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dent, with a major question of political will — the
will to effect peaceful and orderly change, the will
to take action which will strengthen the capacity
of this organization to cope with the heavy respon-
sibilities placed upon it.

If anyone in our world feels his case is special,
so unique that international procedures can be
ignored and obstacles crushed by military force,
let him consider the risks. Can exceptions be made
from standards of conduct we have all accepted
without risking that they will be followed in other
cases? Can anyone believe that the use of force
can be prohibited in certain types of national dis-
putes if it is allowed in others ?

In our interdependent world what is done in one
place, however remote, reverberates around the
globe and the implications grow as they travel.
No longer is it possible to rely on localized
conflicts.

If one of us takes the law into his own hands,
he may force the hand of others who also feel they
have a special cause. How can a government
justify to its people not using force to settle its
grievances if its neighbors are doing so? Such
anarchy in an age of enormous armaments and nu-
clear weapons is literally impossible. Either the
anarchy must be prevented and peaceful proce-
dures employed, or we shall destroy ourselves.

National injustices, whether they be remnants
of colonialism or disputes among new or among
old states, must not be allowed to threaten the
destruction of our United Nations Organization,
with its developing but still fragile peacekeeping
machinery and the hopes of all mankind for a
world of law and order. The use of force in colo-
nial questions is no more justified than in any other
question, and any effort to establish a dual stand-
ard of conduct with respect to them could not fail
seriously to endanger the entire structure of the
United Nations. And those who would suffer
most from a weakening of the United Nations
would be those who need the United Nations
most — those small states who do not have strong
allies or the physical resources for unilateral self-
defense in a modern world. If such states choose



March 5, 1962



389



to achieve their own ambitions and settle their own
disputes by force or to condone others in doing
so, they risk finding, when they themselves are
threatened, that the great international instru-
ment which might have saved them has been para-
lyzed by their own action or inaction.

The charter provides the most extensive ma-
chinery the world has ever seen for the peaceful
settlement of disputes and for the adjustment of
differences among states. Members of the United
Nations are bound to avail themselves of this
machinery and not to resort to the use of armed
force when this macliinery does not provide a quick
or a desired result. In view of the alternative
prospect, with the ever-expanding potential of
modem arms and armaments, I submit that it is
both compulsoi-y and expedient to rely on the
principles of the charter and to use to the full
the machinery and processes of the United Nations
for effecting peaceful change. Wliere states re-
sort to force instead, they can expect vigorous
opposition from the United States, whoever they
may be.

Peaceful Progress and Peaceful Change

Mr. President, in Angola the broad character
of the solution is clear. It does not lie in a fruit-
less attempt to repress inevitable change. Nor
does it lie in the fomenting of \'iolence and extrem-
ism. It lies rather in the processes of peaceful
progress and peaceful change. And it is not too
late to set those processes in motion.

The greatest responsibility lies upon Portugal
and upon those who contend against her — upon
Portugal to accept the goal of self-determination,
and upon both to work in good faith toward the
goal, abjuring force. A corresponding responsi-
bility lies upon every member of the United Na-
tions to make every effort to advance this process,
to discourage the use of force, and to encourage
recourse to the extensive machinery of peaceful
settlement provided in the charter.

We hope that the General Assembly will adopt
a resolution embodying these principles and that
Portugal in its wisdom will respond, not only to the
voice of the community of nations but to its own
highest self-interest. Thus both the United Na-
tions and Portugal will have contributed a bright
page to the history of the growth of human free-
dom.



STATEMENT OF JANUARY 30

U.S. delegation press release 3917

The United States delegation believes that the
resolution which the Assembly adopts at the con-
clusion of this long debate on Angola should, first,
reflect the worldwide concern over Portugal's pres-
ent policies toward Angola and, second, should
appeal to that Government to heed the call of this
Assembly and grant self-determination to the
people of Angola. The resolution should, we
think, take note of the announcement by Portugal
of a program of reforms and express its hopes for
speedy and effective application of these and other
reforms. And, finally, the resolution should offer
concrete and realistic suggestions whicli, if ac-
cepted by the Government of Portugal and the
other members of the United Nations, could indeed
lead to the ending of what we call the "situation in
Angola." This resolution should, we believe, re-
flect moderation and responsibility. This is the
approach which we believe will have the greatest
effect on Portugal. And obviously our hope for
speedy progress in Angola depends upon Portugal.

