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are not publicly known ;

Six, the susceptibility of the speech to distor-
tion by the Communist propaganda machine;

Seven, the possibility of the speech being mis-
interpreted as a comment on, or a response to,
statements made, or positions recently taken, by
leaders of allied or neutralist countries.

The Department of State is prepared to pro-
vide the subcommittee with an explanation as to
why any change was made in any speech in the
light of such conditioning facts as I have set forth
above. If the subcommittee will indicate particu-
lar changes with respect to which it has questions,
we shall be glad to submit an explanation in writ-
ing promptly. Or if the subcommittee pi'efers,
we can prepare an explanation for all of the
changes and deletions that have been made over
the past years. I am sure, however, Mr. Chair-
man, that you would not feel that this was a very
profitable employment of the Department's man-
power resources.

If after submission of this material any member
of the subcommittee has questions about the rea-
sons for particular alterations or deletions, a De-
partmental witness will be glad to appear to dis-
cuss them with you. And, of course, the officers

having primary responsibility for speech review
are scheduled to appear to discuss our practices
and procedures in greater detail.

As the subcommittee is aware, however, the
President has ordered witnesses not to identify
the particular person who recommended any spe-
cific deletion or alteration in a given speech. As
the President said in his letter to Secretary [of
Defense Robert S.] McNamara, instructions to this
effect were being issued to the Department of State
as well as to the Defense Department. I am pre-
senting for the record a copy of the President's
letter to the Secretary of State.^

Nothing Gained by Oversimplifying Problems

We are satisfied that the State Department has
performed its duties in connection with the re-
view of speeches in a creditable and responsible
manner. We are concerned, therefore, about at-
tempts to use isolated changes or deletions to
create the impression that officers in the Depart-
ment of State do not fully comprehend the fate-
ful forces working in the world today or the ma-
lignant nature of the international Communist
conspiracy. It has been suggested that certain
of these alterations or deletions disclose the ex-
istence of a "no win" philosophy.

I am not sure that I understand just what is
intended by this particular slogan. To the ex-
tent that I do underetand it, I should like to reply
by a pei-sonal comment. I came to the Department
of State just over a year ago from a long career
as a private lawyer in an environment of private
enterprise. During the course of my relatively
brief service it has been my pri\dlege to work
closely with officers drawn from all over the De-
partment. I have been impressed again and again
with their dedication to the interests of the United
States and their determination to advance those
interests so that a world of freedom may prevail
against a world of Communist tyranny.

I have been impressed, moreover, with the
knowledge that these professionals possess and
with their alert awareness of the nature and mag-
nitude of the forces arrayed against us. They
recognize— and display that recognition in their
whole approach to the business of the Depart-
ment — that we must bring to bear a profound and
detailed understanding of those forces in order to

• Not printed here.

March 26, ?962


design and administer policies that will mean vic-
tory for the values that we Americans hold most

Nothing can be gained by oversimplifying the
problems before us. The characterization of a
policy as a "win" or "no win" policy does not re-
flect the realities of today's world. The cold war
is not an adult game of cops and robbers.

The conduct of foreign affairs today is an in-
tricate, subtle, changing, and always uncertain
task. We are not the only country in the world —
or, fortimately, the only country in the free world.
The population of the United States is less than
one-tenth of the earth's population. For us to win
against the forces marshaled against us we must
succeed on many fronts, not merely on one.

We must persuade people, by our example, of
the essential soundness and validity of our ideas.
We must expose, by our example, the falsehoods
put forward by our adversaries. We must build
and strengthen our alliances. We must maintain
at all times — and at the ready — an unassailable
military posture — a nuclear force that will effec-
tively deter aggression and a conventional force
that will enable us to meet the challenge of local

In the arsenal of our cold-war weapons there is
no place for boasting or bellicosity, and name call-
ing is rarely useful. As Secretary of State Eusk
has said : *

The issues called the cold war are real and cannot be
merely wished away. They must be faced and met. But
how we meet them makes a difference. They will not
be scolded away by invective nor frightened away by
bluster. They must be met with determination, confi-
dence, and sophistication. . . . Our discussion, public or
private, should be marked by civility; our manners
should conform to our dignity and power and to our good
repute throughout the world. But our purposes and
policy must be clearly expressed to avoid miscalculation
or an underestimation of our determination to defend
the cause of the freedom.

