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We have witnessed a remarkable unanimity
among the democratic nations of the hemisphere In
the deep concern they have manifested concerning
the existence of a Marxist-Leninist government In
Cuba which is now an accomplice of international
communism. Moreover, these same democratic
governments have reaffirmed their determination
to demonstrate the superior results of democratic
methods to achieve the social and economic develop-
ment to which the peoples of their countries aspire.
With respect to the action resolving that the incom-
patibility between the Marxist-Leninist government
of Cuba and the principles and purposes of the
inter-American system excludes the present gov-
ernment of Cuba from participation in the organs of
the system, we have seen a vivid demonstration
of the democratic process of a vigorous community
of nations. Once again the Organization of Amer-
ican States has shown its capacity to provide pro-
tection to the member states that reqvilre assistance,
this time from the subversion of the Communist
conspiracy working through Cuba, even though
many of these nations which require protection are
not the most populous in the hemisphere.



' Issued to news correspondents on Jan. 31 at
Punta del Este, Uruguay following the affirmative
vote of the OAS foreign ministers to exclude the
present government of Cuba from participation in
the Inter-American system.



world. The friends of freedom must stand to-
gether. For wherever freedom is threatened,
every man is threatened. But this does not mean
that we must be unanimous on all points. This is
not a meeting of the Warsaw Pact. This is a meet-
ing of the organization of free and independent
American states.

I would wish to say just a word about Cuba. I
had intended to say more, but the representative
of that government has demonstrated today the
principle of self-exclusion. We have listened here
as I have listened in many forums over many
years to the mixture of threats and half-truths
and untruths, to corrupt statistics and corrupt
definitions of democracy and legality, which are
the hallmark of Communist public oratory. The
representative of the Cuban government has told
us that we shall see a system of police states spread



February 79, 7962



277



throughout this continent. The figure on the knee
of the ventriloquist, of course, says what the ven-
triloquist says. In party congresses, in public
declarations, the leaders of this world conspira-
torial movement have made it eminently clear that
they do mean to do what they can to bring about
their world revolution.

That effort must fail. It shall surely fail, be-
cause the strength to guard against it is in the
hearts of men throughout the world, because we
have a different vision of the future. We see a
hemisphere which will remain true to its historical
commitment, to human rights and to democracy,
as we understand it and as men have been talking
about these concepts for more than 2,000 years —
a hemisphere in which each nation develops its
own version of a productive, modem society, con-
sistent with its culture and its traditions and its
aspirations, and cooperating freely with its
friends across international borders. And we see,
as others have seen at this meeting, a Cuba re-
leased from its nightmare and returned to the
family of American states.

I can assure my colleagues that, in the policies
of President Kemiedy and of the American peo-
ple, behind this vision of the future lies the
strength, the resources, and the faith of the people
of my country.

Thank you.

TEXTS OF RESOLUTIONS <

■■ Communist Offensive in America '

1. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American
Republics, convened in their Eighth Meeting of Consulta-
tion, declare that the continental unity and the democratic
institutions of the hemisphere are now in danger.

The Ministers have been able to verify that the sub-
versive offensive of communist governments, their agents
and the organizations which they control, has increased
in intensity. The purpose of this offensive is the destruc-
tion of democratic institutions and the establishment of
totalitarian dictatorships at the service of extracontinen-
tal powers. The outstanding facts in this intensified
offensive are the declarations set forth in official docu-
ments of the directing bodies of the international com-
munist movement, that one of its principal objectives is
the establishment of communist regimes in the under-
developed countries and in Latin America ; and the exist-



' The following resolutions were adopted in General
Committee during the evening of Jan. 30 and the early
morning of Jan. 31. They were incorporated in the Final
Act, which was adopted unanimously in i)lenary session
on Jan. 31.

'Adopted by a vote of 20 to 1 (Cuba).



ence of a >Iarxist-Leninist government in Cuba which is
publicly aligned with the doctrine and foreign policy of
the communist powers.

2. In order to achieve their subversive purposes and
hide their true intentions, the communist governments
and their agents exploit the legitimate needs of the less-
favored sectors of the population and the just national
aspirations of the various peoples. With the pretext of
defending popular interests, freedom is suppressed, demo-
cratic institutions are destroyed, human rights are vio-
lated and the individual is subjected to materialistic
ways of life imposed by the dictatorship of a single party.
Under the slogan of "anti-imperialism" they try to estab-
lish an oppressive, aggressive, imperialism, which sub-
ordinates the subjugated nations to the militaristic and
aggressive interest of extracontinental powers. By
maliciously utilizing the very principles of the Inter-
American system, they attempt to undermine democratic
institutions and to strengthen and protect political pene-
tration and aggression. The subversive methods of com-
munist governments and their agents constitute one of
the most subtle and dangerous forms of intervention in
the internal affairs of other countries.

3. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs alert the peoples of
the hemisphere to the intensification of the subversive
offensive of communist governments, their agents, and the
organizations that they control and to the tactics and
methods that they employ and also warn them of the
dangers this situation represents to representative demo-
cracy, to respect for human rights, and to the self-deter-
mination of peoples.

The principles of communism are incompatible with the
principles of the Inter-American system.

4. Convinced that the integrity of the democratic rev-
olution of the American states can and must be preserved
in the face of the subversive offensive of communism, tie
Ministers of Foreign Affairs proclaim the following basic
political principles :

a. The faith of the American peoples in human rights,
liberty, and national independence as a fundamental rea-
son for their existence, as conceived by the founding
fathers who destroyed colonialism and brought the
American Republics into being ;

b. The principle of nonintervention and the right of
peoples to organize their way of life freely in the political,
economic, and cultural spheres, expressing their will
through free elections, without foreign interference. The
fallacies of communist propaganda cannot and should not
obscure or hide the difference in philosophy which these
principles represent when they are expressed by a demo-
cratic American country, and when communist govern-
ments and their agents attempt to utilize them for their
own benefit ;

c. The repudiation of repressive measures which, under
the pretext of isolating or combatting communism, may
facilitate the appearance or strengtliening of reactionary
doctrines and methods which attempt to repress ideas of
social progress and to confuse truly progressive and dem-
ocratic labor organizations and cultural and political
movements with communist subversion ;

d. The affirmation that communism is not the way to
achieve economic development and the elimination of



278



Department of State Bulletin



social injustice in America. On the contrary, a demo-
cratic regime can encompass all the efforts for economic
advancement and all of the measures for improvement
and social progress without sacrificing the fundamental
values of the human being. The mission of the peoples
and governments of the hemisphere during the present
generation is to achieve an accelerated development of
their economies and to put to an end to iwverty, injustice,
illness, and ignorance as was agreed in the Charter of
Punta del Este ; and

e. The most essential contribution of each American
state in the collective effort to protect the Inter-American
system against communism is a steadily greater respect
for human rights, improvement in democratic institutions
and practices, and the adoption of meastires that truly
express the impulse for a revolutionary change in the
economic and social structures of the American Re-
publics.



il. Special Consultative Committee on Security
Against the Subversive Action of international
Communism °

Whereas :

International communism makes use of highly complex
techniques of subversion in opposing which certain states
may benefit from mutual advice and support ;

The American states are firmly united for the common
goal of fighting the subversive action of International
communism and for the preservation of democracy in the
Americas, as expressed in Resolution XXXII of the Ninth
International Conference of American States, held In Bo-
gota, in 1048, and that for such purpose they can and
should assist each other, mainly through the use of the
institutional resources of the Organization of American
States ; and

It is advisable, therefore, to make available to the
Council of the Organization of American States a body
of an advisory nature, made up of experts, the main pur-
pose of which would be to advise the member governments
which, as the case may be, require and request such
assistance,

The Eighth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of
Foreign Affairs, Serving as Organ of Consultation in
Application of the Inter- American Treaty of Reciprocal
Assistance,
Resolves :

1. To request the Council of the Organization of Amer-
ican States to maintain all necessary vigilance, for the
purpose of warning against any acts of aggression, sub-
version, or other dangers to peace and .security, or the
l^reparation of such acts, resulting from the continued
intervention of Sino-Soviet powers in this hemisphere,
and to make recommendations to the governments of
the member states with regard thereto.

2. To direct the Council of the Organization to establish
a Special Consultative Committee of experts on security
matters, for the purpose of advising the member states



that may di'sire and request such assistance, the following
procedures being ol)sorved :

a. The Council of the Organization shall select the
member.ship of the Special Consultative Committee on
Security from a list of candidates presented by the gov-
ernments, and shall define immediately terms of reference
for the Committee with a view to achieving the full pur-
poses of this resolution.

b. The Committee shall submit reports to such member
states as may request its assistance ; however. It shall not
publish the.se reports without obtaining express authori-
zation from the state dealt with in the report.

c. The Special Consultative Committee on Security
shall submit to the Council of the Organization, no later
than May 1, 1962, an initial general report, with pertinent
recommendations regarding measures which should be
taken.

d. The Committee shall function at the Pan American
Union, which shall extend to it the technical, administra-
tive, and financial facilities required for the work of the
Committee.

e. The Committee shall function for the period deemed
advisable by the Council of the Organization.

