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tion. This would be so even if we were on tlie best
of tei-ms with the more than 100 countries with
which we have diplomatic and, to varying extents,
economic, cultural, and military relations. But
considering that histoiy has now pushed power
and influence in tliis world into a rather distinct
polarization between the United States and the
Soviet Union, with all that this implies in differ-
ing objectives and methods, foreign policy for us
is a thing of almost infinite complexity.

It proceeds at a thousand levels in a thousand
ways toward the identification, assessment, :uid
solution of a thousand problems, of which precious
few may ever entirel}' disappear. Its large goals
are plain enough : a peaceful world in which men
and nations are free to pursue their aspirations
in freedom, a world in which the benefits of man's
intelligence are available to all in adequate
measure and in whicli no one is curbed or hurt by



378



Department of Stale Bulletin



political institutions except as representative gov-
ernment and due process of law require and per-
mit it.

But to attain all this in an imperfect world
requires, on its face, not glib and oversimplified
one-shot solutions, new or old, but a continuing
arduous calling for the highest order of sophisti-
cation, an effort which comes hardest of all, per-
haps, to a nation like ours which lived so long
without having incurred the direct scars of war
and which, to use the current vernacular, has
pretty well "got it made."

In the field of foreign policy it is virtually im-
possible to look around and say that this or that
is new. We do not stand on new groimd at all but
only on ground that is higher than it was because
of building we have done in the past. If there is
anything new, it is found in the fresh perspectives
which the greater elevation of experience affords.

Under these circumstances, then, I doubt that
any of my listeners will be surprised by any item
I shall mention in response to an invitation to dis-
cuss new directions in foreign policy.

Western European Economic Unity

Consider the posture in which we today face
Western Europe. The Old World is changing
before our eyes. Great colonial empires crumble,
and the nations of Europe seek new foundations
of strength. We have learned, I am happy to say,
that we Americans cannot watch the unfolding
show in the role of mere spectators. The Com-
mon Market is dramatically recasting the eco-
nomic mold of the better part of Western Europe,
even as that area deliberately shapes a new po-
litical form for the complex of nations whose
rivalries led to two world wars. And this is hap-
penhig with our steadfast encouragement, for we
have learned, at great cost in men and treasure,
that wars these days cannot be confined neatly to
a prescribed battlefield.

We have encouraged all this, I say, even as we
recognize that we are helping to create a large
and resourceful economic competitor. But rather
than view this as our price for the stabilization of
Europe, we are simultaneously preparing to meet
this new competition in the time-honored manner
of our own economy, devoted as it is to the freest
possible flow of competitive goods and capital.
This is not a sudden change of course, a new di-
rection, if you will, but merely a response we must



make if we are not to become stagnant and decline
as a world power. As President Kennedy said
recently before the NAM [National Association of
Manufacturers] : ^

The Communist bloc, largely self-contained and Isolated,
represents an economic power already by some standards
larger than that of Western Europe and gaining to some
degree on the United States. But the combined output
and purchasing power of the United States and Western
Europe is more than twice as great as that of the entire
Sino-Soviet bloc. Though we have only half as much
population and far less than half as much territory, our
coordinated economic strength will represent a powerful
force for the maintenance and growth of freedom.

But will our strength be combined and coordinated —
or divided and self-defeating? Will we worli together on
problems of trade, payments, and monetary reserves — or
will our mutual strength be splintered by a networlc of
tariff walls, exchange controls, and the pursuit of nar-
row self-interest in unrelated if not outright hostile pol-
icies on aid, trade, procurement, interest rates, and
currency ?

Reforms in Less Developed Areas

Or consider our multiple programs of assistance
to nations which for a variety of reasons are un-
able by themselves at this time to meet the "revolu-
tion of rising expectations," now a somewhat
shopworn phrase but still admirably precise.

One might be tempted, for example, to call the
Alliance for Progress in Latin America a "new
direction." In reality, however, it is a careful, and
I may say prayerful, result of our evaluation of
events and programs that have gone before. Our
new emphasis on the necessity that political and
economic leadership in the nations we would assist
actively join us in an effort of constructive and
timely change and development is our recognition
of the fact that without this kind of cooperation
the game is lost before it begins. And perhaps our
insistence on social and economic reforms is a new
direction in that it reflects new understanding of
the forces that motivate the burgeoning masses of
the lesser developed areas.