Tlie solemn nature of the times calls for the
United States to develop maximum strength but
to utilize that strength with wisdom and restraint.
Or, in other words, as President Theodore
Roosevelt aptly said at an earlier time, we shoidd
"speak softly and carry a big stick."

This, I submit, Mr. Chairman, is the only appro-
priate posture for the leading nation in the world.

* Bulletin of Apr. 10, 1961, p. 515.


Press release 129 dated Febrnary 27

Under Secretary Ball has outlined the reasons
for the speech review procedure and the general
way in which it is carried out by the Department
of State. I should like to discuss somewhat in
more detail the speech review operations in the
Bureau of Public Affairs and the Department.

First, however, may I say a few words about
my own background and approach to information
work. I have spent approximately 12 years in
Government information posts and 12 years as a
country newspaperman. I presently have an in-
terest in a small paper, the Adirondack Daily
Enterprise, at Saranac Lake, New York, where,
before coming to Washington, I was editor. I
also have an interest in the Lake Placid, New
York, News, a weekly.

In both newspapering and Government work
I've been especially interested in those programs,
local or national, which strengthen our society.
As editor I supported measures for better schools
and roads, more industry, conservation of natural
resources, more recreation facilities, and greater
participation in politics by people in both parties.
As president of the Adirondack Park Association
I worked on programs to enhance the welfare of
that very sizable and beautiful portion of the

I have believed as an editor, and as a Govern-
ment information man, that it is vitally important
that our people understand as fully as possible
the nature of problems which are, or should be,
of concern to them. These hearings are most use^
fid, I think, in bringing a better understanding
of the complexities of foreign policy operations,
especially with respect to preparation and review
of speeches and articles by high officials.

With this perhaps too personal preamble, I
would like now to turn to the speech review pro-
cedures in the Bureau of Public Affairs and the
Department of State.

During the latter part of World War II and the
period immediately following, the responsibility
within the Department of State for reviewing
speeches was placed in the office of the Special As-
sistant to the Secretary for Press Relations. Fol-
lowing the issuance by President Truman in
December 1950 of his formal directive, the respon-
sibility was shifted to the Executive Secretariat
of the Secretary's office. In June 1!)55 the central

DepaMment of State Bulletin

responsibility for ascertaining the Department's
views on the speeches of oiEcials of other agencies
was then assigned to the Assistant Secretary for
Public Affairs, where it has continued since that

Within the office of the Assistant Secretary, the
specific responsibility has rested with different in-
dividuals or units. Between 1955 and 1960 the
general practice was to have an officer or officers
with the title of Special Assistant to the Assistant
Secretary coordinate the Department's review,
and this was generally done under the direct su-
pervision of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for
Public Affairs. Late in October 1960 the respon-
sibility for ascertaining the Department's views
on speeches received from other agencies was as-
signed as a general staff function to the Policy
Plans and Guidance Staff in my bureau. At this
time most of the members of that staff became
involved in the coordination of the Department's
speech review process.

Tlie Policy Plans and Guidance Staff consists
of six officers and four secretaries. During the
year 1961 approximately 30 percent of the total
time of the staff was devoted to the speech review
function. The other responsibilities of the Policy
Plans and Guidance Staff, in wliich it has been
engaged for some years, cover a wide range of

Speeches sent to the Department from other
agencies are, as has been pointed out, initially re-
ceived in the Policy Plans and Guidance Staff of
the Bureau of Public Affairs. There the speeches
are logged in. This involves a recording of the
name of the speaker, the date the speech is to be
made, the occasion and the place, the date and
time when the speech was received from the origi-
nating agency, and the assignment of a State De-
partment control number. The speech is then
given to one of the staff members, who then be-
comes responsible for obtaining whatever Depart-
mental comments there may be on it. This officer
determines which other parts of the Department
should be consulted. Since most of the speeches
received involve several aspects of foreign policy
in which expert advice should be sought, they are
usually routed to one or more other offices in the
Department which have responsibility for the
specific subject matter involved.