"V^Hiile the resolution sponsored by the 45 dele-
gations does not meet all of these hopes and ex-
pectations, it does, in our judgment, meet most
of theTii. and the United States delegation is fully
appreciative of the long hours and the diligent
hard work devoted to its drafting. We welcome
the spirit of constructive responsibility which is
reflected in the text before us.'

However, it would be surprising indeed to ex-
pect everyone to be completely satisfied, wliere so
many views have to be reconciled in one document.
I must, therefore, say that, while the United States
delegation believes the draft resolution is intended
to be constructive and to lead toward the peaceful
develojiment of self-determination which most of
us su])port, we have certain reservations about its I
phraseology. For example, operative paragraph
3 does not recognize that some of the measures
taken by Portugal were the necessary ingredients
of law and order, which is of course the first duty
of any government. IMoreover, paragraph 4 does
not make allowance for cases wliich would subject
the perpetrators in any area to arrest by the re-
sponsible authorities. Doubtless both sides need
to exhibit more tolerance and refrain from actions



U.iN. Uoc. A/L. 384/Rev. 1 and Add. 1.



390



Department of State Bulletin



whic'li ciin only load to more fisjlitinij and violence
and bloodshed. I am glad to note, however, that
relative calm appears to exist at this moment in
most of Angola. Finally, with regard to operative
paragraph 9, we consider this language too sweep-
ing.

But our principal difficulties center around op-
erative paragraphs G(b) and 7. Our major
concern relates to the mandate given by this reso-
lution to the Special Committee of 17. As the
Assembly well ImoM's, imder the terms of its Res-
olution 1699 [December 28, 1961], the Assembly
has established a committee of seven members to
provide information on Portuguese territories, in-
cluding Angola. In addition, the resolution we
are now considering properly renews the mandate
of the subcommittee on Angola. We believe that
the subcommittee on Angola has performed its
task with competence, dignity, and diligence, and
"we have eveiy reason to believe that it will cai-ry
out its future work in this same manner. Thus
we see no need to designate or direct still a third
committee, the Committee of 17, to apply itself
to the situation in Angola. We believe, on the
contrary, that this proliferation of committees
will inevitably lead to unnecessary duplication and
the creation of confusion rather than efficiency
and coherence. The attention of three committees
focused on Angola is, we fear, likely then to hinder
rather than to advance the progress we all desire.

Our second reserv-ation in paragraph 7 concerns
its failure to mention self-detenTiination. Our
views are simple. We feel strongly that it is not
within the spirit or the letter of the charter for
the Assembly to prejudge for the people of An-
gola the outcome of their progress of self-determi-
nation. The people of Angola are entitled to
exercise an unqualified right of self-determination
and, of course, to independence, if that is their
choice. Accordingly, we would have preferred to
see paragraph 7 bi-ought into conformity with the
preamble, with operative paragraph 2, and with
article 73 of the charter, which, in our opinion, re-
flect more accurately what the goal of this resolu-
tion is, as well as the main conclusions of our
debate.

For these reasons we would request you, Mr.
President, to put to the vote separately the phrase
contained in paragi-aph 6(b) "through the Special
Committee of seventeen members established im-



der resolution 1654 (XVI)"'' — to quote the lan-
guage of the resolution — and the whole of opera-
tive paragraph 7. The United States will, for
its part, for the reasons that I have briefly ex-
plained, vote against the inclusion of the last half
of paragraph 6(b) and paragraph 7 of the resolu-
tion as sponsored by the 45 delegations.^



TEXT OF RESOLUTION'

The General Assembly,

Having considered the situation in Angola,

Recalling its resolution 1603 (XV) of 20 April 11)01 and
the Securit.v Council resolution of 9 June 1961,'

Having examined the report of the Sub-Committee on
the situation in Angoln appointed under resolution 1003
(XV),

Deploring the lack of co-operation and assistance by
Portugal in the full and efCective discharge of the Sub-
Committee's task as called for in the aforementioned res-
olutions,

