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Department of State bulletin (Volume v. 46, Jan- Mar 1962) online

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Tropics and the Southern Hemisphere are now be-
ing .studied. Tliere is. for example, a plan for
establishment of an international meteorological
center in Bombay in connection with the 4-year
international Indian Ocean expedition.

To put such a world weather network in opera-
tion will require cooperative efforts of many na-
tions. The "World Meteorological Organization —



called AVMO — has played an important role in
supplying technical assistance in the training ol
weather technicians, especially in the less devel-
oped areas. "We believe tliis activity of AVMO
should be continued and strengthened in the fu-
ture. National and international suppliers of
investment capital can help finance the e,stabli.sh-
ment of centers in countries which cannot afford
them. Nations which have developed weather sat-
ellites can make the weather information avail-
able freely for use in this system.

So far as the United States is concerned, we
stand ready, here and now, to make the weather
data received from our satellites available for such
a global system. In fact we are already making
such data available to other countries. "W^e are
developing methods which would permit direct
transmission of satellite cloud photography to any
part of the world. If this is successful the way
will be opened for a marked increase in the timely
availability of useful data.

Global System of Communication Satellites

Now the fourth part of the space program looks
toward the establishment of a global system of
communication satellites.

Space technology' has opened enormous possi-
bilities for international communications. "With-
in a few years satellites will make possible a vast
increase in the control and quality of interna-
tional radio, telephone, and telegraph traffic. In
addition, something new will be added — the possi-
bility of relaying television broadcasts around the
globe.

This fundamental breakthrough in communica-
tion could affect the lives of people everywhere.

It could forge new bonds of mutual knowledge
and understanding between nations.

It could offer a powerful tool to improve literacy
and education in developing areas.

It could support world weather services by
speedy transmittal of data.

It could enable leaders of nations to talk face
to face on a convenient and reliable basis.

The United States wishes to see this facility
made available to all states on a global and non-
discriminatory basis. "We conceive of this as an
international service. "We would like to see
United Nations members not only use this service
but also participate in its ownership and operation
if they so desire.



January 29, 1962



183



The United Nations Organization itself stands
to benefit directly from the use of satellites both
in communicating with its representatives around
the world and in disseminating programs of in-
formation and education.

As an example of the potentialities of such use,
we hope to have before long an experimental satel-
lite which will transmit across the Atlantic, for
brief periods, live television excerpts of debates
in the General Assembly of the United Nations.

In preparation for these developments the
United States proposes that the International
Telecommunication Union consider the various
aspects of space communication in which interna-
tional cooperation will be required. This will as-
sure all members of the United Nations a fair
opportunity to express their views. It is partic-
ularly important that the necessary arrangements
be made for the allocation of radio frequencies for
space communications.

In order to enable less developed countries to
participate in effective use of satellite communica-
tions, the Expanded Technical Assistance Pro-
gram and the United Nations Special Fund should
give sympathetic consideration to requests for
assistance from less developed countries to im-
prove the state of their domestic communications.

The principles I have mentioned are embodied
in part D of the draft resolution now before you.
If implemented with dispatch tliey could help to
clear the way for cooperative use of a worldwide
system of satellite communications.

Revitalizing the Outer Space Committee

The fifth part of our i^rogram seeks to put new
life and new responsibilities in the Committee on
the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.

As we all know, this Committee was established
2 years ago for an indefinite period by Resolution
1472 (XIV) ^ with a continuing mandate to study
programs on peaceful uses of outer space which
might be undertaken under United Nations aus-
pices, to study the legal problems whicli might
arise from the exploration of outer space, and to
plan an international conference for the exchange
of experience in the exploration of outer space.

We propose that, in addition to the responsibili-
ties laid down in this original mandate, the Com-
mittee should review the activities provided for
in this resolution and make such reports as it may

184



consider appropriate. In the four previous parts
of the resolution we have specifically noted the
role the Committee could play in studying the
legal problems of outer space, in reviewing the
service arrangements undertaken by the Secretary-
General, and in examining the proposals for
international cooperation in weather and
coimnunications.

