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in the Dominican Republic and the possible need
for emergency progi-ams such as unemployment



January 29, 1962



\77



relief and literacy and immunization programs, as
■well as looking into the possible requirements for
long-term AID programs in the nation in order
to strengthen the Alliance for Progress.

Mr. Moscoso will spend several days at Santo
Domingo, then return to Washington, with a short
stopover in Puerto Rico. Members of his mission
will remain in Santo Domingo for a period of at
least a week in order to obtain detailed informa-
tion.

Other members of the factfinding mission are
Milton Barall, Deputy Assistant Secretary of
State for Inter-American Affairs; Ralph A. Vis-
bal. Chief, Office of Caribbean and Mexican Af-
fairs, Bureau for Latin America, AID; Norman
Ward, Special Assistant, Office of Institutional
Development, Bureau for Latin America, AID;
Ralph W. Ruffner, Acting Director, Education
and Social Development Staff, Bureau for Latin
America, AID; Joseph Carwell, Deputy Director,
Office of Inter-American Regional Economic Af-
fairs, Department of State; and Gabriel Kaplan,
consultant on community development.



U.S. Proposes Seasonal Marketing
Fund for Central American Coffee

Press release 5 dated January 3

The U.S. Government is prepared, in principle,
to lend up to $12 million to help certain Latin
American countries in their efforts to relieve sea-
sonal pressure on coffee markets through more
orderly marketing of their coffee, Teodoro Mos-
coso, AID Assistant Administrator for Latin
America, announced on January 3. This furthers
the aims of the Allanza para el Progreso.

To discuss detailed arrangements the United
States is proposing that a meeting be held at
Washington on January 22. The governments of
the following six countries have been invited:
Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nica-
ragua, and Costa Rica. These are the countries
which have displayed most immediate concern
about the seasonal marketing problem. It is possi-
ble that otlier Latin American nations having sim-
ilar problems may wish to consider participation
in the program at a later date. This is not pre-
cluded by the present action.

Mr. Moscoso emphasized that the U.S. plans had
just been comnmnicated to the interested govern-



ments. They have been advised of the essential
conditions wliich the United States believes must
be satisfied if the program is to hold out promise
of success and therefore to justify U.S. participa-
tion.

There are two main elements in the approach
envisaged by the United States :

1. For their part the countries participating in
the agreement will be asked to strengthen controls
over exports as required by the existing Interna-
tional Coffee Agreement. They will also under-
take internal measures to relieve the pressure that
overproduction puts on the market.

2. If certain conditions are satisfied the United
States will be prepared to make a long-tenn loan
of up to $12 million for a Seasonal Marketing
Fund (SMF). The fund would assist the coun-
tries to hold back their quota coffees from export
for a long enough time to relieve seasonal pressure
on coffee markets. The funds advanced will be
used on a revolving-fund basis, and the United
States proposes that repayment should be provided
on an automatic basis through a levy on each bag
of coffee exported. If the program meets with the
success hoped for, it is entirely possible that lesser
sums will be needed and that repayments can be
speeded up.

Other large coffee-producing coimtries in Latin
America have indicated their support for the pro-
gram, since relief of seasonal pressures on Central
American coffees will result in reduced pressures
on coffees from elsewhere.

Mr. Moscoso emphasized that the proposed pro-
gram should strengthen the existing coffee agree-
ment to which most of the world's coffee exporters
belong. He also said that it should improve the
chances for bringing about a long-term coffee
agreement among exporters and importers which
is intended to come to grips with the basic prob-
lem of ovei-production which now plagues world
coffee markets.

Latin American countries are heavily dependent
on earnings from the exports of commodities in
order to carry out their economic and social de-
velopment programs. Coffee is particularly im-
portant in Central America, where it is the
number-one export item. The worldwide coffee
markets have been deteriorating for some years,
basically because of overproduction. They show
particular seasonal weakness in Central America
since the full year's harvest is concentrated in a



178



Department of State Bulletin



short period of 3 to 4 months, creating great pres-
sures for early sale. Overproduction has also now
for the first time become a problem for that area.

