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Department of State bulletin (Volume v. 46, Jan- Mar 1962) online

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Inter- American Nuclear Energy Commission: 4th Meeting Mexico, D.F Apr. 3-

U.N. Economic and Social Council: 33d Session New York Apr. 3-

ITU CCIR Study Group I (Transmitters) and Study Group III (Fixed Geneva Apr. 4-

Service Systems).

IDB Board of Governors: 3d Meeting Buenos Aires Apr. 5-

GATT Working Party on Tariff Reduction Geneva Apr. 5-

ILO Committee on Statistics of Hours of Work Geneva Apr. 9-

ILO/WHO Committee on Occupational Health: 4th Session Geneva Apr. 9-

U.N. EGA Community Development Workshop on Social Welfare and Abidjan Apr. 11-

Family and Child Welfare.

IAEA Symposium on Reactor Hazards Evaluation Techniques Vienna Apr. 16-

FAO Poplar Commission: 17th Session of Executive Committee Ankara Apr. 16-

U.N. Committee on Information From Non-Self-Governing Territories: New York Apr. 16-

13th Session.

U.N. ECAFE Regional Seminar on Development of Ground Water Bangkok Apr. 24-*

Resources.

U.N. Economic Commission for Europe: 17th Session Geneva Apr. 24-

ITU CCIR Study Group VII (Standard Frequencies and Time Signals) . Geneva Apr. 25-

ITU CCIR Study Group V (Propagation, Including the Effects of Earth Geneva Apr. 25-

and Troposphere).

U.N. EGA Workshop on Urbanization Addis Ababa Apr. 25-

CENTO Military Committee London Apr. 26-*

SEATO Council of Ministers: 8th Meeting Paris Apr. 26-

PAHO Executive Committee: 46th Meeting (undetermined) Apr. 29-

CENTO Ministerial Council: 10th Meeting London Apr. 30-

IMCO Interagency Meeting for Coordination of Safety at Sea and Air . London Apr. 30-

GATT Committee III on Expansion of International Trade Geneva Apr. 30-

U.N. ECOSOC Commission on Commodity Trade: Special Working Rome Apr. 30-

Party.

U.N. ECOSOC Social Commission: 14th Session . . New York Apr. 30-

OECD Agricultural Committee Paris April

OECD Ministerial Meeting Paris April

FAO Desert Locust Control Committee: 7th Session Addis Ababa* April

2d U.N. ECAFE Symposium on the Development of Petroleum Resources Tehran May 2-

of Asia and the Far East.

UNESCO Executive Board: 61st Session Paris May 2-

NATO Ministerial Council Athens May 3-

U.N. Commission on Permanent Sovereignty Over Natural Wealth and New York May 4-

Resources: 4th Session.

ITU Administrative Council: 17th Session Geneva May 5-

ANZUS Council: 8th Meeting Canberra May 7-

lAEA Symposium on Radiation Damage in Solids and Reactor Materials . Venice May 7-

15th International Film Festival Cannes May 7-

ILO Chemical Industries Committee: 6th Session Geneva May 7-

IMCO Maritime Safety Committee: Subcommittee on Code of Signals . London May 7-

NATO Planning Board for Ocean Shipping: 14th Meeting Washington May 7-

International Seed Testing Association: 13th Congress Lisbon May 7-

FAO Committee on Commodity Problems: 35th Session Rome May 7-

ITU CCIR Study Group II (Receivers) Geneva May 7-

ITU CCIR Study Group VI (Ionospheric Propagation) Geneva May 7-

GATT Committee on Balance-of-Payments Restrictions Geneva May 7-

U.N. ECOSOC Commission on International Commodity Trade and FAO Rome May 7-

Committee on Commodity Problems (Joint Session).

15th World Health Assembly Geneva May 8-

8th International Hydrographic Conference Monte Carlo May 8-

U.N. ECOSOC Commission on Narcotic Drugs: Committee on Illicit Geneva May 8-

Traffic.

International Cotton Advisory Committee: Committee on Extra-Long Washington May 9-

Staple Cotton.

UPU Executive and Liaison Committee Bern May 11-

Intcrnational Cotton Advisory Committee: 21st Plenary Meeting . . . . Washington May 14-

Diplomatic Conference on Maritime Law: Uth Session (resumed) . . . Bru.ssels May 14-

Executive Committee of the Program of the U.N. High Commissioner for Geneva May 14-

Refugees: 7th Session.