As my colleagues are aware, Resolution 1472
provided for 24 membei's of the Outer Space Com-
mittee elected for a period of 2 years. We propose
to continue the same membership, augmented by
the addition of Nigeria and Chad in recognition
of the increase in the membership of African
states in the United Nations during the past 2
years.

Let the Committee make a fresh beginning. Let
the Committee meet early in 1962 to undertake
its original tasks and its new responsibilities in
connection with these cooperative programs.

We recognize that outer space activities are
unique in many respects and that international
cooperation is a prerequisite to progress. Al-
though we cannot of course accept the veto in the
work of the Committee, we expect that this work
can be carried out in a spirit of mutual imdcr-
standing. We do not anticipate that the nature of
the Committee's work would give rise to differ-
ences that could not be resolved by discussion. We
hope that, proceeding in this spirit, we can finally
put life into the Committee created 2 years ago.

I ask the distinguished delegates here to bear
in mind that in weather and commimications the
resolution embodies no commitments to any specific
program. It merely calls upon the Secretary-
General in cooperation with the specialized
agencies, and with other organizations, to submit
proposals for action. These proposals will be
presented to the Economic and Social Council at
its 34th session, to the I7t.h General Assemblj', and
to the Outer Space Committee.

In short the resolution in these fields merely
clears the way for deliberate consideration of
programs by government representatiA'cs. Such
basic studies ought not be further delayed.

Now we have sought in good faith and so far
as is possible to present a program which is above
the clash of partisan politics or the cold war. The
principles and programs embodied here bestow no



^ For text, see Bulletin of Jan. 11, 1960, p. 68.

Department of State Bulletin



special advantage on any state — they are in the
interest of all states.

The resolution deals exclusively \\-ith the peace-
ful uses of outer space. The military questions
of space are closely entangled with the militai-y
questions of earth. We believe that they require
urgent study as part of comprehensive negotia-
tions for general and complete disarmament.

This does not mean, however, that the program
of peaceful cooperation now before us has no bear-
ing on the issues of peace and war. It does. If
put into operation without delay, it can help lay
the basis for a relaxation of tensions and facilitate
progress elsewhere toward general and complete
disarmament.

We Cannot Afford To Delay

Mr. Chairman, I must close with the same theme
on which I commenced this presentation : We can-
not afford to delay.

The space programs of the great powers are
well advanced. Our own nation is proceeding
with the development of satellite systems for
weather forecasting and communications. In the
months ahead important decisions will have to be
made. If the opportunity for United Nations
action is missed, it will be increasingly difficult to
fit national space progi'ams into a rational pattern
of United Nations cooperation.

Our first choice is a program making maximum
use of the United Nations for at least three
reasons :

— because it could bring new vitality to the
United Nations and its family of agencies;

— because it would help to assure that all mem-
bers of the United Nations, developed and less
developed, could have a share in the adventure of
space cooperation ; and

— because a program of such magnitude should
be carried out as far as possible through the or-
ganizations of the world community.

As I say, this is our first choice. But the march
of science is irreversible. The United States has
a responsibility to make the fullest possible use
of new developments in space technology — in
weather forecasting, in communications, and in
other areas. These developments are inevitable in
the near future. We hope they can take place
through cooperative efforts in the United Nations.

I suppose that the great climaxes in the drama
of history are seldom evident to those who are on



the stage at the time. But there can be little ques-
tion tliat man's conquest of outer space is just such
a moment, that we — all of us— are on stage, and
that how we behave in the immediate will have
a profound impact upon the course of human af-
fairs in the decades ahead.

Tiiere is a right and a wrong way to get on with
the business of space exploration. In our judg-
ment the wrong way is to allow the march of
science to become a i-unaway race into the un-
known. The right way is to make it an ordered,
peaceful, cooperative, and constructive forward
march under the aegis of the United Nations.

