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for a period of 1 year.' Under this arrangement,
if cotton textiles from an exporting country cause
or threaten to cause disruption in the market of
an importing country, the latter may request the
exporting country to restrain its exports for any
of the 64 categories specified in the arrangement
at a level not lower than the level of imports dur-
ing the 12 months ending June 30, 1961. The ex-
porting country, under the short-term arrange-
ment, has 30 days in which to accept the request



" For text, see iWd., Mar. 13, 1961, p. 368.

' For statements made b.v U.S. Representative Adlni E.
Stevenson in the Security Council on Nov. IG, 21, and 24,
1901, together with text of a resolution adopted by the
Council on Nov. 24, see ibid., Dec. 25. 1961, p. lOCl.

' For text of Department statements, see ihid., Jan. 1,
1962, p. 10; Jan. 8, 1962, p. 49; and Jan. 15, 1962, p. 95.



' Made before the Special Subcommittee To Study the
Textile Industry of the Senate Oimmerce Ckimmittee on
Jan. 10 (press release 38).

' For text, see Bulletin of May 29, 1961, p. 825.

' For background and test of agreement, see ihid.,
Aug. 21. 1901, p. 336.



218



Department of State Bulletin



for export restraint. If by the end of the 30-day
period the exporting country does not agree to
restrain its exports, the requesting country may
decline to accept imports at a level iiigher than
the specified level. In critical circumstances ac-
tion may be taken provisionally while the request
is under discussion.

The arrangement also provides that countries
maintaining quantitative restrictions on cotton
textile imports shall significantly increase access
to their markets for countries wliose exports they
are restricting. The July conference also estab-
lished a Cotton Textile Committee which was di-
rected to prepare recommendations for a longer
term arrangement on cotton textiles by April 30,
1962.

Subsequent to the July conference, 19 govern-
ments adhered to the short-term arrangement.
One of these governments, the United Kingdom,
also acceded on behalf of Ilong Kong. The coun-
tries acceding to the short-term Geneva arrange-
ment account for over 90 percent of the free
world's trade in cotton textiles.

The implementation of the United States par-
ticipation in the short-term arrangement has been
delegated by the President to the Interagency Tex-
tile Administrative Committee.* It consists of
five agencies — the Departments of Agriculture,
Commerce, Labor, State, and Treasury. Assistant
Secretary of Commerce Price chairs the Com-
mittee. Two meetings of the Committee have
been held thus far; the third meeting is scheduled
for January 22. Advising the Committee is the
Management -Labor Textile Advisory Committee,
also established by the President.

Bilateral Arrangement With Japan

The short-term arrangement permits the nego-
tiation of mutually acceptable bilateral arrange-
ments on terms other than those of the short-term
arrangement. Japan, which has been controlling
its cotton textile exports to the United States
since 1957, requested the United States to enter
into a bilateral arrangement with it to replace the
voluntary Japanese program which expired at the
end of 1961. Accordingly, in August and Sep-
tember 1961, negotiations were held in Tokyo



which resulted in a United States-Japanese bi-
lateral arrangement on cotton textiles lor calen-
dar year 1962.^ The 1962 arrangement continues
the overall ceilings in Japanese cotton textile ex-
ports to the United States as in the previous Japa-
nese program. In recognition of the fact that
Japan had been controlling its exports since 1957
while other cotton textile exporting countries
were increasing their exports to the United States,
the 1962 arrangement provides for an increase of
7 to 8 percent in the Japanese cotton textile export
quotas above the 1961 quota level.

Negotiation of Long-Term Arrangement

Discussions on a long-term arrangement began
in Geneva at a 1-week meeting of the Cotton Tex-
tile Committee in October.^ At this meeting a
technical subcommittee was established to make
recommendations on the form and substance of a
long-term arrangement for presentation to the
full Committee. Problems relating to the long-
term arrangement were discussed, and guidelines
were established for the work of the teclinical
subcommittee. Consensus was reached that a long-
term arrangement would need to provide growing
opportunities for cotton textile exports of the less
developed countries, provided that the develop-
ment of this trade was reasonable and orderly, so
as to avoid disruption in individual markets.

The technical subcommittee held two meetings,
one in December and one concluded just last Sat-
urday, January 13. The result of these meetings
was the draft of a long-term arrangement for
presentation to the Cotton Textile Committee at
its next meeting, scheduled for January 29. On
several key problems the draft contains alterna-
tive solutions which will be the subject of negotia-
tion. Essentially, however, the draft arrangement
represents a continuation of the principal provi-
sions of the short-term arrangement — namely, the
right of importing countries not maintaining im-
port restrictions, if imports are causing market
disruption, to request export restraint and to im-
pose import restrictions if the request is not ac-
cepted, and the relaxation of import restrictions on
the part of countries still maintaining such
restrictions.