If the subject matter deals with a foreign policy
matter such as U.S.-U.S.S.R. relations, the speech

is routed to the Bureau of European Affairs for
its comments. Perhaps more than one part of that
bureau will be given the task of commenting upon
it. If this speech deals with political-military
implications of a foreign policy matter, it is also
routed to the Office of Politico-Military Affairs.
If an additional question pertaining to the use of
outer space is involved, there is consultation with
the office in the Department which handles atomic
energy and outer space matters. The comments
of each of these bureaus are sent tx) the officer in
the Policy Plans and Guidance Staff who has been
assigned responsibility for this particular speech.
The responsible officer then prepares a consoli-
dated Departmental reply to the originating
agency. Tlie speech is logged out with an indica-
tion of the date the final action is taken and is
returned to the agency which submitted it to the
Department of State.

Every effort is taken in this process to get the
best expert advice available in the Department.
Our records show at least 150 officers have been
involved in the review process during the past

Tliis may appear on the surface as being unnec-
essarily time-consuming. I should like to point
out, however, that a great deal of emphasis has
been placed on the service aspect of this process.
Notwithstanding the very large volume of speeches
received for review and the number of offices
which at times must be consulted, every effort is
exerted in the State Department to meet the dead-
lines or "suspense" dates established by the De-
fense Department or other agencies. In a signifi-
cant number of cases the comments are provided
the same day a speech is received. In other in-
stances, where the "suspense" date permits, sev-
eral days or a week might be involved. However,
as Mr. Ball has indicated, the average time period
within which speeches are cleared is 2 to 3 days.
Only in rare cases are speech deadlines not met.

I will now be happy to answer your questions,
as best I can.

Congressional Documents
Relating to Foreign Policy

87th Congress, 1st Session

Impact of Imports and Exports on Employment (Cheese).
Hearings before the Subcommittee on the Impact of
Imports and Exports on American Employment of the

March 26, J 962


House Education and Labor Committee. Part 2.
June 30, 1961. 85 pp.

Impact of Imports and Exports on Employment (Glass,
Pottery, and Toys). Hearing before the Subcommittee
on the Impact of Imports and Exports on American
Employment of the House Education and Labor Com-
mittee. Part 3. July 12, 1961. 162 pp.

Impact of Imports and Exports on Employment (Apparel
and Apparel-Related Products). Hearings before the
Subcommittee on the Impact of Imports and Exports
on American Employment of the House Education and
Labor Committee. Part 6. August 21-23, 1961. 351

Antarctica Legislation — 1961. Hearings before the Sub-
committee on Territorial and Insular Affairs of the
House Interior and Insular Affairs Committee.
August 24-25, 1961. 68 pp.

Impact of Imports and Exports on Employment (Con-
sumer Goods and Services; Metal Products, Building
Materials, Lead, Zinc). Hearings before the Sub-
committee on the Impact of Imports and Exports on
American Employment of the House Education and
Labor Committee. Part 7. August 28-31, 1961. 465

Department Supports Approval of 1960
Safety of Life at Sea Convention

Statement hy Philip H. Tresise^

The treaty presently in force which specifies
minimum standards of safety of ships in inter-
national trade is the Intei-national Convention for
the Safety of Life at Sea, 1948.^ This treaty was
the successor to a 1929 convention on this subject,
which itself brought a 1914 convention up to date.
The 1948 convention entered into force for the
United States on November 19, 1952.

