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Department of State bulletin (Volume v. 46, Jan- Mar 1962) online

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out. This report highlighted the need for furtlier
information on African conditions as a prerequi-
site for undertaking operations in that continent.
The African survey was essenlially a preliminary
factfinding operation and not a bhieprint for de-
velopment. The report called for cooperation
with the United Nations, ILO, UNESCO, and the
Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) in an
integrated approach to improve nu'al living stand-



394



Department of State Bulletin



ai'ds and airricultiiral production. Tho Confer-
ence I'csolution wliicli evolved rccoq;nizcd the role
to bo played by other United Nations agencies and
invited FAO to assist in the coordination of tech-
nical iissistance.

Technical Assistance Activities

In addition to the above-mentioned and many
other facets of its regular pi'ogram, the Confer-
ence reviewed the very substantial tecluiical assist-
ance activities which FAO contiiiues to operate
under the Expanded Program of Technical As-
sistance (ETAP) and the United Nations Special
Fund.

During 1961 FAO carried out ETAP projects
costing $9,649,175 and will probably have a
slightly higher allocation of ETAP funds in 1962.
Under this program 660 experts served and 278
fellowships were awarded in 1961.

FAO had, at the time of the Conference, under-
taken to execute 65 Special Fund projects costing
$46,456,600. These projects, 38 of which were al-
ready under way, will be carried out over the next
2 to 5 years. In Januai-y 1962, 14 further projects
costing $10,442,600 were assigned to FAO, bring-
ing the total to $56,899,200. In addition a total
of $4,813,100 has been allocated for headquarters
and servicing costs.

FAO also collaborates with the United Na-
tions Children's Fund (UNICEF) in many
jointly assisted projects in countries and receives
allocations from UNICEF to cover the costs of
field personnel that are not provided for under
ETAP projects. UNICEF funds totaling $503,-
184 were allocated for this purpose in 1961. The
regular budget of FAO for 1962-63 includes
$1,200,000 for headquarters costs in connection
with jointly assisted projects, and further alloca-
tions are expected from UNICEF. However,
some basic questions of financial relationships be-
tween FAO and UNICEF remain unresolved.^

The Conference also approved, within the reg-
ular budget, an allocation of $400,000 for the bi-
ennium for technical assistance activities. There
were substantial differences of opinion, however,
regarding the desirability of including such funds
in the regular budget. These funds are to be used
in 1962-63 for assistance to countries and the pro-
vision of fellowships on agricultural development
planning.



' For background, see iUd., Mar. 9, 1959, p. 350.



Reorientation of FAO Activities

In tlie Conference review of the program of
work much attention was given to the problems
arising from the rapid expansion of teclinical as-
sistance activities in recent years and particularly
following the advent of the United Nations
Special Fund.

The staff employed under the regular program
has substantial responsibility for planning, staff-
ing, and supervising field programs carried out
under funds allocated through ETAP, the Special
Fimd, and UNICEF, and to a more limited extent
under other funds. In recent years the emergence
of new countries has resulted in increased demands
upon FAO for technical assistance, including as-
sistance in the field of agricultural development
planning. Also there has been an increasing
tendency to emphasize those activities financed
under the regular budget that benefit developing
countries, at the expense of activities which bene-
fit all member countries. Hence some imbalances
have developed within the overall program of
FAO, which threaten to become more serious.

The Conference therefore requested the FAO
Council and its Program Committee to study this
problem and to recommend steps aimed at main-
taining a proper balance in the progi'am as a
whole, while providing essential assistance to the
developing countries.

In relation to the long-range development of
FAO in the service of its member countries, this
is probably the most important action taken by
the Conference.

World Situation and Outlook

During the course of the week-long plenary
debate on the world situation and outlook in food
and agi'iculture, delegates from about 85 member
nations made statements. Altliough many of these
tended to emphasize specific problems in their
respective countries, the statements covered a
rather wide range of problems relating to the
international agricultural situation, most of which
were followed up in detail in meetings of an ap-
propriate conmiission of the Conference.

There was much comment on the declining
prices of farm commodities and deteriorating
terms of trade that had been experienced during
the 1950-60 decade. It was noted that, with cer-
tain exceptions such as coffee and cocoa, there had
been signs of stabilization in farm commodity



March 5, 7962



395



prices during 1961. However, the consensus was
that prevailing price levels were too low. In this
connection, the whole question of price support
and stabilization measures was discussed fully.
This included review of a set of guiding principles
of agricultural stabilization and support policies,
which are now to be circulated to governments so
they may indicate if they are prepared to accept
them.

The Conference noted that 48 member countries
had accepted another set of principles — the FAO
Principles of Surplus Disposal — and the Director
General was again requested to invite otlier gov-
ernments to adhere to these principles.

Attention was also given to the agricultural
commodity aspects of regional economic integra-
tion, and considerable concern was expressed over
the possible impact these regional measures and
policies might have on trade in agricultural com-
modities. Governments and the Director General
were requested to keep this problem under review.