U.N. Special Fund: 8th Session of the Governing Council New York May 14-

U.N. ECOSOC Commission on International Commodity Trade: 10th Rome May 14-

Session.

U.N. ECOSOC Commission on Narcotic Drugs: 17th Session Geneva May 14-

8th Inter- American Travel Congress Rio do Janeiro May 15-

19th International Conference on Large Electric Systems Paris May 16-

384 Department of State Bulletin



GATT Council of Roprcspntatives Geneva May 21-

ICAO Airworthiness Committee: 5th Session Montreal May 21-

Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission: Annual Meeting San Diego or Quito May 24-

NATO Civil Aviation Plannins Committee Paris May 25-

ICAO Meteorological Operational Telecommunication Networlv Kuroiie Paris May 28-

Panel.

WHO Executive Board: 30th Session Geneva May 28-

ILO Governing Body: 152d Session (and its committees) Geneva May 28-

IMCO Maritime Safety Committee: Subcommittee on Subdivision and London May 28-

Stability.

International Rubber Study Group: 16th Meeting Washington May 28-

WMO Executive Committee: 14th Session Geneva May 29-

U.N. Trusteeship Council: 29th Session New Yorlv May 31-



U.N. General Assembly Urges Portugal To Promote
Self-Determination for Angola



Following are statements tnade hy Adlai E.
Stevenson, U.S. Representative to the General
Assembly, in plenary session during debate on the
situation in Angola, together with the text of a
resolution adopted hy the General Assembly on
January 30.

STATEMENT OF JANUARY 25

U.S. delegation press release 3914

We have been often reminded during tliis long:
debate that it is now nearly a year since Angola
became a center of trouble and tragedy in Africa,
and hence an object of urgent concern both in
the Security Coimcil and in the General Assem-
bly. Important events have taken place during
that period. All may be quiet now in Angola,
but little has happened to avert the danger of
further alarming tragedy at some future time.
xVnd nothing has happened to lessen the duty of
this Assembly to further a just and peaceful solu-
tion in accordance with the charter.

Wliat the details of that solution ought to be
is not the issue. But the broad character of the
solution should be determined by the force of
history and by the charter, which is our common
standard.

In the view of the United States delegation,
three great principles are involved.

First is the principle of self-determination. In
the first meeting on this subject last winter^ I

' For background, see BtTLLETiN of Apr. 3, 1961, p. 497.



emphasized the belief of the United States that
it was imperative for Portugal to speed up the
economic and social advancement of the inhabit-
ants of Angola toward full self-determination.
That that is the duty of Portugal and that that
is the right of the Angolans remains the un-
changed view of my Government.

Second, and equally vital, is the duty of the
Assembly to propose peaceful means of avoiding
further conflict. This duty lies upon the Gov-
ernment of Portugal and upon all member states
of the United Nations.

These two principles of self-determination and
of peaceful settlement are interconnected, and it
is our responsibility to assure that both are
accomplished.

Finally, there is a third principle, whose ful-
fillment depends upon the other two and which
is perliaps the highest ideal of the cliarter: the
ideal of peaceful cooperation among equals for
the common good. The future is full of the pos-
sibilities of such peaceful and creative cooperation
between Portugal and Angola. But those possi-
bilities cannot be realized unless the present rela-
tionship gives way to one based on full and
voluntary acceptance by all those directly
concerned.

These have long been the views of the United
States. They rest not on trivial or accidental
circumstances but on fundamental and long-range
considerations: our national tradition of anti-
colonialism, our friendship and alliance with Por-
tugal, and our fidelity to the charter. These are



March 5, /962



385



manifestly not extreme but moderate and progres-
sive views, and we trust that will be coMiitcd in
their favor.

Our most earnest wish is that as members of
the United Nations we shoidd work together to
assist in the great inexorable movement toward
freedom and self-determination and also to keep
tliat movement in the creative paths of peace —
difficult thougli those paths often seem. Dedi-
cated together to achieve peaceful change through
the processes of the charter, members must not
individually plunge in haste, or in despair, into
the use of force and tlie abyss of war.