Mr. Moscoso explained that the proposed meas-
ures to ease the seasonal marketing problem would
further programs of economic and social develop-
ment in this hemisphere, in accordance with the
charter of the Alliance for Progress agreed to at
the meeting last August at Punta del Este, Uru-
guay.^ More particularly, it would further the
specific program agreed to there for dealing with
the hemisphere's coffee problems.

Mr. Moscoso emphasized that this program does
not embrace buffer-stock arrangements, purchases
of surplus coffee, or intervention by the U.S. Gov-
ernment in coft'ee markets. Moreover, he stressed
it is not intended to raise the price of coffees. In-
stead it is intended to prevent seasonal marketing
pressures from reducing prices below their al-
ready depressed levels. Wholesale prices of Cen-
tral American coffees are now about 36 cents a
pound, which is about two-fifths their level of 7
years ago (90 cents) and about one-third less than
the average price 3 years ago (51 cents). Prices
are now the lowest since 1950. Recent price de-
clines have cost the exporting countries precious
foreign exchange. Every 1-cent drop in coffee
prices costs the six countries annually $7 million
in income.



Congressional Documents
Relating to Foreign Policy



87th Congress, 1st Session

Impact of Imports and Exports on Employment (Coal
and Residual Fuel Oil). Hearings before the Subcom-
mittee on the Impact of Imports and Exports on Ameri-
can Employment of the House Education and Labor
Committee. Part 1. June 19-20, 1061. 215 pp.

Closedown and Current Status of U.S. Government Nickel
Plant at Xicaro, Cuba. Hearings before a subcommit-
tee of the House Government Operations Committee.
August 20-30, 1961. 78 pp.

Export of Logs to Japan. Hearing before the Subcom-
mittee on Forests of the House Agriculture Committee.
October 7, 1961. 73 pp.

The European Economic Community and the United
States. Paper prepared by Robert R. Bowie and Theo-
dore Geiger for the Subcommittee on Foreign Economic
Policy of the Joint Economic Committee. November 27,
1961. 60 pp. [Joint Committee print]

United States Commercial Policy : A Program for the
1960's. Paper prepared by Peter B. Kenen for the
Subcommittee on Foreign Economic Policy of the Joint
Economic Committee. November 30, 1961. 37 pp.
[Joint Committee print]



Passport Regulations Affecting
Communists Revised

Press release 24 dated January 12

Tlie Department of State announced on Jan-
uary 12 the promulgation of revised passport reg-
ulations ^ dealing with denial of passports to
members of Communist organizations registered
or required to be registered under the Subversive
Activities Control Act of 1950. These regulations
are designed to implement the act in light of the
recent decision of the Supreme Court in the case
of the Comtnunht Party of the United States v.
Subversive Activities Control Board.

The regulations provide that a passport shall
not be issued to or renewed for any individual who
the issuing officer knows or has reason to believe
is a member of a Communist organization regis-
tered or required to be registered under the Sub-
versive Activities Control Act.

The regulations provide further that any per-
son to whom a passport or renewal of a passport
has been denied or whose passport has been re-
voked shall have the right to a hearing before the
Passport Office and shall liave the right to appeal
from an adverse decision of the Passport Office to
the Board of Passport Appeals appointed by the
Secretary of State. In such hearings the appli-
cant shall be accorded the right to appear, to be
represented by counsel, to present evidence, to be
informed of the evidence against him and the
source of such evidence, and to confront and cross-
examine adverse witnesses. The decision to deny
a passport shall be based only on evidence which
is made available to the applicant for the passport.

The Department of State also announced on
January 12 that it will move to revoke the out-
standing passports of certain leading officers and
members of the Communist Party of the United
States. This action will be taken pursuant to the
discretionary authority of the Secretary in the is-
suance of U.S. passports and in conformity with
the provisions in the Subversive Activities Control
Act relating to passports for persons wlio are
members of Communist organizations registered
or required to be registered under the act. The
Department is now conferring with the Depart-
ment of Justice as to the procedures for carrying
out such action.