It would have been nice if the United States and
the Latin American leaders had found before now
the coincidence of events and vision to which we
have now come. Unfortunately, however, the ex-
ample of Cuba was needed first. In foreign policy
our new directions grow out of old one*— and our
ability to learn and profit from the mistakes and
troubles of the past.



' Bm-MTIN of Dec. 25, 1961, p. 1039.



March 5, 7962



379



There is a new direction in our policy toward
Africa, but it is a matter of intensity and pace
as well as direction. It is, if I may say so, the
deliberate policy of this acbninistration to upgrade
the quality and amount of attention paid to this
continent wliich, with Latin America and Asia,
poses so many challenges to the nations of the
world which, with us, have "got it made."

Fundamental to that policy is our belief in the
dignity of the African person and our supjwrt
for the principle of self-government. We are
helping the new nations of this continent to form
governments and societies that are consonant with
the cultures, beliefs, and histories of their people —
governments that are truly independent. And we
are providing help in creating the economic
strength that will enable these governments to re-
main independent and grant freedom to their
people.

The list is lengthy. We are, for example, con-
tinually ti-ying to understand the true character
and role of neutralism. We are trying for an
evolution of our military alliances, notably
NATO, which will at once insure the common
defense as we now comprehend the phrase while
reaching for an understanding of the other impli-
cations of Atlantic union.

We are striving to know how men can avoid
fighting what might truly be the "last war" for
the sobering reason that there would be no one
left to fight another.

And we are doing all this and much more while
confronting a resourceful enemy whicli, in as
short a time as the last 5 years, we have come
to know as having many faces and techniques.

Finally, we have learned that the real enemy
is not a person or a country at all. It is a set of
conditions which no man invented but which we
are in a race to solve on terms worth living with.
The absence of food, shelter, care, and opportunity
is the ultimate foe. New understanding of these
natural enemies of liuman freedom and of the way
in which they are exploited by the advocates of
tyranny, suggests for us a new step, if not a new
direction, in the way of international cooperation.

Making the U.N. More Effective

We are striving, against fierce Communist op-
l)osition on an international level and against
vocal opposition at home, to malce the United



Nations a more effective keeper of the peace and
builder of nations. We cling to the hope that in
this imperfect body men shall be able to create
a body of common law, if you will, that can be-
come the rules of sanity and civility under which
men live in peac«.

That is why the United Nations bond issue*
coming up before Congress is so imjiortant. We
can raise many technical arguments about the per-
centage of U.S. contribution to the United Na-
tions, or the low interest rate, or how effective this
will be in forcing the Soviet Union to "pony up"
its share. But when all the technical arguments
are over, the fundamental questions are these:

Do we want the U.N. to die ?

Do we want to lose this one imperfect hope of
leading men and nations away from the law of
the international jungle?

Do we want to cast aside this one sane restraint
on international behavior?

We in Washington say no to all these questions.

In a letter last week, Henry Cabot Lodge as-
serted that but for the U.N. we might be directly
involved in another Korea in the Congo. He
pointed out that we lost 140,000 lives in Korea.

How much dollar value can we put on 140,000
lives? I know; it depends on whether the life is
ours, or a son's, or that of a stranger in a faraway
land.

Any way I figure it, the bond issue is a bargain
for all of mankind.

The Need To Know What We Are Defending

Let me close with a word of caution : We must
not look for new directions in foreign policy as
though we were looking for the key that unlocks
the door to eternal tranquillity. There is no such
key, and there is no such perfect foreign policy.

George Sokolsky wrote a column the other day
that should be read by all those Americans who
cry for quick, easy, cheap, final solutions to the
problems we face in the world today. He said :

This country face.s war under oiroum.stances very dif-
ferent from those in 1041. The enemy is a different one.
Then we organized against Germany and Japan and our
allies were strong; today our enemy is Soviet Russia and
our allies are weak, their great empires no longer exist-
ing. Then, we and our allies possessed enormous wealth ;



' For backgrouml. see ibiil., Feb. 26, 1962, p. 311.



380



Department of Stale Bulletin



now, the economic capacity of our enemy is as great as
ours. Then we could dictate the terms of war and peace ;
today, we have to negotiate for survival.