' For text of the President's memorandum of Oct. 18
establishing machinery to implement the agreement, see
iiid., Nov. 6, 1961, p. 773.



" The agreement was signed on Oct. 16, 1961 ; for text of
the draft agreement, see Hid., Oct. 2, 19C1, p. 572.

'For text of a communique, see ibid., Nov. 27, 1961,
p. 906.



February 5, 1962



219



Role of Textile Industry and Labor Unions

The U.S. delegations to the various interna-
tional conferences referred to above kept repre-
sentatives of our textile industry and labor unions
fully informed concerning the international dis-
cussions and negotiations. At the same time the
U.S. delegations profited from the close relation-
ship which existed with the industry and labor
representatives and from their advice and assist-
ance.

Conclusion

The international negotiations for a cotton tex-
tile arrangement have been undertaken in recogni-



tion of the need for cooperative and constructive
action with regard to international trade in cotton
textiles. The effectiveness of a long-term arrange-
ment in providing a solution to the cotton textile
import problem depends to a considerable extent
on the details of the arrangement still to be finally
negotiated. It is the United States' intention to
have an arrangement which will afford maximimi
safeguards to our textile industry against disrup-
tion of the United States market. "Wliile it is
recognized that the less developed exporting
countries must have the opportunity to increase
their textile exports, a long-term arrangement
must accomplish this without undue and disrup-
tive inroads into our markets.



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES



Calendar of International Conferences and Meetings'



Scheduled February Through April 1962

WMO Commission for Synoptic Meteorology: Working Group on
Networks.

U.N. ECE Ad Hoc Working Party on Economic Criteria for In-
vestment Choice.

U.N. ECA Standing Committee on Social Welfare and Community
Development.

U.N. ECE Ad Hoc Working Party on Thermal Power Stations . .

North Pacific Fur Seal Commission: 5th Meeting

U.N. ECE Team of Experts on Citrus Fruit

U.N. ECAFE Inland Transport and Communications Committee:
10th Session.

GATT Working Party on Cereals

ITU CCIR Study Group IX

U.N. ECE Working Party on Perishable Foodstuffs

OECD Maritime Transport Committee: 2d Session

U.N. Economic Commission for Africa: Presession on Work Program
for Plenary Session.

U.N. ECLA Committee of the Whole: 8th Session

FAO International Rice Commission: 6th Session of the Consult-
ative Subcommittee on the Economic Aspects of Rice.

GATT Committee III on Expansion of International Trade . . .

U.N. Economic Commission for Africa: 4th Session

U.N. ECE Rapporteurs on Comparison Between Systems of
National Accounts in Use in Europe.

IMCO Council: 6th Session

OECD Economic Policy Committee

OECD Manpower Committee: Ist Meeting

GATT Council of Representatives



Geneva Feb. 5-

Geneva Feb. 5-

Addis Ababa Feb. 5-

Geneva Feb. 6-

Ottawa Feb. 7-

Geneva Feb. 8-

Bangkok Feb. 12-

Geneva Feb. 12-

Paris Feb. 12-

Geneva Feb. 12-

Paris Feb. 14-

Addis Ababa Feb. 14-

Santiago Feb. 14-

Rangoon Feb. 15-

Geneva Feb. 10-

Addis Ababa Feb. 19-

Geneva Feb. 19-

London Feb. 20-

Paris Feb. 21-

Paris Feb. 22-

Geneva Feb. 22-



' Prepared in the Office of International Conferences, Jan. 15, 1962. Asterisks indicate tentative dates. Follo\^nng
is a list of abbreviations; ANZUS, Australia-New Zealand-United States; CCIR, Comit6 consultatif international des
radio communications; CENTO, Central Treaty Organization; ECA, Economic Commission for Africa; ECAFE, Eco-
nomic Commission for Asia and the Far East; ftCE, Economic Commission for Europe; ECLA, Economic Commission for
Latin America- ECOSOC, Economic and Social Council; FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization; G.\TT, General
Agreement on TarifTs and Trade; I.\E.'\, International Atomic Energy Agency; lA-ECOSOC, Inter- .\merican Economic
and Social Council; IBE, International Bureau of Education- ICAO, International Civil Aviation Orgai\ization; ICEM,
Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration; IDB, Inter- American Development Bank; ILO, International
Labor Organization; IMCO, Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization; ITU, International Telecommuni-
cation Union; OAS, Organization of American States; OECD, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development;
SEATO, Southeast Asia Treaty Organization; U.N., United Nations; UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization; WHO, World Health Organization; WMO, World Meteorological Organization.