3. To urge the member states to take those steps that
they may consider appropriate for their individual or
collective self-defense, and to cooperate, as may be neces-
sary or desirable, to strengthen their capacity to counter-
act threats or acts of aggression, subversion, or other dan-
gers to peace and security resulting from the continued
intervention in this hemisphere of Sino-Soviet powers, in
accordance with the obligations established in treaties
and agreements such as the Charter of the Organization
of American States and the Inter- American Treaty of Re-
ciprocal Assistance.

111. Reiteration of the Principles of Nonintervention
and Self-Determination'

Whereas ;

This meeting has been convoked by a resolution of the
Council of the Organization of American States that in-
voked Article 6 of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal
Assistance ;

It is necessary to maintain the principles of noninter-
vention and self-determination set forth in the Charter
of the Organization of American States, because these
principles are a basic part of the juridical system that
governs relations among the republics of the hemisphere
and makes friendly relations among them possible;

In the Charter of the Organization of American States
and in the Declaration of Santiago, signed in August 1959,
all the governments of the American States agreed volun-
tarily that they should result from free elections;

The will of the people, expressed through unrestricted
suffrage, assures the formation of governments that repre-
sent more faithfully and without yielding to the interests
of a privileged few the basic aspirations to freedom and
social justice, the constant need for economic progress,



° Adopted by a vote of 19 to 1 (Cuba), with 1 abstention
(Bolivia).



'Adopted by a vote of 20 to 1 (Cuba).



February 19, 1962



279



and the call of brotherhood that all our peoples feel
throughout the hemisphere ;

Formation by free elections of the governments that
comprise the Organization of American States is therefore
the surest guarantee for the peace of the hemisphere and
the security and political independence of each and every
one of the nations that comprise it ; and

Freedom to contract obligations is an inseparable part
of the principle of the self-determination of nations, and
consequently a request by one or more countries that
such obligations be complied with does not signify inter-
vention,

The Eighth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of
Foreign Affairs, Serving as Organ of Consultation in
Application of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal
Assistance

Resolves :

1. To reiterate its adherence to the principles of self-
determination and nonintervention as guiding standards
of coexistence among the American nations.

2. To urge that the governments of the member coun-
tries of the Organization of American States, bearing in
mind the present situation, and complying with the princi-
ples and aims set forth in the Charter of the Organization
and the Declaration of Santiago, organize themselves on
the basis of free elections that express, without restric-
tion, the will of the people.

iV. Holding of Free Elections >

Whekeas :

The preamble to the Charter of the Organization of
American States proclaims that the true significance of
American solidarity and good neighborliness can only
mean the consolidation on this hemisphere, within the
framework of democratic institutions, of a system of
individual liberty and social justice based on respect for
the essential rights of man ;

The same charter reaflirms, among its principles, the
requirement that the political organization of the Ameri-
can states be based on the effective exercise of repre-
sentative democracy, even as it reasserts the fundamental
rights of the individual ;

The Charter couiirms the right of each state to develop,
freely and naturally, its cultural, political, and economic
life, while respecting in this free development the rights
of the individual and the principles of universal morality ;

The Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance
affirms as a manifest truth, that juridical organization is
a necessary prerequisite of security and peace, and that
peace is founded on justice and moral order and, conse-
(luently, on the international recognition and protection
of human rights and freedoms, on the indispensable well-
being of the i)eople, and on the effectiveness of democracy
for the international realization of justice and stnurity;
and

According to the principles and attributes of the demo-
cratic system in this hemisphere, as stated in the Dec-
laration of Santiago, Chile, the governments of the
American republics should be the result of free elections,
and perpetuation in power, or the exercise of power



without a fixed term and with the manifest intent of
perpetuation, is incompatible with the effective exercise
of democracy ;

The Eighth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of
Foreign Affairs, Serving as Organ of Consultation in
Application of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal
Assistance
Resolves :

To recommend that the governments of the American
states, whose structure or acts are incompatible with the
effective exercise of representative democracy, hold free
elections in their respective countries, as the most effec-
tive means of consulting the sovereign will of their peoples,
to guarantee the restoration of a legal order based on
the authority of the law and respect for the rights of the
individual.

V. Alliance for Progress'

Whereas :

The American states have the capacity to eradicate the
profound evils of economic and social underdevelopment ;

Resolution XI of the Fifth Meeting of Consultation of
Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Resolution V of the
Seventh Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign
Affairs declare that economic cooperation among the
American states is necessary for the stability of democ-
racy and the safeguarding of human rights, and that
such cooperation is essential to the strengthening of the
solidarity of the hemisphere and the reinforcement of
the inter-American system in the face of threats that
might affect it ; and

In view of the fact that all the nations of the Americas
have recognized their urgent need for economic and social
development, it is necessary that they intensify immedi-
ately their self-help and cooperative efforts under the
Alliance for Progress and the Charter of Punta del Este,
on the basis of the adoption of vigorous reforms and
large-scale internal efforts by the developing countries
concerned and a mobilization of all the necessary finan-
cial and technical resources by the highly developed
nations,

The Eighth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of
Foreign Affairs, Serving as Organ of Consultation in
Application of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal
Assistance
Declares ;

1. That the preservation and strengthening of free and
democratic institutions in the American republics require,
as an essential condition, the prompt, accelerated execu-
tion of an unprecedented effort to promote their economic
and social development for which effort the public and
private, domestic and foreign financial resources necessary
to those objectives are to be made available, economic
and social reforms are to be established, and every neces-
sary internal effort is to be made in accordance with the
provisions of the Charter of Punta del Este.