I most earnestly recommend your serious atten-
tion to the proposals my Government is making
to this end.



TEXT OF RESOLUTION*

A

The General Assembly,

Recognizing the common interest of mankind in fur-
thering the peaceful uses of outer space and the urgent
need to strengthen international co-operation in this im-
portant field,

Believing that the exploration and use of outer space
should be only for the betterment of mankind and to the
benefit of States irrespective of the stage of their eco-
nomic or scientific development,

1. Commends to States for their guidance in the explo-
ration and use of outer space the following principles :

(a) International law, including the Charter of the
United Nations, applies to outer space and celestial bodies ;

(6) Outer space and celestial bodies are free for ex-
ploration and use by all States in conformity with inter-
national law and are not subject to national appro-
priation ;

2. Invites the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of
Outer Space to study and report on the legal problems
which may arise from the exploration and use of outer
space.

B

The General Assembly,

Believing that the United Nations should provide a
focal point for international co-operation in the peaceful
exploration and use of outer space,

1. Calls upon States launching objects into orbit or
beyond to furnish information promptly to the Committee
on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, through the Secre-
tary-General, for the registration of launchings;

2. Requests the Secretary-General to maintain a public
registry of the information furnished in accordance with
paragraph 1 above;



'U.N. doc. A/RES/1721 (XVI) (A/C.l/L.301/Rev. 1
and Corr. 1) ; adopted unanimously in plenary session on
Dee. 20.



ianuary 29, 1962



185



3. Requests the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of
Outer Space, in co-operation with the Secretary-General
and making full use of the functions and resources of
the Secretariat :

(a) To maintain close contact with governmental and
non-governmental organizations concerned with outer
space matters ;

(6) To provide for the exchange of such information
relating to outer space activities as Governments may
supply on a voluntary basis, supplementing but not
duplicating existing technical and scientific exchanges;

(c) To assist in the study of measures for the promo-
tion of international co-operation in outer space activi-
ties;

4. Further requests the Committee on the Peaceful
Uses of Outer Space to report to the General Assembly
on the arrangements undertaken for the performance of
those functions and on such developments relating to the
peaceful uses of outer space as it considers significant.

C

The Oeneral Assembly,

Noting with gratification the marked progress for
meteorological science and technology opened up by the
advances in outer space,

Convinced of the world-wide benefits to be derived
from International co-operation in weather research and
analysis,

1. Recommends to all Member States and to the World
Meteorological Organization and other appropriate spe-
cialized agencies the early and comprehensive study. In
the light of developments in outer space, of measures :

(a) To advance the state of atmospheric science and
technology so as to provide greater knowledge of basic
physical forces affecting climate and the possibility of
large-scale weather modification ;

(&) To develop existing weather forecasting capabili-
ties and to help Member States make effective use of such
capabilities through regional meteorological centres ;

2. Requests the World Meteorological Organization,
consulting as appropriate with the United Nations Edu-
cational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and other
specialized agencies and governmental and non-govern-
mental organizations, such as the International Council
of Scientific Unions, to submit a report to its member
Governments and to the Economic and Social Council at
its thirty-fourth session regarding appropriate organi-
zational and linancial arrangements to achieve those
ends, with a view to their furtlier consideration by the
General Assembly at its seventeenth session ;

3. Requests the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of
Outer Space, as it deems appropriate, to review that report
and submit its comments and recommendations to the
Economic and Social Council and to the General Assembly.