' For text, see Bulletin of Sept. 11, 1961, p. 463.



■ For text, see 27 Fed. Reg. 344.



January 29, 1962



179



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES



International Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space



Following is a statement made in Committee I
(Political and Security) on December ^ hy Am-
bassador Adlai E. Stevenson, U.S. Bepresenta-
tive to the General Assembly, together with the
text of a resolution adopted in plenary on Decem-
ber 20.



STATEMENT BY AMBASSADOR STEVENSON

U.S. delegation press release 3875

The subject before tliis committee this morning
is, as you have indicated, outer space — and what
we together decide to do, or not to do, to promote
the exploration and use through peaceful cooper-
ation.

This is Year Five in the Age of Space. Already
in 4 short years scientific instruments, then ani-
mals, then men, have been hurled into space and
into orbit around the earth. Within a few more
years satellites will bring vast new developments
in weather forecasting and in worldwide tele-
phone, radio, and television communications.
More than that, rocket booster capacity will be-
come sufficient to launch teams of men on journeys
to the moon and to the nearest planets. And after
that, one can only speculate what may come next.

Unhappily this astoiuiding progress in space
science has not been matched by comparable prog-
ress in international cooperation. In the race of
history social invention continues to lag behind
scientific invention.

We have already lost valuable time that can
never be recovered.

Unless we act soon the space age — like the naval
age, like the air age and the atomic age— will see
waste and danger beyond description as a result
of mankind's inability to exploit liis technical ad-
vances in a rational social framework. In short,
unless we act soon, we shall be making the old mis-
takes all over again.

Despite the urgent need for immediate inter-
national action, I fear that we come to this subject



ill-prepared to think cleai-ly about it. I suspect
that we are handicapped by our heritage of
thought about the affairs of this single planet.

We are conditioned to think in terms of nations.
Our lives and concepts are predicated upon states
whose boundaries are fixed by oceans and rivers
and mountain ranges or by the manmade lines
drawn sharply across the two-dimensional and
finite surface of jDlanet Earth. We are condi-
tioned to think in terms of nations defined by
finite areas expressed m finite measurements — na-
tions with more or less known resources and more
or less counted populations. And especially we
are conditioned to think in terms of national
sovereignties.

Such concepts hav^e no meaningful application
to the unexplored, unboimded, and possibly un-
populated reaches of outer space, which surround
no nation more than any other nation, and which
are innocent of the idea of national sovereignty.

We are further handicapped, many of us, by the
impression that the exploration of outer space is a
matter of concern only to the great powers because
they alone have the capacity to penetrate space.
That impression gains force from the belief that
outer space is unrelated to the day-to-day pi'ob-
lems of nations whose energies are absorbed by
such earthly daily questions as growing enough
food to feed their peoples.

This impression, I submit, is totally and danger-
ously wrong.

The smallest nation represented here in the
United Nations is deeply concerned with this ques-
tion before us — and so is the poorest of our
members. Indeed, tliey may have far more to
gain from the shared benefits of space science —
and on just such matters as growing food — than
the larger and the richer societies.

Moreover, the small nations have an overriding
interest in seeing to it (liat access to space and the
benefits of space science are not preempted by a
few nations, that space exploration is not carried



180



Department of Sfofe Bulletin



forward as a competition between big-power
rivals, (hat the ideological quarrels which so un-
happily alUict this planet are not boosted into
space to infect other planets yet unsullied by the
quarrels of men.

Final]}', all nations can play a part in assuring
(hat mankind derives the maximum advantage
from space technology in the here and the now
and not just in the hereafter. Every nation can co-
operate in the allocation of radio frequencies for
space communications. Every nation can partici-
pate in global systems of weather prediction and
communications.

In outer space we start with a clean slate — an
area yet unmarred by the accumulated conflicts
and prejudices of our earthly past. We propose
today that the United Nations write on this slate
boldly and in an orderly and a creative way to
narrow the gap between scientific progress and so-
cial invention, to offer to all nations, irrespective
of the stage of their economy or scientific develop-
ment, an opportunity to participate in one of the
greatest adventures of man's existence.