2. That it is essential to promote energetically and
vigorously the basic industries of the Latin American
countries, to liberalize trade in raw materials by the



'Adopted by a vote of 20 to 1 (Cuba).



"Adopted by a vote of 20 to 1 (Cuba).



280



Department of Slate Bulletin



elimination of undue restrictions, to seek to avoid violent
fluctuations in their prices, to encourage tlie moderniza-
tion and expansion of services in order that industriali-
zation may rest on its own appropriate bases, to mobilize
unexploited natural resources in order to increase national
wealth and to make such increased wealth available to
persons of all economic and social groups, and to satisfy
quickly, among other aspirations, the needs for work,
housing, land, health, and education.

VI. Exclusion of the Present Government of Cuba
From Participation in the Inter-American System'"

Whekeas :

The inter-xVmerican system is based on consistent ad-
herence by its constituent states to certain objectives and
principles of solidarity, set forth in the instruments that
govern it ;

Among these objectives and principles are those of re-
spect for the freedom of man and preservation of his
rights, the full exercise or representative democracy,
nonintervention of one state in the internal or external
affairs of another, and rejection of alliances and agree-
ments that may lead to intervention in America by extra-
continental powers ;

The Seventh Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of
Foreign Affairs, held in San Jose, Costa Rica, condemned
the intervention or the threat of intervention of extra-
continental communist powers in the hemisphere and
reiterated the obligation of the American states to observe
faithfully the principles of the regional organization ;

The present Government of Cuba has identified itself
with the principles of Marxist-Leninist ideology, has
established a political, economic, and social system based
on that doctrine, and accepts military assistance from
extracontinental communist powers, including even the
threat of military intervention in America on the part
of the Soviet Union ;

The Report of the Inter-American Peace Committee to
the Eighth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of For-
eign Affairs establishes that :

The present connections of the Government of Cuba with
the Sino-Soviet bloc of countries are evidently incom-
patible with the principles and standards that govern the
regional system, and particularly with the collective secu-
rity established by the Charter of the OAS and the Inter-
American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance ;

The above mentioned Report of the Inter-American
Peace Committee also states that :

It is evident that the ties of the Cuban Government with
the Sino-Soviet bloc will prevent the said government from
fulfilling the obligations stipulated in the Charter of the
Organization and the Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance ;

Such a situation in an American state violates the
obligations inherent in membership in the regional sys-
tem and is incompatible with that system ;

The attitude adopted by the present Government of



Cuba and its acceptance of military assistance offered by
extracontinental communist powers breaks down the effec-
tive defense of the inter-American system ; and

No member state of the inter-American system can
claim the rights and privileges pertaining thereto if it
denies or fails to recognize the corresponding obligations.

The Eighth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of
Foreign Affairs, Serving as Organ of Consultation in
Application of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal
Assistance

Declares :

1. That, as a consequence of repeated acts, the present
government of Cuba has voluntarily placed Itself outside
the inter-American system.

2. That this situation demands unceasing vigilance on
the part of the member states of the Organization of
American States, which shall report to the Council any
fact or situation that could endanger the peace and
security of the hemispliere.

3. That the American states have a collective interest in
strengthening the inter-American system and reuniting it
on the basis of respect for human rights and the principles
and objectives relative to the exercise of democracy set
forth in the Charter of the Organization ; and, therefore.

Resolves :

1. That adherence by any member of the Organization
of American States to Marxism-Leninism is incompatible
with the inter-American system and the alignment of such
a government with the communist bloc breaks the unity
and solidarity of the hemisphere.

2. That the present Government of Cuba, wliich has of-
ficially identified itself as a Marxist-Leninist government,
is incompatible with the principles and objectives of the
inter-American system.

3. That this Incompatibility excludes the present Gov-
ernment of Cuba from participation in the inter-American
system.

4. That the Council of the Organization of American
States and the other organs and organizations of the
inter-American system adopt without delay the measures
necessary to carry out this resolution.

VII. Inter-American Defense Board"



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 46, Jan- Mar 1962) → online text (page 56 of 101)