Therefore, one who understands the problem that we
have to meet must realize that we must meet the enemy
as a united nation or we shall collapse by disunion. Noth-
ing is easier, in a free country, than to find flaws in the
operations of a free government. Of course. President
Kennedy makes mistakes ; of course, the Congress makes
mistakes ; of course, the Cabinet is not the best that could
be chosen. Perfection is to be sought for and found in
Heaven. But what we are dealing with is the hell of war
and our imperfections have to be met with goodwill and
have to be corrected swiftly and courageously to meet our
current dangers.

Finally, let me mention one new direction that
has been impo.sed upon us by the awesome new
developments in weapons. In the past, disputes
could be settled and adversaries controlled by mili-
tary power. Nations and people learned to hate
the enemy as a prelude to crushing him. In our
thermonuclear age conflict has become a thing of
far greater subtlety.

As much as shrewd battlefield strategists, we
now need political expertise, diplomatic astuteness,
psychological shrewdness, technical and scientific
skill — and most of all a knowledge and apprecia-
tion of what we are defending.

General David M. Shoup, Commandant of the
Marine Corps, simimed up what I am saying in
two eloquent paragraphs of testimony before the
Stennis subcommittee last week. He said :

We teach them (Marines) what there is in this country
that is worth living for, worth fighting for, worth giving
your life for. I might state right here that inasmuch as
there has been some controversy over this, Mr. Chairman,
I would like to proceed to tell you again that we don't
teach them hate.

Hate I consider is an internal sin. And hate is closely
associated with fear. I think fear breeds defeatism, and
that is a disea.se that we cannot afford in this country if
we are going to maintain our position in the family of
freedom-loving people.

So I would have to say that one new direction
of foreign policy flows from an understanding that
the best servant of the cause of freedom in today's
world is not necessarily the man who danans the
enemy in the most provocative tones. "VVliether
the directions of foreign policy be old or new, we
must proceed with knowledge that the race is long,
the course arduous, the demand for endurance
great. It is our task to confer in unity and
strength. Only then can we be sure of victory in
the end.



Depreciation ScFieduies Announced
for Hosiery, Knitwear Equipment

White House press release dated February 15

The President on February 15 announced new
depreciation schedules for machinery and equip-
ment used in the hosiery and knitwear segment of
the textile industry. On the average the new
depreciable lives will be more than 40 percent
shorter than those which have been used as guide-
lines since 1942, as prescribed in Internal Revenue
Service Bulletin "F."

At the same time the President announced that
the Internal Revenue Service has completed its
detailed revision of depreciation guidelines for
machinery and equipment used in spinning and
weaving mills. A general revision by broad cate-
gories, covering about 90 percent of the equipment
used in spinning and weaving mills, was put into
effect last October.^

The two actions complete the planned deprecia-
tion revision for the textile industry, which was
undertaken as part of the President's overall pro-
gram of assistance to that industry, announced
May 2, 1961.^ The revised guidelines, designed to
bring depreciation schedules into line with present-
day rates of obsolescence of equipment, will enable
the industry to speed modernization of its equip-
ment to meet foreign competition and provide
more jobs for American workers.

For four major types of equipment used by
hosiery and knitwear manufacturers, new depre-
ciable lives of 9 years have been established, com-
pared with the 15 years previously in effect.

These are: knitting machines, loopers, seaming
machines, and twist setting machines. Other new
depreciable lives include: boarding machines, 8
years, compared with the 15 years previously used ;
and dryers, 10 years compared with the 20 to 25
years. For collection system equipment — an item
not in u.se in 1942 and therefore not covered by
Bulletin "F" — a useful life of 10 years has been
set.

The new schedules of depreciable lives for
hosiery and knitwear will go into effect for taxable
years for which returns are due to be filed on or
after February 16, 19G2, as will the new schedules
for a group of miscellaneous equipment used in



' Bulletin of Oct. 30, 1961, p. 730.
' Ibid.. May 29, 1961, p. 825.



March 5, J 962



381



the textile industry. The more detailed schedules
for spinning- and weaving-mill equipment will be
usable on tax returns due to be filed on or after
October 11, 1961.

In most cases textile manufacturers of all types
will be able to shift to more rapid depreciation
schedules on existing, as well as new, equipment.
The depreciation timetable for existing equipment
will be determined by an Internal Eevenue Serv-
ice formula.