The United States, together with other delega-
tions, today places before this committee a pro-
gram for cooperation in outer space — a program
embodied in the draft resolution ^ now before you.
"We look forward to constructive discussions of
these proposals — and to improvement upon them.
They do not represent fixed positions. We are
prepared to consider constructive suggestions from
any member of the committee so that the widest
possible measui'e of common agreement may be
reached. But these proposals do represent our
best and most thoughtful effort to put forward
in good faith a program of international coopera-
tion for the benefit of all mankind.

Toward a Regime of Law and Order

The first part of this program, embodied in part
A of the draft resolution, looks toward a regime
of law and order in outer space based on two
fimdamental principles wliich should commend
themselves to all nations.

The first principle is that international law, in-
cluding the United Nations Charter, applies to
outer space and celestial bodies. Now that man
has found means to venture beyond his earthly en-
vironment, we should state explicitly that the
rules of good international conduct follow him



wherever he goes. The Ad Hoc Committee on the
Peaceful Uses of Outer Space noted in its report
of July 14, 1959,^ that as a matter of principle
the United Nations Charter and the statute of
the International Court of Justice are not limited
in their operations to the confines of the earth.

The second principle is that outer space and
celestial bodies are free for exploration and use
by all states in conformity with international law
and are not subject to national appropriation by
claim of sovereignty or otherwise.

The Ad Hoc Committee on Peaceful Uses of
Outer Space noted in its report that with the prac-
tices followed during the International Geophys-
ical Year "there may have been initiated the rec-
ognition or establishment of a generally accepted
rule to the effect that, in principle, outer space is,
on conditions of equality, freely available for
exploration and use by all in accordance with
existing or future international law or agree-
ments."

This rule has been confirmed by the practice of
states in the time since the report was written. It
now deserves explicit recognition by this
Assembly.

But such a statement on outer space is not
enough. In the 2 years since the report was writ-
ten, mankind has taken giant steps toward reach-
ing celestial bodies. The first manned lunar
landing may take place by the end of the present
decade. All mankind has an interest and a stake
in these monumental achievements. We must not
allow celestial bodies to be the objects of com-
peting national claims.

The members of the committee will note that we
have not attempted to define where outer space
begins. In our judgment it is premature to do
this now. The attempt to draw a boundary be-
tween air space and outer space must await fur-
ther experience and a consensus among nations.

Fortunately the value of the principles of free-
dom of space and celestial bodies does not depend
on the drawing of a boundary line. If I may cite
the analogy of the high seas, we have been able
to confirm the principle of freedom of the seas
even in the absence of complete agreement as to
where the seas begin.

Freedom of space and celestial bodies, like free-
dom of the seas, will serve the interest of all na-
tions. Man should be free to venture into space



' U.N. doe. A/C. 1/L. 301.
January 29, 1962



' U.N. doc. A/4141.



181



on the same basis that he has ventured on the
high seas — free from any restraints save those
imposed by the laws of his o^vn nation and by the
rules of international law, including those em-
bodied in the United Nations Charter.

Open and Orderly Conduct of Activities

The second part of our program is designed to
encourage the open and orderly conduct of outer
space activities. The measures proposed in part
B of the draft resolution would help all countries
participate in space activities and would foster
an atmosphere of mutual trust and confidence.

In pursuit of these objectives we proposed that
all states launching objects into orbit or beyond
should furnish information promptly to the Sec-
retary-General for the purpose of registration of
launchings. This information would include or-
bital and transit characteristics and such other
data as lavmching states might wish to make avail-
able. The Secretariat would maintain a record
of this information and would communicate it
upon request to other members of the United Na-
tions and to specialized agencies.

The establishment of a complete registry or
census of space vehicles would mark a modest but
an important step toward openness in the conduct
of space activities. It would benefit nations the
world over, large and small, which are interested
in identifying, tracking, and communicating with
space vehicles. It could lay the basis for later
arrangements for termination of radio transmis-
sion and removal of satellites when their useful
lives were ended.