Report of Subcommittee on Angola

Ovir feelings tliat peaceful change should take
place along these lines are confirmed by the re-
port. ^ of the subcommittee on Angola, which was
submitted since our last debate. This report
amply reflects the wisdom and diligence of the
distinguished representatives of Bolivia, Daho-
mey, Finland, Malaya, and Sudan. We have
noted with satisfaction and applaud the repeated
expressions of thanks of the Assembly for a
document whicli is most useful to us in our
consideration of this question.

The report, would be still more useful and more
complete if the subcommittee had been enabled
to visit Angola. We regret that Portugal decided
not to permit tliis. If there are sliortcomings in
the report, these certainly arise in part from the
hampering circumstance.

We were glad to note that the Portuguese Gov-
ernment did receive Dr. [Carlos] Salamanca in
Lisbon, in his capacity as chairman of the subcom-
mittee, and provided him with information and
with an insiglit into the Portuguese policy in
Angola, which is duly reflected in the report. We
note also that the Portuguese Government is co-
operating with an inquiry on labor conditions in
Angola which is now being conducted in Angola
by the International Labor Organization. We
believe that, moving forward froui these steps,
the Portuguese Government would be wise now,
in the same spirit of cooperation, to accept a
United Nations visit to Angola.

In any case, Mr. President, whatever the lim-
itations of the present report, it contains much
which deserves the attention and (liouglit of the
Assembly. It notes the tragic price wliicli has



= U.N. doc. A/4!)78.



already been paid : ". . . the loss of thousands of
lives, the fliglit of nearly 150,000 refugees from
the territory, and the creation of 'a veritable at-
mosphere of war.' "

On the more positive and liopeful side, the re-
port notes the announced reforms initiated by the
Portuguese Government in Angola. Although
tlie subcommittee refrained from making any
judgment as to the adequacy of these steps, it did
note that "they would seem to reflect some aware-
ness by the Government of Portugal of the need to
adjust its policies to the realities of the situation
and the opinion of the international community."
And the report, adds the view that "rapid measures
by the Government of Portugal can still preserve
the positive elements of past policies and achieve-
ments."

I would conclude this discussion of the report
by reading one last brief passage :

The Sub-Committee believes that the recognition of the
personality of Angola, the primacy of the interests of the
inhiibitants of the territory, the acceptance of the prin-
ciple of self-determination to Angola and the need for
immediate steps to prepare Angola for self-government
are not antithetical to the vital interests or the historic
mission of the Portuguese people. Such steps are, on
the other hand, fully consistent with the recognition of
racial equality and the proclaimed philosophy of Portugal.

With that sentiment the United States is in
complete accord. It is worth remembering espe-
cially that, whatever other difficulties may exist
in this case, we do not have to contend with racial
superiority or racial separation. In fact, as the
subcommittee suggests, there is great potential
common ground between the contending forces in
Angola.

Reforms Announced by Portugal

Mr. President, as an olil friend and ally of
Portugal, the United States is by no means deaf
to the complaint of the distingiiislied representa-
tive of Portugal that tliere lias been little attempt
to assess the positive features of the Portuguese
presence in Africa. That may be, althougli, as
I just noted, the report of the subcommittee ac-
knowledges that such positive elements exist and
should be presen'ed.

In any case it is not tlie elimination of Portu-
guese relationships with Angola, or with Africa,
that should be our goal. Rather we sliould strive
to create conditions mider wliich the people of
Angola, building on the positive elements of tlie



386



Department of Sfafe Bulletin



past, can detei-mine their own destiny, including
their future rehitions with the Portuguese nation.

It is m the light of this goal that the world will
wish to evaluate the measures of reform announced
by Portugal on Soplcmber 8, 19(il. It is note-
worthy that Portugal announced this reform pro-
gram less than 5 months after the passage of the
first United Nations resolution on the Angolan
problem. That Assembly resolution 1603, adopted
last April 20, urged Portugal among other things
"to consider urgently the introduction of measures
and reforms in Angola for the purpose of the im-
plementation of General Assembly resolution
1514 (XV)."

Thus the present reforms are a forward move-
ment responsive to the Assembly's request. If they
are carried out and expanded they could contrib-
ute to the future of peace and freedom in Angola
which we all seek. We hope they are the firet
step toward self-determination for the Angolan
people. We cannot now tell how effective they
will be and would urge Portugal to keep the
United Nations fully and promptly informed
about the significance and meaning of these re-
forms as they are implemented.

Steps Initiated by U.S.