President Concurs on Several
Recent Escape-Clause Cases

White House press release dated February 9

The President on February 9 concurred in re-
cent findings of the United States Tariff Com-
mission that no formal investigations should be
instituted at this time to determine whether tariffs
should be reduced on imports of lead and zinc,
spring clothespins, stainless steel flatware, and
safety pins.

The President accepted the judgments of the
Tariff Commission that there is no present justi-
fication for reopening any of the escape-clause
actions in the cases cited, which resulted in in-
creased duties. Therefore, the liigher duties now
in effect will continue to apply, without reduction
or modification.

The President's decisions were reached after
consultation with the Trade Policy Committee.
The Tariff Commission studies were made pur-
suant to Executive Order 10401, which requires
periodic review of affii-mative actions taken under
escape-clause procedures.

State Advisory Committee
Holds Fourth Meeting

The Department of State announced on Febru-
ary 15 (press release 103) that representatives of
29 State Governors met at the Department on that
day ^ with members of the Office of the Chief of
Protocol and other interested divisions of the De-
partment to discuss ways of expanding and mak-
ing more meaningful the travel of foreign diplo-
matic representatives stationed in this country as



' For an Agenda and a list of the names of the par-
ticipants, see Department of State press release 103 dated
Feb. 15.

382



well as of other high-level foreign visitors and
guests of the United States. Angier Biddle Duke,
Chief of Protocol, presided over the meeting, and
introductory remarks were delivered by Under
Secretary Ball.

This was the fourth such meeting of State Gov-
ernors' representatives, who together constitute
the State Advisory Committee to the Chief of
Protocol. This committee was organized in the
spring of 1961 by the Chief of Protocol at the
request of the President.^ Its purpose at that time
was primarily to provide a group of men with
whom State Department officials could meet and
whom the Office of Protocol could at any time
consult regarding ways of assuring incident-free
travel of diplomats and visitors from African and
Asian countries. The committee's work in this
field has had considerable results.

At this meeting methods were explored to ex-
pand the work of the committee to include en-
couraging and facilitating the travel of all foreign
diplomats and high-level foreign officials traveling
in the United States. Mr. Ball indicated that
sound relations between sovereign states are usu-
ally founded on accurate mutual knowledge and
that the work of the individual States in helping
foreign government representatives and visitors
to gain a better imderstanding of this country can
be invaluable.

Representatives of several States reported on
visits they had received from foreign dignitaries
since the last meeting of the State Advisory Com-
mittee in September 1961. Particular mention
was given to the visit of Robert Matthia, Chief of
Protocol of the Republic of Togo, who toured the
United States in December of last year.

Congressional Documents
Relating to Foreign Policy

87th Congress, 1st Session

Impact of Imports and Esport.s on Employment (Tex-
tiles). Hearings before the Subcommittee on the Im-
pact of Imports and Exports on American Employment
of the House Committee on Education and Labor.
Part 4. July 10-21. 19«1. 292 pp.

Export of Strategic Materials to the U.S.S.R. and Other
Soviet I?loc Countries. Hearing before the Subcom-
mittee To Investig.ite the Administration of the Internal
Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws of the
Senate Judiciary Committee. Part 1. October 23, 1961.
131 pp.



' For background, see Bulijitin of May 15, 1961, p. 732 ;
July 3, 19()1, p. 32; and Oct. 2, 1961, p. 552.

Department of State Bulletin



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES



Calendar of International Conferences and Meetings^

Scheduled March Through May 1962

lA-ECOSOC: 1st meeting of National Directors of Immigration Customs San Salvador Mar. I-

and Tourism of Central America, Mexico, and the United States.

U.N. ECAFE Committee for the Coordination of Investigations of the Tokyo Mar. 4-*

Lower Mekong Basin: 17th (Special) Session.

ICAO European- Mediterranean Aeronautical Fi.xod Telecommunications Paris Mar. 5-

Network Panel.

ICAO Panel on Origin and Destination Statistics: 4th Session Montreal Mar. 5-

Caribbean Organization: Ministerial Meeting on Trade and Movement of Georgetown, British Guiana . . Mar. 5-

Persons.

WMO Working Group on the Guide to Agricultural Meteorological Prac- Geneva Mar. 5-

tices.

