the full rights of any element
of the population.

I should add that we liold these views with re-
spect also to an African nation which has long
been independent. I refer to the Eepublic of
South Africa, whose policy of apartheid so clearly
departs from the principles of our own national
policy and from the tenets of the United Nations

American Confidence in Africa Unshaken

As a general summing up, I would say that the
iVmerican attitude toward Africa is one of confi-
dence in people and principles, a confidence un-
shaken by the multiplicity of new problems pre-
sented to our foreign policy and undistracted by
headlines which center on the trouble-starred
exceptions to the orderly transition which has


marked the postwar course of events in Africa.
Out of a decent respect for the opinions of our
oldest friends and the aspirations of our newest,
we are seeking to strengthen independent Africa
against internal instabilities and outside ambitions
and to contribute to an orderly evolution in de-
pendent areas, conscious of how much depends
on the actions of wise administrators and men
of good will representing all elements of
these national communities as they seek further

Above all, our outlook is centered on the record
of acliievement of the new African states. Their
leaders and peoples have earned our deep respect.
Looking out on a world of constant change, we
find here new reflections of the peniianent values
we have always sought to build on.

So in our policy for Africa, in our support to
Africa, let us get on with the job, let us build
for the future peace and opportunity that must
be secured for the world if they are to be enjoyed
by us and by our children.

Jose Rizal Day

hy W. AverellHarriman

Assistant Secretary for Far Eastern Affairs ^

It is with great personal satisfaction that I join
this distinguished company in commemorating the
memory of Jose Rizal on this 65th anniversary of
his death. Today also marks the conclusion of the
centenary year of the birth of Rizal, martyr-hero
of the Philippines, which has been observed by all
who are dedicated to the principles of freedom for
which he died. In doing so we have been ful-
filling Rizal's own admonition, "I die without
seeing the dawn brighten over my native land !
You, who have it to see, welcome it — and forget
not those who have fallen during the night !"

Jose Rizal was a man of whom all Filipinos are
justifiably proud. Still more, liowever, Rizal was
a man from whom all men who love freedom can
take inspiration. He was only 35 years old when
his life was abruptly ended before a firing squad.
Yet in that brief span he had earned many honors,
and his stature is today recognized the world over.
He was renowned as a naturalist whose specimens
may still be seen in European museums. Rizal
was a scientific agriculturalist, an educator, sculp-
tor, humorist, linguist. He was eminent as a phy-
sician and as an eye specialist. His historical re-

' Address made at the Department of State on Dec. 30
(press release 916 dated Dec. 29) at an observance of
Jos6 Rizal Day sponsored by the Philippine Embassy.

search formed the basis for the study of the pre-
Hispanic culture of his country. He has earned
a place in the distinguished company of such great
names as Jefferson and Ben Franklin.

Rizal's greatness rests on none of these impres-
sive achievements, however. It is Jose Rizal the
social reformer, the selfless embodiment of the na-
tional conscience, the seeker after trutli, the voice of
freedom, whose guiding hand is felt in tlie Philip-
pines today. The most eloquent testimony of
Rizal's eminence as a political philosoplier is the
early fulfillment of his conviction that injustice
and oppression in his colonial homeland could not
long survive the liberation of the minds of his
countrymen. He set as his first goals the attain-
ment of freedom of education, of thought, and of
speech in the Philippines. A gentle man of reason,
he sought change, not througli revolutionary vio-
lence but through the orderly paths of education
and political preparation, knowing that without
these the troubles of his country would be com-
pounded. He asked that his follow coimtrjiiien be
given a measure of responsibility for their own
destinies and that in their homeland they be af-
forded opportunities for the liberal education he
himself was forced to seek abroad.

It is especially tragic that young Dr. Jose Rizal,
who stood before a firing squad as a revolutionary


Department of State Bulletin

symbol 65 years ago today, had in truth dedicated
his life to peaceful reform. Hatred and revenge
played no part in his liberal outlook.

As "the Great Malayan" he is honored through-
out the world. As a Filipino he was the spokes-
man for national aspirations, foe of despotism,
and father of his country.

"We would do well to listen again to the
thoughts of Rizal, which are as fresh today as
when he first expressed them. He said :

Without education and freedom, which are the soil
and the sun of man, no reform is possible, no measure
can yield the desired result. . . .

An immoral government presupposes a demoralized
people; a conscienceless administration, greedy and
servile citizens in the settled parts, outlaws and brigands
In the mountains. . . .

My countrymen, I have given proof that I am one most
anxious for liberties for our country, and I am still
desirous of them. But I place as a prior condition the
education of the people, that by means of instruction and
indu.stry our country may have an individuality of its
own and make itself worthy of these liberties. . . .

Jose Rizal foresaw many of the circumstances
which resulted in the start, 2 years after his death,
of the close and fruitful association of the Philip-
pines and the United States. But not even Rizal
could have predicted that the system of liberal
education and political preparation he yearned
for would, soon after his death, be introduced so
quickly and effectively from America.