'Noting with deep regret Portugal's refusal to recognize
Angola as a Non-Self-Governing Territory and its failure
to take measures to implement General Assembly resolu-
tion 1514 (XV)' of 14 December 1960 entitled "Declara-
tion on the granting of independence to colonial countries
and peoples",

Ccmvinccd that the continued refusal of Portugal to
recognize the legitimate aspirations of the Angolan peo-
ple to self-determination and independence constitutes a
permanent source of international friction and threatens
international peace and security,

1. Expresses its appreciation of the work of the Sub-
Committee on the situation in Angola and commends to
the Portuguese Government, for urgent consideration and
effective implementation, the observations, findings and
conclusions set out in the Sub-Committee's report ;

2. Solemnly reafflrms the inalienable right of the An-
golan people to self-determination and indeijendence ;

3. Deeply deprecates the repressive measures and
armed action against the people of Angola and the denial
to them of human rights and fundamental freedoms, and



* For text, see Biilletin of Jan. 8, 1962, p. 76.

° Deletion of the phrase in operative paragraph 0(b)
and the whole of operative paragraph 7 was approved by
the General Assembly on Jan. 30.

"U.N. doc. A/RES/1742 (XVI) (A/L. 384/Rev. 1, as
amended) ; adopted on Jan. 30 by a vote of 99 to 2 (South
Africa, Spain), with 1 abstention (France). Iceland
and Portugal were absent. A draft resolution (A/L. 383)
sponsored by Poland and Bulgaria, calling for sanctions
against Portugal, was defeated on the same date by a vote
of 26 to 43, with 32 abstentions.

' U.N. doe. S/4835 ; for text, see Btn.LEn.v of July 10,
1961, p. 89.

' For text, see ibid., Jan. 2, 1961, p. 27.



March 5, 7962



391



calls upon the Portuguese authorities to desist forthwith
from repressive measures against the people of Angola ;

4. Appeals to the Government of Portugal to release im-
mediately all Angolan political prisoners wherever they
may be held ;

5. Urges the Government of Portugal to undertake,
without further delay, extensive political, economic and
social reforms and measures and in particular to set up
freely elected and representative political institutions
with a view to transfer of power to the people of Angola ;

6. Decides to continue the Sub-Committee on the situa-
tion in Angola appointed under resolution 1603 (XV) :

(a) To continue the performance of its tasks ;

(b) To study ways and means to secure the imple-
mentation of the present resolution and to report thereon



to the Security Council and to the General Assembly;

7. Requests Member States to use their influence to se-
cure the compliance of Portugal with the present
resolutions ;

8. Requests all States Members of the United Nations
and members of the specialized agencies to deny to Por-
tugal any support and assistance which may be used by
it for the suppression of the people of Angola ;

9. Requests the Government of Portugal to submit a
report to the General Assembly at its seventeenth session
on the measures it has undertaken in the implementation
of the present resolution ;

10. Recommends to the Security Council, in the light of
the Council's resolution of 9 June IWil and of the present
resolution, to keep the matter under constant review.



FAO Member Nations Study World Food and Agricultural Problems

ELEVENTH SESSION OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION
OF THE UNITED NATIONS, ROME, OCTOBER 30-NOVEIVIBER 24, 1961

by Ralph W. Phillips and Walter W. Sohl



Some 600 of the world's agricultural leaders
assembled at the Rome, Italy, headquarters of the
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations from October 30 to November 24, 1961, to
participate in the 11th session of the FAO
Conference.

This governing body of FAO serves both as a
legislative body, dealing with program, budgetary,
constitutional, and administrative matters, and as
a forum examining international agricultural
problems. The 11th session climaxed 2 years of
growth in FAO's activities, aimed at assisting
member countries in the improvement of agricul-
tural production, distribution, and utilization.
Highlights were Conference acceptance of the
largest regular budget in the Organization's his-



• Dr. Phillips is Director, International
Organizations Division, Foreign Agricul-
tural Service, Department of Agriculture.
Mr. Sohl is an officer in the Bureau of
International Organization Affairs, Depart-
ment of State.



tory, approval of a World Food Program for the
multilateral tise of surplus foods, examination of
progress made in marshaling the world's agricul-
tural resources in the struggle against himger, and
admission of a substantial number of new member
countries.