Now let me inform the Assembly briefly con-
cerning the steps which the United States has
taken on its own initiative to further the purposes
of the United Nations on the question of Angola.

First, we are convinced, based on our own his-
torical experience, that any relationship among
people not based on mutual consent is fundamen-
tally unsound and ultimately doomed to failure.
Whatever may have been the justification or bene-
fits of colonialism in the past, its era is over and
it must give way to the superior right of peoples
to determine for themselves how they should be
governed.

We have therefore consistently encouraged
Portugal over the past year, not only in the United
Nations but also outside it, to advance its policies
in Angola at a rate which would make possible a
constructive and harmonious solution. We have
made clear to the Portuguese Government our view
that this solution must embrace full self-determi-
nation for the people of Angola and have sought to
persuade them to modify their policies and make
adjustments to this end.

Second, as we informed the Assembly last De-



cember, the United States has pointed out to the
Portuguese Government that the diversion to tlie
lighting in Angola of any NATO military equip-
ment supplied to Portugal by the United States
would be inconsistent with our military defense
agreement with Portugal. We sought and ob-
tained at that time the assurance of Portugal that
no such equipment would be emi)loyed there.
Moreover, in accordance with the desire of this
body to seek a peaceful solution in Angola, we liave
taken the further step of instituting measures to
prevent the commercial export of arms for use
by those at conflict.

Tliird, the United States lias told Portugal that
it is ready to give sympathetic consideration to
any request by Portugal for material aid in educa-
tion, vocational training, and work rehabilitation
in Angola. This ofl^er is designed to encourage
progress toward self-detennination. It is in har-
mony with one of the findings of the subcommittee,
which emphasized "the need for a rapid and
massive expansion of educational facilities in order
to enhance the economic, social, and political ad-
vancement of the territory."

Finally, for those Angolans who have taken
refuge in the Congo, we have given and will con-
tinue to give material aid through the United
Nations. And we are prepared to support a
United Nations educational program for young
Angolan refugees.

Responsibility of U.N. in Angola

The Assembly now once more faces the problem
of determining what its own further role toward
the events in Angola should be. In so doing the
Assembly and its member states must constantly
keep in mind the repercussions which will be cre-
ated elsewhere in the future by what it and they
do here and now.

The root of the problem in Angola is change —
the inevitable, continuous modification of man's
relationship with other men. It is such progress
that is necessary to a healthy and growing world.
The new status of the Angolaii people which will
inevitably unfold in Angola, just as it has un-
folded or is unfolding in most of the rest of Africa,
is an integral part of this process of change.

The charter, the instrument from which the role
of the General Assembly derives, provides a way
in which we may encourage the realization of
such change by peaceful processes. Chapter XI



March 5, 7962



387



establishes the principle that the political, eco-
nomic, social, and educational advancement of the
inhabitants of these territories shall take place
by peaceful means. It also imposes obligations
on the administering authorities, foremost among
which is that of promoting to the utmost the well-
being of the inhabitants of these territories and,
in this context, to develop self-government.

It is precisely the question to what extent Por-
tugal has lived up to these obligations under the
charter, with respect to the people of Angola,
which has given rise to recent events in that terri-
tory. Violence of the sort that is reported to
have taken place in Angola is ugly and abhorrent
and is the very thing which due application of
the principles of the charter, and especially those
of chapter XI, was designed to avoid. Had these
principles in fact been applied in Angola, as they
have elsewhere in so many places and with such
conspicuous success, it is highly unlikely that we
would now be considering the item before us in
its present context.

None can or would wish to contest the right
of the people of Angola to maintain their strug-
gles to determine their own political destiny.
And it would be futile to expect their desires not
to be furthered by other means if the franchise
is not made progressively available. But the re-
sponsibility the rest of us have to the Angolans
and to the Portuguese is to use our influence with
them to assure that the processes of peace prevail
over the coimsels of violence. And the responsi-
bility we have to ourselves and to each other is
to conduct our own individual policies toward
the same peaceful, not violent, end. This was
the commitment we made when we signed the
charter, and it is fundamentally upon our adher-
ence to tliis commitment that the efficacy of this
organization depends.