The Secretariat should perform other useful
functions bej'ond these connected with the regis-
try of space vehicles :

It could, in consultation with appropriate spe-
cialized agencies, maintain close contact with gov-
ernmental and nongovernmental organizations
concerned with outer space matters.

It could provide for the exchange of informa-
tion which governments might supply in this
field on a voluntary basis — supplementing but not
duplicating existing exchanges.

It could assist in the study of measures for the
promotion of international cooperation in outer
space activities.

Finally, it could make periodic reports on sci-
entific and institutional developments in this field.

It is time to vest the Secretariat with these basic



service functions. The report of the Ad Hoc
Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space sug-
gested that some functions of this kind should be
performed by the Secretariat. It noted with ap-
proval the conclusion of its Technical Committee
that "there is a need for a suitable centre related
to the United Nations that can act as a focal point
for international co-operation in the peaceful uses
of outer space."

We believe that this recommendation should be
implemented without further delay, making full-
est possible use of existing resources of the Sec-
retariat. We understand that the services speci-
fied in this resolution can be performed with the
addition of a very small number of pereonnel.
The measures taken to carry out the new functions
could be reviewed by the Assembly at its next
session.

Weather Research and Prediction

The third part of our proposed program calls
for a worldwide effort under the auspices of the
United Nations in weather research and weather
prediction.

The dawn of the space age is opening vast new
possibilities in weather sciences. Satellites and
sounding rockets have supplemented other ad-
vances in meteorological techniques such as the
use of radar and electronic computers. They make
it possible for the first time in history for man to
keep the entire atmosphere in every region and
at every altitude under constant surveillance.

This portends a revolution in meteorology — a
peaceful revolution which can benefit all peoples
on this earth, particularly in the less developed
regions which presently lack adequate weather
information. Meteorological satellites hold spe-
cial promise for the improvement of weather fore-
casting capabilities in the Tropics and in the
Southern Hemisphere, where vast oceans cannot
be covered by present techniques.

Increased knowledge of the forces that shape
the weather will enable man to foi-ecast typhoons,
floods, rainfall, and drought with greater ac-
curacy.

These possibilities will mean the saving of
human life and reduction of property damage.

They will make possible the more efficient
use of limited water resources and enable the farm-
er to adjust the timing and the nature of his
planting to the rainfall which his fields will re-



182



Departmenf of State Bulletin



ceive. Fishing and gazing will also benefit.

Fuels and raw matei-ials can be transported and
stored more efficiently with better forelmowledge
of the weather.

In short, by making the weather and the events
which depend on it the more predictable, we can
foster progress in industry', agriculture, and health
and contribute to rising living standards around
the world.

But the enhancement of our Icnowledge of the
weather is only the beginning. In the more dis-
tant future looms the possibility of large-scale
weather modification. If this power is to be used
to benefit all rather than to gain special advantage
for a few, if it is to be used for peaceful, con-
structive purposes, progress toward weather con-
trol should be part of a cooperative international
venture.

"With these exciting prospects in mind we pro-
pose preparatory studies for two coordinated pro-
grams in part C of the draft resolution.

The first is an international atmospheric science
program to gain greater knowledge of the basic
forces affecting the climate. This will yield in-
formation essential for improved weather predic-
tion and eventually for possible weather modifica-
tion.

The second is an international meteorological
service program. The aim of this program would
be to enable men eveiywhere to reap the practical
benefits of discoveries in basic weather science.
Under this program steps could be taken leading
to the establishment of a global network of re-
gional weather stations located in less developed
as well as developed areas of the world. "Weather
information obtained from satellites could be
transmitted directly to such centers or communi-
cated indirectly after receipt in other areas of the
world.

The concept of regional meteorological centers
is already accepted and being applied in the
Northern Hemisphere, where thei-e are five such
centers serving regional needs for weather com-
munications and analysis. The needs of the



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 46, Jan- Mar 1962) → online text (page 39 of 101)