John P. Duncan, Jr., Assistant Secretary of
Agriculture for Marketing and Foreign Agricul-
ture, led the U.S. delegation.^

This report summarizes some of the major ac-
tions of the Conference.

Admission of New Members

At the outset of the 11th session, FAO had 82
full members. The number was increased to 99 by
the election of 16 new members - and by the return
of Syria as a member following its separation
from the United Arab Republic.



' For names of other members of the U.S. delegation,
see Bulletin of Nov. 27, 19(51, p. 908.

^Central African Republic, Chad, Congo (Brazzaville),
Congo (Leopoldville), Dahomey, Gabon, Ivory Coast,
Kuwait, Malagasy Republic, Mali, Mauritania, Niger,
Rumania, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Upper Volta.



392



DepaT\men\ of Sfo/e Bulletin



Four dependent territories ^ were elected to
associate membersliip, while a fifth ■* already held
this status. Jamaica and Tanganyika are to as-
sume full membership when, as independent na-
tions, they adhere to the FAO Constitution. Thus
there will be 101 member countries and 3
associate members.

Program of Work and Budget

After reviewing the program of work proposed
for 1962 and 1963, the Conference approved a
budget of $31,185,000 for the biennium. This will
provide for work in the fields of animal produc-
tion and health, agricultural application of atomic
energy, plant production and protection, fisheries,
forestry, land and water development, nutrition,
rural institutions and services, economics, com-
modities, and statistics. Also it will cover the
related library, information, publication, adminis-
trative, and other services. The budget for the
regular program for the current biennium repre-
sents an increase of $9,648,150 over the budget of
$21,536,850 voted in 1959 for the 1960-61 biennium.

The Conference established six technical com-
mittees (agriculture, economics, fisheries, forestry,
information, nutrition) to undertake a teclinical
review of the work of the Organization in the past
and the impending biennium, and also for a longer
range period, as a basis for planning. These com-
mittees began their work on October 30, one week
before the main Conference discussions began on
November 6. This was a departure from the
practice followed in earlier Conferences of start-
ing after the formal opening of the Conference.
Besides providing additional time for the tech-
nical review of FAO activities, this innovation
made possible the completion of the review before
formal action had to be taken leading to adoption
of the overall program of work and budget.

World Food Program

The most notable addition to FAO's activities
was that of a multilateral program of assistance to
developing countries, based on the utilization of
surplus foods. Conceived by the United States
Government as a part of its Food-for- Peace effort,
this subject attracted more attention than any
other. As a result of resolutions adopted by the



Conference, and later by the U.N. General Assem-
bly,^ the basis for a World Food Program
emerged.

This program, which is to be conducted on an
experimental basis for 3 years, will utilize volun-
tary contributions of food, services (e.g. ship-
ping), and funds, with a target figure of $100
million. The aim is to obtain one-third of the
total in cash, from which administrative and other
costs are to be financed.

Attention will be given to meeting emergency
food needs and emergencies inherent in chronic
malnutrition (which could include establishment
of food reserves) , assisting in preschool and school
feeding, and implementing pilot projects in which
food aid can contribute to economic and social
development.

The program will be undertaken jointly by
FAO and the United Nations, in cooperation with
other organizations as appropriate. It will be
carried out under the guidance of a 20-country,
joint U.N./FAO Intergovernmental Committee.
Ten members — Argentina, Brazil, Canada, France,
Ghana, India, Indonesia, the Netherlands, the
United Arab Republic, and the United States —
were designated by the FAO Council immediately
after the Conference. Shortly thereafter the U.N.
General Assembly approved the establishment of
the joint program and the Economic and Social
Council (ECOSOC) designated Australia, Co-
lombia, Denmark, Morocco, Nigeria, New Zealand,
Pakistan, Thailand, Uruguay, and Yugoslavia as
members of the Intergovernmental Committee.

This Intergovernmental Committee met at
Rome February 12-19, 1962, to develop adminis-
trative and operational plans for the program,
which are to be approved by the FAO Covmcil and
ECOSOC in concurrent meetings at New York
in April 1962. Following that a pledging con-
ference will be convened jointly by the Secretary-
General of the U.N. and the Director General of
FAO.