D

The Oeneral Assembly,

Believing that communication by means of satellites
should be available to the nations of the world as soon



186



as practicable on a global and non-discriminatory basis.
Convinced of the need to prepare the way for the estab-
lishment of effective operational satellite communication,

1. Notes nith satisfaction that the International Tele-
communication Union plans to call a special conference
in 1963 to make allocations of radio frequency bands for
outer space activities ;

2. Recommends that the International Telecommuni-
cation Union consider at that conference those aspects
of space communication in which international co-opera-
tion will be required ;

3. Notes the potential importance of communication
satellites for use by the United Nations and its principal
organs and specialized agencies for both operational and
informational requirements ;

4. Invites the Special Fund and the Expanded Pro-
gramme of Technical Assistance, in consultation with the
International Telecommunication Union, to give sympa-
thetic consideration to requests from Member States for
technical and other assistance for the survey of their
communication needs and for the development of their
domestic communication facilities so that they may make
effective use of space communication ;

5. Requests the International Telecommunication
Union, consulting as appropriate with Member States,
the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization and other specialized agencies and govern-
mental and non-governmental organizations, such as the
Committee on Space Research of the International Coun-
cil of Scientific Unions, to submit a report on the imple-
mentation of those proposals to the Economic and Social
Council at its thirty-fourth session and to the General
Assembly at its seventeenth session ;

6. Requests the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of
Outer Space, as it deems appropriate, to review that
report and submit its comments and recommendations
to the Economic and Social Council and to the General
Assembly.

E

The Oeneral Assembly,

Recalling its resolution 1472 (XIV) of 12 December
1959,

Noting that the terms of office of the members of the
Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space expire
at the end of 1961,

Noting the report of the Committee on the Peaceful
Uses of Outer Space,"

1. Decides to continue the membership of the Commit-
tee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space as set forth in
General Assembly resolution 1472(XIV) and to add Chad,
Mongolia, Morocco and Sierra Leone to its membership
in recognition of the increased membership of the United
Nations since the Committee was established ;

2. Requests the Committee to meet not later than 31
March 1962 to carry out its mandate as contained la
General Assembly resolution 1472(XIV), to review the
activities provided for in the present resolution and to
make such reports as it may consider appropriate.



" U.N. doc. A/4987.



Department of State Bulletin



IMF Sets Up Borrowing Arrangements
for Supplementary Resources

The Iiilernational Monetary Fund announced
on January 8 that its Board of Executive Direc-
tors has reached a decision ^ on general arrange-
ments by which the Fund may borrow supple-
mentary resources under article VII of tlie Fund
Agreement. This decision sets out the terms and
conditions under which such borrowing will be
possible in order to enable the Fund to fulfill more
effectively its role in the international monetary
system under conditions of convertibility, includ-
ing greater freedom for short-term capital move-
ments.

Ten main industrial countries, after necessary
legislative authorizations have been obtained and
they formally adhere to the arrangements, will
stand ready to lend their currencies to the Fund
up to specified amounts when the Fund and these
countries consider that supplementary resources
are needed to forestall or cope with an impair-
ment of the international monetary system. The
total amount of such supplementary resources is
the equivalent of $6 billion, composed as follows :

Amount
(Equiimlent in miUions
Countru U.S. dollars)

Belgium $150

Canada 200

France 550

Germany 1,000

Italy .550

Japan 250

Netherlands 200

Sweden 100

United Kingdom 1, 000

United States 2,000

In an exchange of letters among themselves the
10 countries have set down the procedures they
will follow in making supplementary resources
available to the Fund for the financing of a par-
ticular Fund transaction for which such resources
are considered necessary.

The announcement by the Fund explained that
the general borrowing arrangements should make
it possible to mobilize quickly large additional
resources in defense of the international monetarj'
system. The need for the assurance of additional
resources arises not from any failure of the mone-
tary system but from the broader convertibility

^ For text, see IMF press release 377 dated Jan. 8.
January 29, 7962



of currencies, particularly tliose of the main in-
dustrial countries. This more widespread con-
vertibility, which is so useful for the growth of
world trade, has at the same time made possible
sudden and substantial shifts of funds from one
country to another. To avoid any undesirable im-
pact on the functioning of the international mone-
tary system as a result of such developments, it
has become imperative to strengthen the resources
which may be made available and so to enable the
countries which experience difficulties to pursue
appropriate policies.