The United Nations stands for peaceful change.
We, its individual members, have a responsibility
not to employ force in situations such as prevail
in Angola. This responsibility falls on all of us :
on Portugal not to repress with force the just
aspirations of the people of Angola under the
pretext of its rightful and essential responsibility
for the maintenance of law and order; on the
rest of us not to intervene with force to press the
changes in Angola. There are not two laws of
the charter on such questions. There is only one,
and it is equally binding on us all. As for itself.



the United States will continue to exert all its
influence toward resolving the issue of Angola
within the terms of the charter, by peaceful means.
We earnestly trust that others will take the same
attitude. In this process of change, but by peace-
ful means, lies the responsibility of the United
Nations.

Strengthening U.N.'s Peacekeeping Machinery

I am sure that members of the iVssembly will
recognize that we are faced here with a problem
which goes far beyond the particular one of An-
gola. For a moment I would like to depart from
the specific problem of Angola to deal with this
larger aspect. A profound dilemma confronts the
United Nations in attempting at the same time to
facilitate change and to keep the peace. Both of
these are imperative responsibilities which the
United Nations must not and cannot escape. They
are moreover mutually dependent and comple-
mentary. Without peaceful change, tensions will
build up which will eventually explode in the use
of force. On the other hand, whenever force is
used to effect change, the very foundations of this
peacekeeping organization, on which the security
of all of us in whole or in part depends, are
dangerously shaken.

There unhappily still exist in the world many
situations which individual nations or groups of
nations consider to be unjust and intolerable.
Some of these are vestiges of the colonial system.
Others are threats to peoples, not long ago free,
who no longer control their own destiny or whose
freedom is in jeopardy. Still others are concerned
with territorial claims of one nation against an-
other, claims of one new nation against another,
claims of one new nation against another as well
as against the older powers. In each of these
cases one party, or sometimes both parties, is likely
to feel that the present situation is luijust, out-
rageous, humiliating, and must be changed at all
costs. Men and nations always run the risk of
thinking their grievances unique, their impatience
justified. If the numerous instruments of peace-
ful change and peaceful settlement do not provide
a .solution acceptable to them, there is a great
temptation to claim that the possibilities of peace-
ful settlement have been exhausted, that the situa-
tion can no longer be tolerated, and that there is
"no alternative" to a resort to force. But in 10C2
both the risks and our responsibilities must be



388



Department of Slate Bulletin



pondered with the greatest of care. Even in 1045,
before the age of atomic weapons had really be-
gun, men and nations concluded that the holocaust
of war was too terrible to be an instrument of pol-
icy and created this organization with its ways
and means for tackling the grievances, disputes,
and injustices which vex us.

The provisions of the charter are exceedingly
clear. Article 2, paragraph 3 states that "All
Members shall settle their international disputes
by peaceful means. . . ." This organization, over
the 16 years of its life, has built wisely upon re-
lated charter provisions. We have available a
wide range of instruments through which peace-
ful change can be facilitated and peaceful settle-
ment effected.

The Secretary-General and his senior staff have
given excellent service in the conciliation of dan-
gerous and destructive conflicts. We have estab-
lished United Nations "presences" in various
areas — sj'mbols of the organization — symbols
which have helped dampen down explosive situa-
tions and give effect to quiet conciliation. Rap-
porteurs or special representatives have been
appointed for the detailed negotiations necessary
in complex disputes. Notable successes have been
achieved in apparently intractable cases. The
United Nations facilitated the independence of
Indonesia in 1948 and 1949. Peace, though un-
easy, has been kept in Palestine with the aid of
the United Nations Emergency Force and the
United Nations Truce Supervision Organization.
Aggression was repelled in Korea. An observer
corps helped stabilize a situation of turbulence in
Lebanon. We are now engaged in a major and
increasingly hopeful operation in the Congo which
is providing new proof of our peacekeeping
capability.

Relying on Principles of Charter

Such United Nations machinery for stability,
peace, and change should be used to the maximum,
and we may want during the coming months to
see whether it can be strengthened and made more
quickly responsive to the needs of this dangerous
interval in human history when an old order is
dying and a new one struggling to be born.

But, Mr. President, we will make little progress
either in improving our machinery or in making
effective use of that which we already have unless
we bring to this all-important task a new will, a



new determination, to build the work of peaceful
settlement and of peaceful change through this
organization into the very fabric of our mutual
relationships. In a world living imder a nuclear
sword even our small quarrels can escalate into
general catastrophe. We are dealing, Mr. Presi-



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 46, Jan- Mar 1962) → online text (page 75 of 101)