The program will be administered by the joint
FAO/U.N. unit located at Rome. Projects under-
taken, in response to requests from recipient
countries, are to be carried out in accord with the
FAO Principles of Surplus Disposal.



' British Guiana, Jamaica, Mauritius, and Tanganyika.
' Rhodesia and Nyasaland.



° For a statement made by Richard N. Gardner in Com-
mittee II of the U.X. General Assembly on Dec. 8, 1961,
see BtJLLCTiN of Jan. 22, 1962, p. 150; for text of U.N.
resolution, see U.N. doc. A/RES/1714 (XVI).



March 5, 1962



393



Progress in Other Phases of the FAO Program

Tlie regular program of FAO has many phases;
so only a very few can be mentioned here as
examples.

FAO has had under way for 4 years a World
Seed Campaign, which was bi-ought to a climax
with a World Seed Year in 1961 and a review in
the Conference of progress made by member coun-
tries. Also FAO released its new publication
(Agricultural Studies No. 55) on Agricultural
and Horticultural Seeds in the three official
languages of the Organization — English, French,
and Spanish. Tliis 531-page volume provides
member countries with a summary of basic infor-
mation on the production, control, and distribu-
tion of seeds. The U.S. Department of Agricul-
ture, as its contribution to the World Seed
Campaign, devoted its 1961 Yearbook to Seeds.
Copies of the Yearbook were presented to each
delegation to the Conference. The World Seed
Campaign will be concluded with an International
Technical Meeting on Seed Production, Control,
and Distribution in 1962.

The Freedom-From-Hunger Campaign, which
had been initiated by FAO in I960,'' to extend
through 1965, was re^newed. Primarily aimed at
increasing food production, this campaign has the
accompanying goals of improving food distribu-
tion, nutrition, and general levels of living. The
Conference noted the progress made in prepara-
tion for a World Food Congress in 1963, wherein
the problems of food and population will be ex-
amined. Also it noted that work is progressing
on a series of publications aimed at making avail-
able to member countries analyses of various
phases of the food-and-population problem.
However, in spite of expressions of interest by
developing countries, the Conference found that
little real progress had been made to date in get-
ting projects under way in those areas where the
heart of the campaign was expected to reside and
where action is most urgently needed. Since spe-
cific project proposals have not been forthcoming,
sufficient interest has not been stimulated in most
of the developed countries which should, if the
campaign is to succeed, be giving active support
to field activities. On the other hand, a substantial
number of countries have made contributions to
the headquarters costs of the campaign. These
costs relate primarily to administrative arrange-

" For background, see Bulletin of Jan. IS, 19G0, p. 04.



ments, publicity, and promotion of interest in field
projects.

A new venture for FAO was the assimiption
of leadership jointly with the World Health Or-
ganization ("WHO) of the Codex Alimentarius,
which had been initiated by a European group.
This effort to develop generally acceptable re-
gional and international food standards could, in
the long run, have very beneficial effects on the
handling of food products in international trade
and through greater assurance to consumers that
they ai"e receiving high-quality products. A
Codex Alimentarius Commission was set up by
the Conference to carry out the work, and it is
expected to have its first meeting during 1962.
At the outset this work is to be financed by volun-
tary contributions, for which a tmist fund is being
established. FAO has already been working ac-
tively on standards for daiiy products, and imtil
such time as the Codex AUTnentarhts Commission
has made sufficient progress to enable it to effec-
tively handle the dairy products standards, work
will continue separately on a Code of Prmciples
for Milk and Milk Products.

Another venture approved by the Conference is
a special program of agricultural education and
training in Africa, for which $825,000 was allo-
cated in the regular budget for the next 2 years.
It is designed to provide the developing African
countries with a limited number of agricultural
education advisers, specialists on training in vari-
ous fields of food and agriculture, and a cadre of
agricultural educators who will cooperate with
experts provided by the International Labor Or-
ganization (ILO) and the United Nations Edu-
cational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
(UNESCO) in educational planning missions.

One further activity should bo mentioned as
evidence of interest in Africa, from which conti-
nent 28 countries are now full members of the
Organization. The Conference examined tlie re-
port of an African survey which F.VO had carried



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 46, Jan- Mar 1962) → online text (page 76 of 101)