I am gratified to be able to say that the United
States early recognized Rizal's wisdom and the
logic of his ideals. In 1902 a bill establishing
civil government in the Philippines was adopted
by the United States Congress (the first Organic
Act). In his sponsorship speech Representative
Henry A. Cooper said of Rizal,

Search the long and bloody roll of the world's martyred
dead, and where — on what soil, under what sky — did
tyranny ever claim a nobler victim? . . . the future is
not without hope for a people which . . . has furnished
to the world a character so lofty and so pure as that of
Jose Rizal.

Present U.S.-Philippine Relationship

His ideas and ideals form an appropriate back-
groimd for the present relationship of the Philip-
pines and the United States as sovereign equals
joined in a partnership based upon mutuality of
outlook, interest, and purpose and on an active
concern with the welfare and peace of humanity
everywhere. This association has been marked

Secretary Rusk Sends Greetings
to Republic of the Pliilippines

Following is a message sent 6y Secretary Rusk to
Vice President Emmanuel Pelacz of the Pliilippines
on the occasion of Rizal Day, December 30, awl the
conclusion of the centennial observance of the hirth
of Jos6 Rizal.

Press release 913 dated December 29

December 29, 1961

Dear Mb. Vice President : Over the past twelve
months we in the United States have been honored
by the opportunity to share in celebrating with you
the centennial of the birth of your national hero,
Dr. Jos6 Rizal.

The close association of our two countries in pur-
suing our mutual ideals truly embraces the spirit
of Rizal. Founded on such an identity of prin-
ciple, our common cause and our many individual
friendships can only grow and prosper to the ad-
vantage of all mankind.
Sincerely yours,

Dean Rusk

by constantly growing respect and friendship,
with each partner maturing in step with the
other. Accompanying these official relations
from the outset have been the equally important
individual ties between Filipino and American.
As early as 1901, plans were made to send 1,000
American teachers to the Philippines. Those
dedicated teachers (known as Thomasites after
the name of the Army transport wliich took them
there) are still held in esteem throughout the
Philippines. By 1903 the education of outstand-
ing Filipino students in the United States was
authorized. Our good friend General [Carlos P.]
Romulo himself was one of them.

I like to think that Jose Rizal would have re-
sponded warmly to the arrival in this, his cen-
tenary year, of a second group of youths fired by
ideals similar to his own. The heirs of his leader-
ship, as well as we who send them, recognize the
spirit of Rizal in the Peace Corps volimteers who
are now undertaking to assist the cause of educa-
tion in the Philippines. I noted with satisfaction
a few days ago that six of them offered their
labor during the Christmas vacation to help re-
pair school buildings damaged or destroyed by a
typhoon in their locality.

Rizal did not know that liis people would so
soon have the opportunity to develop in an atmos-

January 29, J 962


phere of freedom of religion, of information, and,
most important to liim, freedom from fear. He
would have rejoiced in the early establishment of
libraries in which his own works have a prominent
place. He would have been gratified by the pro-
grams under which the United States helped re-
stock libraries destroyed by war. Rizal's interest
in languages today finds expression in the progress
in the Philippines in the development of a national
language. The United States has assisted this
program through the printing of textbooks in the
vernacular, principally Tagalog, as well as in
English. Our exchanges of students, leaders,
and specialists and the sharing of radio broad-
casting facilities have done much to liighlight the
similarity of our individual and national outlooks.
How splendid is the degree of harmony of ideals
and effort achieved between the Republic of the
Philippines and the United States of America!
Both our nations owe Rizal a great debt for his
foresight and wisdom, which facilitated develop-
ment of Asia's first liberal democracy.

In drawing attention to the closeness of our peo-
ple, I would be remiss were I to overlook the
occasional disagreements and problems that have
arisen between us. However, there have been none
tliat have not or cannot be i-esolved through frank
discussion. We have learned, over the yeare, to
know each other so well that we can argue with-
out fear of misunderstanding, as members of the
same family. For our part, we are impressed that
the spirit of pride in national identity and accom-
plishment that Rizal encouraged so fervently has
become an important part of the Philippine

Together our peoples have progressed. From
unsure and sometimes inept first steps, the United
States assisted the Philippines to national inde-
pendence dedicated to insuring the blessings of
liberty to its citizens. Although at times the way
was not clear, neither of us ever doubted what
the goal was nor that it would be achieved. It is
a fact that the United States has done much for
the Philippines; we have contributed money, we
have sent technicians and teachers. But without
Philippine talents, energies, and dedication all
this would have been in vain. The United States
has not played the role of mentor alone. From
the Philippines we have had countless lessons in
the art and psychology of living in a world soon to
be free of the forms of traditional colonialism if

not of all of its scars. The experience has been
mutually beneficial.

United in dedication to Rizal's ideals, our coun-
tries at Bataan and Corregidor forged an alliance
to forestall any second attempt to extinguish the
light of liberty in either country. After cooperat-
ing in crushing the alien-dominated Communist
Huks, w^ho sought to destroy the Philippines, and
after fighting side by side again in Korea, our two
coimtries took the lead in developing an organiza-
tion to defend Southeast Asia from the new

Rizal said,

When a people is denied light, home, liberty, and Jus-
tice — things that are essential to life, and therefore man's
patrimony — that people has a right to treat him who so
despoils it as we would the robber who intercepts us on
the highway.