220



Deparfmenf of Stale Bulletin



ILO International Institute for Labor Studies: 2d Session of the
Board.

CENTO Economic Committee

ILO Governing Body: 151st Session (and its committees) ....

IAEA Board of Governors

IBE Executive Committee

lA-ECOSOC: 1st Meeting of National Directors of Immigration,
Customs, and Tourism of Central America, Mexico, and the
United States.
ICAO European- Mediterranean Aeronautical Fixed Telecommu-
nications Network Panel.
Caribbean Organization: Ministerial Meeting on Trade and Move-
ment of Persons.
WMO Working Group on the Guide to Agricultural Meteorological

Practices.
OAS/UNESCO/ECLA Conference on Education and Economic and

Social Development in Latin America.
U.N. ECOSOC Committee for Industrial Development: 2d Ses-
sion.

U.N. ECE Working Party on River Law

U.N. Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East: 18th Ses-
sion.

ICAO Air Traffic Control Automation Panel

GATT Expert Group on Consular Formalities

U.N. ECE Working Party on Construction of Vehicles

ITU CCIR Study Group IV (Space Systems) and Study Group
VIII (International Monitoring).

WMO Regional Association I (Africa): 3d Session

U.N. Disarmament Committee: 1st Meeting

Caribbean Organization Council

WMO Working Group on the Synoptic Use of Meteorological Data

from Artificial Satellites.
U.N. ECOSOC Commission on Human Rights: 18th Session. . .
U.N. ECOSOC Commission on Status of Women: 16th Session .

U.N. ECE Coal Committee (and working parties)

U.N. ECE Steel Committee: 27th Session

UNESCO Meeting of Advisory Committee on Educational Projects
in Latin America.

ICAO Legal Subcommittee

WMO Commission for Synoptic Meteorology: 3d Session ....
IMCO International Conference on the Prevention of Pollution of

the Sea by Oil.
U.N. ECE Rapporteurs on Cost and Planning of New Residential

Areas.
UNESCO Conference of Ministers of Education of Africa . . . .

ICEM Executive Committee: 19th Session

CENTO Liaison Committee

Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences: 7th Meeting of
Technical Advisory Council.

Inter-American Indian Institute: Governing Board

ICEM Council: 16th Session

UNESCO Conference on Education in Asia

ILO African Advisory Committee: 2d Session

Inter-American Nuclear Energy Commission: 4th Meeting . . .

U.N. Economic and Social Council: 33d Session

IDB Board of Governors: 3d Meeting

GATT Working Party on Tariff Reduction

ILO Committee on Statistics of Hours of Work

ILO/WHO Committee on Occupational Health: 4th Session . . .
IAEA Symposium on Reactor Hazards Evaluation Techniques . .
FAO Poplar Commission: 17th Session of E.xecutive Committee . .

CENTO Civil Defense Experts

ANZUS Council: 8th Meeting

U.N. ECAFE Regional Seminar on Development of Ground Water
Resources

U.N. Economic Commission for Europe: 17th Session

ITU CCIR Study Group VII

CENTO Military Committee

SEATO Council of Ministers: 8th Meeting

CENTO Ministerial Council: 10th Meeting

GATT Committee III on Expansion of International Trade . . .
U.N. ECOSOC Commission on Commodity Trade: Special Work-
ing Party.

U.N. ECOSOC Social Commission: 14th Session

OECD Agricultural Committee

OECD Ministerial Meeting

OECD Committee for Scientific and Technical Personnel ....