Fortunately most of the industrial countries al-
ready possess substantial reserves of their own.
For its part the International Monetary Fund has
nearly $3 billion in its gold account and $6.5
billion in the currencies of the main industrial
countries. At any given time, however, some of
these countries may be facing balance-of-payments
difficulties, so that in order to promote inter-
national monetary balance it would be advisable
that temporarily these currencies should not be
drawn from the Fund. Fund drawings should
be made mainly in the currencies of those coun-
tries that have strong balance-of-payments and
reserve positions. The new general borrowing ar-
rangements are designed to provide the Fund with
additional resources of these latter currencies when
they are needed for the purpose of forestalling or
coping with an impairment of the international
monetary system. In this way both the liquidity
of the Fund and the resilience of the monetary
system will be enhanced, to the benefit of all
members.

The Fund decision provides that the requests
for drawings by participant countries for which
supplementary resources are required will be dealt
with according to the Fund's established policies
and practices with respect to the use of its re-
sources. Kepayment to the Fund of such assist-
ance will have to be made when the country's prob-
lem is solved, and in any event within 3 to 5 years.
In its turn, when the Fund receives repayment, it
will repay the countries that made supplementary
resources available, and in any event the Fund
will repay not later than 5 years after a borrow-
ing. Moreover, a country that has lent to the
Fund can receive early repayment should it re-
quest and need this because its own payments po-
sition has deteriorated, and rights to repayment
are backed by all the assets of the Fund. In this

187



way the claims of countries that have lent supple-
mentary resources to the Fund have been guaran-
teed a highly liquid character.

Interest on the resources lent to the Fund will
be based on a formula which at present yields a
rate of li/^ percent per annum; in addition, the
Fund will pay a charge of one-half of 1 percent on
each borrowing transaction.

Tlie borrowing arrangements will become effec-
tive when at least seven countries with commit-
ments totaling the equivalent of $5.5 billion for-
mally inform the Fund that they adhere to the
arrangements, and the arrangements will then re-
main in effect for 4 years, with provisions for
extension. In the light of developing circum-
stances the amounts included in the arrangement
may, however, be reviewed from time to time and
altered with the agreement of the Fund and all
the participating countries.



Caribbean Organization Designated
Public International Organization

AN EXECUTIVE ORDER'

Designating the Caribbean Organization as a Public
International Organization Entitled To Enjot Cer-
tain Privileges, Exemptions, and Immunities

By virtue of the authority vested in me by section 1 of
the International Organizations Immunities Act, approved
December 29, 1945 (59 Stat. 6G9 ; 22 U.S.C. 2SS), and by
the joint resolution of June 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 194, I hereby
designate the Caribbean Organization as a public inter-
national organization entitled to enjoy the privileges, ex-
emptions, and immunities conferred by the said Interna-
tional Organizations Immunities Act.

The designation of the above-named organization as a
public international organization within the meaning of
the said Act is not intended to abridge in any respect
privileges, exemptions, and immunities to which such
international organization may otherwise be or become
entitled.

This order revokes Executive Order No. 10025 of De-
cember 30, 1948, to the extent that such order relates
to the Caribbean Commi-ssion.



J/Lu\



The WnrrE House,
December 30, 1961.



TREATY INFORMATION



U.S. and Japan Agree on Settlement
of Postwar Economic Assistance

Department Announcement

Press release 18 dated January 9

At noon, January 9, 1962, Edwin O. Reischauer,
tlie American Ambassador to Japan, and Zentaro
Kosaka, the Foreign Minister of Japan, met at
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Tokj-o and con-
cluded a formal agreement ^ between the United
States and Japan for the final settlement of the
American postwar economic assistance to Japan.
Two supplementary exchanges of notes were also
signed at the ceremony.



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 46, Jan- Mar 1962) → online text (page 40 of 101)