Today we jointly protect our liberty. We can-
not and will not compromise our responsibilities
to defend the free peoples of Asia. The help of
the people of the Philippines is essential in ful-
filling this responsibility.

The Philippine economy has made great prog-
ress in recovering from the ravages of World War
II and going far beyond prewar production levels,
and more, I feel sure, can and will be achieved.
However, as President Kennedy has said, the
challenges and opportunities of the sixties are
enormous for all of us.

U.S. Shares "Faith in the Filipino"

Of great significance is the inauguration, just
a few hours ago, of a new government in the
Philippines. President Kennedy has sent Gov-
ernor Robert B. Meyner of New Jersey as his
personal representative to emphasize the hope,
the esteem, and the respect .^Vmericans hold for
the Philippine people and their flourishing demo-
cratic institutions. I have every confidence that
the prospects for even closer cooperation between
our respective Governments are most promising.
President [Diosdado] Macapagal has dedicated
himself, his campaign, and his administration to
"Faith in the Filipino." We share that faith.
The new President has committed himself to the
maintenance of United States-Philippine coopera-
tion in defense of free-world interests. He has
outlined a progressive program for economic
development and social justice. He deserves the


Department of Slate Bulletin

full suppoi't of all in the Philippines, regardless
of political affiliation.

The new administration declared during the
campaign its intention to resume and to accelerate
economic progress. It specifically promised to
remove the foreign-exchange controls which have
inhibited Philippine trade these past 11 years
and also to reduce Government participation
in business enterprises to a minimum. It is
pledged to launch a positive program to encourage
private foreign investment. I feel sure that
foreign investors will respond and can help by
providing a part of the very large amounts of
capital still needed to develop the tremendous
natural and human resources of the Philippines.
Moreover, the United States Government is ready
to consider any other constructive proposals
through which we may help the Philippines to
use its resources more fully. We are prepared
to join with other friends of the Philippines, both
public and private, to supplement those resources
in the most economical way possible.

The United States particularly welcomes the
Macapagal administration's reemphasized inter-
est in a program of self-help, its announced in-
tention to develop priorities for the use of available
resources, to improve the use of forestry and fish-
ery resources, to redirect credit to more produc-
tive use, to improve tax collections, to grant
greater autonomy to local communities, and to
insure a just distribution of the blessings of eco-
nomic progress. These goals fortuitously paral-
lel the criteria set forth in the act establishing
the new United States Agency for International
Development. It is good to see Eizal's hopes and
ideals acknowledged to such a degree in his

To President Macapagal and to the people of
the Philippines go our best wishes for his health
and success in carrying out his programs in the
spirit and example of Jose Kizal.

In extending our congratulations, we are pro-
foundly aware of the magnitude of the challenge
our countries face together. Our interest in the
continuing development of our common social and
political ideals is an historical fact. We do not
and shall not take for granted our friendship with
the Pliilippines or its people.

Wliile hundreds of millions of people have been
gaining their freedom, in most cases, as with the
Philippines, through the enlightened modem

policies of the former colonial powers, a new colo-
nialism in Europe and Asia is threatening free
peoples everywhere. I need not remind this au-
dience of what we have seen in Hungary and
Tibet, and most recently of the attempts of the
aggressive forces of this new colonialism to enslave
the free people of Viet-Nam. Certainly these at-
tacks are a portent of a continuing probing by
communism of the free world's will and dedication
to freedom.

Our mutual goals are clear. Each of us must
strive, first of all, to get on with the unfinished
business at home as we develop our economic and
social potential to the fullest. Secondly, we must
maintain and strengthen our joint and allied de-
fense posture to discourage or to repel, if need be,
aggression wherever it arises. Thirdly, we must
inform people in a manner which will lead to their
understanding and vigorously' opposing this new
Communist colonialism. And finally, we should
take positive measures to provide continuing help
to other nations who also draw inspiration from
these shared and universal ideals — the ideals of
Rizal — that liberal education and free choice, not
indoctrination and coercion, are the keys to eco-
nomic prosperity and social welfare.

In this way we shall not only fittingly remember
one who has "fallen during the night," but we
shall do much to preserve and to extend the fron-
tiers of freedom in the coming years. We owe it to
the memory of Rizal and to our American Found-
ing Fathers to pledge our energies and our pur-
pose and our honor to the cause of freedom, as
President Roosevelt said — everywhere in the

Mr. IVSoscoso Heads Factfinding
Mission to Dominican Republic

White House press release (Palm Beach, Fla. ) dated January 4

Tlie Wliite House announced on January 4 that
a factfinding mission headed by Teodoro Moscoso,
Assistant Administrator of the Agency for Inter-
national Development, would depart for the
Dominican Republic on January 7 to confer with
Dominican officials on the possibility of AID
projects for that country.

Mr. Moscoso's mission will seek information
in the areas of the monetary and fiscal situation

Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 46, Jan- Mar 1962) → online text (page 38 of 101)