Geneva Feb. 24-

Washington Feb. 26-

Geneva Feb. 26-

Vienna Feb. 27-

Geneva Feb. 27-

San Salvador Mar. 1-

Paris Mar. 5-

Georgetown, British Guiana. . Mar. 5-

Geneva Mar. 5-

Santiago Mar. 5-

New York Mar. 5-

Geneva Mar. 5-

Tokyo Mar. 6-

Montreal Mar. 12-

Geneva Mar. 12-

Geneva Mar. 12-

Washington Mar. 12-

Addis Ababa Mar. 14-

Geneva Mar. 14-

Georgetown, British Guiana. . Mar. 13-

Washington Mar. 15-*

New York Mar. 19-

New York Mar. 19-

Geneva Mar. 19-

Geneva Mar. 19-

Santiago Mar. 20-

Montreal Mar. 26-

Washington Mar. 26-

London Mar. 26-

Geneva Mar. 26-

Paris Mar. 26-

Geneva Mar. 27-

Lahore March

Turrialba, Costa Rica March

Mexico, D.F March

Geneva Apr. 2-

Tokyo Apr. 2-

Tananarive Apr. 3-

Mexico, D.F Apr. 3-

New York Apr. 3-

Buenos Aires Apr. 5-

Geneva .4pr. 5-

Geneva Apr. 9-

Geneva Apr. 9-

Vienna Apr. 16-

Ankara Apr. 16-

Lahore Apr. 21-

Washington Apr. 24-*

Bangkok Apr. 24-

Geneva Apr. 24-

Geneva Apr. 25-

London Apr. 26-*

Paris Apr. 26-*

London Apr. 30-*

Geneva Apr. 30-

Rome Apr. 30-

New York Apr. 30-

Paris April

Paris April

Paris April or May



February 5, 1962



221



Mr. Stevenson Reports to President
on 16th General Assembly

Following is the text of a letter from Ambassa-
dor Adlai E. Stevenson, U.S. Representative to
the United Nations, to President Kennedy.

Press release 914 dated December 30

December 29, 1961
Dear ]VIr. President : I submit herewith a brief
report of the results of the first part of the Six-
teenth Session of the United Nations General
Assembly.

The three months since the Assembly convened
on September 19, 1961, have been critical in the
light of the United Nations. The members were
faced with several issues of great difficulty, failure
on any one of which could have inflicted a grave
injury on the United Nations and on the hopes for
peace and justice. I mention especially the
following :

1. The succession of Dag Hammarskjold.

2. The threat of financial disaster from the
Congo operation.

3. Continued danger of secession and chaos in
the Congo.

4. The pressure to replace Nationalist China
with Communist China.

On each of these issues, whatever the remaining
difficulties, the United Nations has achieved better
results than we dared to predict in September.

In addition, I am glad to report progress on
several topics of major importance, several of
which you treated in your address to the General
Assembly on September 25.^ These include the
fields of disarmament and the effective prevention
of nuclear testing; your proposal for a United
Nations Decade of Development; and your pro-
posal on the peaceful uses of outer space.



1. After prolonged negotiations in which the
United States Mission was very active, the Gen-
eral Assembly elected U Thant of Runna to act
as Secretary- General until April 1963. The action
was unanimous — 103 to 0. Thereby the United
Nations overcame a modei-ate challenge — a chal-
lenge to the powers of the office of the Secretary-
General and indeed to the very existence of that
office ; a challenge to the continuance of the United



Nations itself as an effective agent of the com-
munity of nations and as a friend and protector
of small and weak nations.

2. The seat of the Republic of China in the
United Nations was safeguarded and reinforced,
and the claim of Communist China to this seat was
rejected, by a decisive vote of 48 to 37. This was
the first time this divisive question lias been
squarely met since it first arose more than a decade
ago. Moreover, the Assembly decided by a vote
of 61 to 34 that any proposal to make a cliange in
the representation of China would constitute an
"important question" requiring a two-thirds ma-
jority. Botli tliese votes were great successes from
the United States view.=

3. The financial crisis occasioned by the Congo
operation has been relieved, and may be on the
road toward solution. The General Assembly has
taken three important steps in this direction. It
has voted, first, to ask the International Court of
Justice for an advisory opinion as to whether the
assessments against member states to support the
Congo operation, as well as tlie United Nations
Emergency Force in the Middle East, create bind-
ing financial obligations on tlie member states. If
the Court says they do, this should stimulate pay-
ments by those now in arrears.

Second, the Assembly has further assessed the
costs of the Congo operation and of UNEF
through June 30, 1962.

Third, the Assembly authorized an unprece-
dented $200 million bond issue, to be amortized out
of the regular budget of the United Nations. It
is hoped that the member nations will now join in
purchasing these bonds so as to relieve the im-
mediate financial difficulties of the United Nations
and give us a breathing spell in which to devise
a longrun solution.^

4. The news from the Congo today is at last
hopeful, after many dark days and weeks. If the
agreement signed by Prime Minister [Cyrille]
Adoula and Mr. [Moise] Tshombe is ratified and
carried through, this will indeed be a happy con-
clusion of a grave crisis for the world and the
United Nations. The Central Government can
then turn its attention to consolidating the rest of
its vast country.

If secession, disunity and disaster in the Congo,



• Bui.u.:tin of Oct. 16, 19C1, p. 019.



'For backffround, see ibid., Jan. 15, 1962, p. 108.
" For a statoment by As.sistnnt Secretary Cleveland, see
ihid., p. 96.