UNESCO/ECLA/OAS/ILO/FAO Conference on Education and Economic Santiago Mar. 5-

and Social Development in Latin America.

U.N. ECOSOC Committee for Industrial Development: 2d Session . . . New York Mar. 5-

U.N. ECE Working Party on River Law Geneva Mar. 5-

U.N. Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation: 11th Ses- New York Mar. 5-

sion.

U.N. Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space New York Mar. 5-

U.N. Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East: 18th Session . . Tokyo Mar. 6-

International Lead and Zinc Study Group: Special Working Group . . . Geneva Mar. 8-

CENTO Liaison Committee Lahore Mar. 12-

ICAO Air Traffic Control Automation Panel Montreal Mar. 12-

International Lead and Zinc Study Group: Statistical Committee . . . . Geneva Mar. 12-

GATT Expert Group on Consular FormaUties Geneva Mar. 12-

U.N. ECE Working Party on Construction of Vehicles Geneva Mar. 12-

ITU CCIR Study Group IV (Space Systems) and Study Group VIII (Inter- Washington Mar. 12-

national Monitoring).

Caribbean Organization Council Georgetown, British Guiana . . Mar. 13-

WMO Regional Association I (Africa): 3d Session Addis Ababa Mar. 14-

U.N. Disarmament Committee: 1st Meeting Geneva Mar. 14-

International Lead and Zinc Study Group: 5th Session Geneva Mar. 15-

WMO Working Group on the Synoptic Use of Meteorological Data From Washington Mar. 15-*

Artificial Satellites.

U.N. ECOSOC Commission on Human Rights: 18th Session New York Mar. 19-

U.N. ECOSOC Commission on Status of Women: 16th Session .... New York Mar. 19-

U.N. ECE Coal Committee (and working parties) Geneva Mar. 19-

UNESCO Meeting of Advisory Committee on Educational Projects in Santiago Mar. 20-

Latin America.

CENTO Civil Defense Experts Lahore Mar. 21-

U.N. ECE Steel Committee: Working Party on Steel Statistics .... Geneva Mar. 22-

ICAO Legal Subcommittee Montreal Mar. 26-

WMO Commission for Synoptic Meteorology: 3d Session Washington Mar. 26-

IMCO International Conference on the Prevention of Pollution of the London Mar. 26-

Sea by Oil.

U.N. ECE Steel Committee: 27th Session Geneva Mar. 26-

UNESCO Conference of Ministers of Education of Africa Paris Mar. 26-

ICEM Executive Committee: 19th Session Geneva Mar. 27-

Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences: 7th Meeting of Turrialba, Costa Rica .... March

Technical Advisory Council.

Inter-American Indian Institute: Governing Board Mexico, D.F March



' Prepared in the Office of International Conferences, Feb. 13, 1962. Asterisks indicate tentative dates and places.
Following is a list of abbreviations: ANZUS, Australia-New Zealand-United States; CCIR, Comite consultatif inter-
national des radio communications; CENTO, Central Treaty Organization; EGA, Economic Commission for Africa;
ECAFE, Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East; ECE, Economic Commission for Europe; ECLA, Economic
Commission for Latin America; ECOSOC, Economic and Social Council; FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization;
GATT, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; IAEA, International Atomic Energy Agency; lA-ECOSOC, Inter-
American Economic and Social Council; ICAO, International Civil Aviation Organization; ICEM, Intergovernmental
Committee for European Migration; IDB, Inter-American Development Bank; ILO, International Labor Organization;
IMCO, Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization; ITU, International Telecommunication Union; NATO,
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; OAS, Organization of American States; OECD, Organization for Economic Coopera-
tion and Development; PAHO, Pan American Health Organization; SEATO, Southeast Asia Treaty Organization; U.N.,
United Nations; UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; UPU, Universal Postal
Union; WHO, World Health Organization; WMO, World Meteorological Organization.

March 5, 7962 383



Calendar of International Conferences and Meetings — Continued

Scheduled March Through May 1962 — Continued

ICEM Council: 16th Session Geneva Apr. 2-

UNESCO Conference on Education in Asia Tokyo Apr. 2-

ILO African Advisory Committee: 2d Session Tananarive Apr. 3-



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 46, Jan- Mar 1962) → online text (page 74 of 101)