The problems of population growth in relation
to long-term food supplies came in for a gi"eat deal
of attention. Al.so the Conference provided the
occasion for the second McDougall INIemorial Lec-
ture. It was given by John D. Eockefeller III on
"People, Food, and the Well-Being of Mankind."
Comments from the newly developing countries
relating to current food problems generally placed
much greater emphasis on malnutrition than vipon
food shortages in terms of caloric intake. Particu-
lar note was taken of the need for more adequate
protein supplies, especially animal proteins includ-
ing fish, in many countries.

Constitutional Changes

The Conference adopted a number of amend-
ments to the constitution and rules of the Organi-
zation, including the few mentioned below.

Membership in the FAO Council was increased
from 25 to 27 countries, the two additional seats
being allocated to the African region.

The term of oiBce of the Director General was
fixed at 4 years, with reappointment possible for
two successive 2-year terms. The constitution had
not previously contained a specific provision re-
garding this point.

Term of office in tlie Council's Committee on
Constitutional and Legal Matters was fixed at 2
years, to avoid consideration of redesignation at
each regular Coimcil session.



Provisions regarding composition of delegations
were altered to enable each member government to
designate alternates instead of only one alternate.

Provision was made whereby each session of the
Conference may establish committees for the con-
sideration of technical activities of the Organiza-
tion, to meet prior to the next session of the
Conference, at such time as the Council decides.
Also the agenda of these committees is to be de-
termined by the Council. Under this revised rule,
the Conference then established six technical com-
mittees to be convened in advance of the 12th ses-
sion of the Conference.

The Conference also took action to establish a
Regional Fisheries Advisory Commission for the
South West Atlantic, to abolish an International
Chestnut Commission (leaving its work to a
Working Party on Chestnut, of the European
Forestry Commission), and to complete the task
of bringing the constitution and rules of various
subsidiary bodies into line with principles estab-
lished by the 9th session of the Conference.

Elections

The only major elections before the Conference
were those for the Independent Chairman of the
Council and for filling of vacancies on the Council.

Louis Maire of Switzerland was reelected for
a second 2-year term as Independent Chairman of
the Council.

Countries elected or reelected to fill vacancies
in the Council were :

For perind November J961 to November 1963: C.-imeroon ;

For period November 1961 to December 31, 196'i: Argpn-
tina, Austria, Belgium. Ceylon, Chile, Indonesia, Ire-
land, Madagascar, Philippines ;

For period January 1, 1963, to November 1965: Brazil,
Canada, Iran, Italy, Lebanon, Morocco, Nigeria, Pana-
ma, United States.

Conclusion

Each Conference in a series such as this tends to
take on characteristics peculiar to that session.
Some dominant features of the llth session of the
FAO Conference wei-e :

The accession to membership of many countries,
which will bring the total to 101 full mombei-s as
soon as two associate members adhere to t lie consti-
tution — plus 3 that will continue as associate
members;

The voting of the largest single increase in the
regular budget of the Organization ;



396



Department ot State Bulletin



Initiation of a World Food Program, jointly
with the United Nations, on an experimental basi?,
for the multilateral utilization of surplus foods;

Recognition that technical assistance activities
are growing so large as to create imbalances, thus
leading to a need for study of the possibility of
some reorientation in the overall program of
FAO;

Growing emphasis on problems of the newly
emerging countries of Africa ;

Demonstration of increased interest in tlie sub-
stantive activities of tlie Organization; and

On the whole, a healthy, businesslike approach
by the Conference to the many and often complex
matters before it.



TREATY INFORMATION



Current Actions



MULTILATERAL

Agriculture

Protocol of amendment to the convention on the Inter-
Ameriean Institute of Agricultural Sciences of January
15, 19i4 (58 Stat. 1169). Opened for signature at
Washington December 1, 1958.'
Ratification deposited: Mexico, February 14, 1962.

Atomic Energy

Amendment to article VI.A.3 of the Statute of the Inter-
national Atomic Energy Agency (TIAS 3873). Done
at Vienna October 4, 1961.'

Acceptances deposited: Belgium, February 14, 1962 ;
Thailand, Febniary 9, 1962.

Narcotic Drugs

Convention for limiting the manufacture and regulating
the distribution of narcotic drugs, as amended (61 Stat.
2230; 62 Stat. 1796). Done at Geneva Julv 13, 1931.
Entered into force July 9, 1933. 48 Stat. 1543.
Xotification received' that it cotisiders itself liound: Ivory
Coast, December 8, 1961.

Protocol bringing under International control drugs out-
side the scojie of the convention limiting the manufac-
ture and regulating the distribution of narcotic drugs
concluded at Geneva July 13, 1931 (48 Stat. 1543), as
amended (61 Stat. 2230; 62 Stat. 1796). Done at Paris
November 19, 1948. Entered into force December 1,
1949 ; for the United States, September 11, 1950. TIAS
2308.

Notification received that it considers itself bound:
Ivory Coast, December S, 1961.

Slavery

Slavery convention signed at Geneva September 25, 1926,



' Not in force.
March 5, 7962



as amended (TIAS 3532). Entered into force March !),
1927 ; for Uie United Slate.s .March 21, 1929. 46 Stat.
2183.

Notification received that it considers itself hound:
Ivory Coast, December 8, 1961.

Telecommunications

International telecommunication convention with six an-
nexes. Done at Geneva December 21, 1959. Entere



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 46, Jan- Mar 1962) → online text (page 77 of 101)