222



Oepar/menf of Sfafe Bulletin



the heart of Africa, is prevented then the credit
must go to the United Nations and to the brave
men of many nations who have served it with
courage and, in many cases, with their lives.

5. As a result of bilateral negotiations between
the United States and the Soviet Union the As-
sembly laid the basis for new negotiations on dis-
armament — thus breaking the deadlock which be-
gan when the Soviet bloc walked out of tlie Geneva
disarmament talks in June 1960. Under United
Nations auspices the new forum will begin inten-
sive negotiations early next year, reporting on its
progress to the United Nations Disarmament
Commission. Among the documents the negotia-
tors will liave before them is the United States
"Program for General and Complete Disarmament
in a Peaceful World" wliich you presented to the
General Assembly on September 2b.* Thus the
stage is set for a new and vigorous attack on this
crucial problem.

6. The Assembly also gave great attention to
the problem of nuclear iveaporvi. It overwhelm-
ingly endorsed the view of the United States and
the United Kingdom that there is an urgent need
for a treaty to ban nuclear weapons tests under
effective international measures of verification
and control. This vote was helpful in obtaining
the resumption of the test ban negotiations in
Geneva on November 28.

But the United States was compelled to oppose
Assembly recommendations to prevent the testing
and use of nuclear weapons, without international
controls. In contrast the Soviet Union cynically
voted for these same resolutions — with no pro-
vision for controls — while at that very time the
Soviet Union was engaged in the most intensive
series of nuclear weapon tests in history, and was
threatening to use nuclear weapons in case of war.
In the long run this hypocrisy will be justly evalu-
ated by the Assembly and by the United Nations.

Moreover the Soviet Union defied the over-
whelming plea of the General Assembly that it
refrain from exploding a fifty-megaton bomb.

During the Assembly the United States never
ceased to expound the fundamental truth that
every measure of disarmament and arms control
must be accompanied by effective inspection and
safeguards. "We fully expect that in future ses-
sions of the General Assembly this truth will be
accepted by a growing majority of the members.



7. The Assembly unanimously designated the
current decade, as you suggested in your address,
as the United Nations Decade of Develojmient.
Under this heading the world organization can
now make a comprehensive, long-range attack on
the needs for economic and social development
which beset more tlian half of the human race.
The contributions which the United Nations can
make in this field, by its mobilization of talents
and resources without any political strings, are
of vital importance to this world objective.

8. Again, after long negotiations between the
United States and Soviet delegates, the Assembly
was able to endorse unanimously a new start for
the outer space committee with the long-sought
participation of the Soviet Union. Further, the
Assembly approved the vitally important prin-
ciple that outer space and the bodies in it are not
subject to national appropriation and are subject
to international law — including specifically the
United Nations Cliarter. It further endorsed
worldwide collaboration in the use of outer space
for the advancement of weather forecasting
and weather control, and for worldwide radio
and telecommunications by satellite — especially
promising technical fields from whicli all nations,
whether advanced or less developed, stand to
benefit.

9. On the question of the end of colonialism, the
Assembly adopted a wise and forthright position
reaffirming the goal which virtually all nations
now accept, and appointing a committee of seven-
teen nations to concern itself, on behalf of the
General Assembly, with this great peaceful tran-
sition. In connection with this action the United
States delegation made a major statement of our
country's support for the rapid and peaceful
evolution of colonial peoples toward self-determi-
nation.' The United States was happy to find
itself in company with the great majority of mem-
bers, with whom our anticolonial interests give us
a natural bond of sympathy.

The United States delegation took this occasion
to circulate a detailed memorandum on Soviet
colonial practices.' That memorandum was in-
formative to delegations from many parts of the
world, and will continue to attract attention in the
future.

10. The Assembly unanimously approved two



* For text, see iiid., Oct. 16, 1961, p. 650.
February 5, 7962



' Ibid., Jan. 8, 1962, p. 69.

' For text, see U.S. delegation press release 3862 dated
Nov. 28 or U.N. doc. A/4985.

223



resolutions for the economic and educational de-
velopment of Africa, and one to establish an inter-
nationally supported world food program of $100
million. All three resolutions arose from United
States initiatives. All will play an important
part in the economic and social development which
it is the United States policy to promote among
the emerging nations.

But I feel obliged to add a comment in a more
sober vein. The recent armed attack on Goa, and
the inability of the Security Council to deal with
such use of force quickly and decisively, remind
us of the dangerous tendency of nations to apply
one law in one part of the world or toward one
group of states, and a different law to others. If
the United Nations should habitually resort to



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