Following the Stockholm-Andrea Doria disas-
ter Jmie 25, 1956, in which 50 lives were lost and
the Andrea Doria sank, there was worldwide con-
cern about the adequacy of the 1948 convention,
particularly the construction standards and oper-
ating procedures incorporated therein. At the
Department of State's request the Coast Guard
was directed by the Secretary of the Treasury to
act as the initiating and coordinating agency for
investigation of the need for possible revision of
the 1948 convention. Detailed studies of various
aspects of marine safety were initiated by seven
major committees to deal with construction, life-
saving equipment, radio installation, safety of
navigation (including rules for preventing colli-
sions), nuclear power, leadlines, and the carriage
of grain and dangerous goods. Designers, ship

' Made l)efore the Senate Foreign Relations Committee
on Feb. 27 (press release 128). Mr. Trezise is Deputy
Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs.

' Treaties and Other International Acta Series 2495.

operators, shipbuilders, navigation societies, labor
unions, port authorities, professional societies, and
trade organizations, as well as the interested gov-
ernment agencies, were represented.

Between May 17 and June 17, 1960, an Inter-
national Safety Conference was held under the
auspices of the Intergovernmental Maritime Con-
sultative Organization. This conference was at-
tended by official delegations from 45 countries
and by observers from an additional 7 countries.
The delegation of the United States was made up
of 65 individuals, expert in one or another of the
matters dealt with by the conference. The de-
tailed studies referred to above did, of course, con-
stitute the basis for the United States positions
advanced at the conference. The United States
delegation was successful for the most part in
working out solutions consonant with the posi-
tions on various aspects advanced by the United

The 1960 convention adheres to the framework
of the 1948 convention and modifies its chapters so
as to reflect technical advances. The new conven-
tion adds two additional chapters of technical reg-
ulations, one relating to nuclear-powered ships and
the other separating the subjects of carriage of
dangerous goods from the carriage of grain and

The 1960 Safety of Life at Sea Convention is an
important step forward in international agree-
ment on technical regulation matters concerning
maritime safety. The Department of State recom-
mends advice and consent to ratification of this
convention hy the Senate. It also recommends
that this action be taken as soon as possible for the
positive value that this would have in encouraging
acceptances and ratification of these important
standards by other nations. At the present time,
according to the IMCO secretariat, which acts as
the depository for the 1960 SOLAS Convention,
the instrument has been accepted by France, Nor-
way, Haiti, and the Government of the Eepublic
of Viet-Nam.

Failure to date by other nations to accept the
convention may be attributed to procedural delays
and not at all to dissatisfaction with or hesitation
concerning the substance of the 1960 convention.
The con\-ention will enter into force 12 months
after the date on which not less than 15 accept-
ances, including 7 by countries each with not less
than 1 million gross tons of shipping, have been


Department of State Bulletin

President Recommends Expansion
of Peace Corps

Following is the text of a letter from President
Kennedy to Lyndon B. Johnson, President of the
Senate. An identical letter was sent on the same
day to John W. McCormach, Speaker of the House
of Representatives.

White House press release dated February 26

February 26, 1962

Dear Mr. President : The Peace Corps is now
one year old. Twelve months ago I asserted that
only through the most careful planning and ne-
gotiation could its success be assured.^ Today I
am pleased to report to the Congress that its
early successes have fulfilled expectations.

Carefiil preparation and sound training have
assured the selection of qualified men and women
and minimized health and other hazards. Econ-
omy of operation has held actual expenditures
for each volunteer recruited, selected, trained and
supported overseas to an admirably low level.
Careful selection of administrative pereonnel,
both at home and abroad, has resulted in maxi-
mum efficiency with minimum staff.

I am transmitting herewith, for the consider-
ation of the Congress, legislation to enable con-
tinuation of the current Peace Coi-ps program,
and to make possible a further expansion of its
work. This legislation will permit the Peace
Corps to have 6,700 volunteers in the field by
June 30, 1963, compared to the maximum of 2,400
permitted under the present appropriation.
Wliile this number will still not permit us to meet
all requests from foreign countries, it will enable
us to make the most of an historic opportunity to
achieve better understanding among nations.

By June 30th of this year there will be 2,400
Peace Corps Volunteers in service or in training.
Another 2,700 are scheduled to enter training in
July or August of this year. But the overwhelm-
ing response to this program in actual operation
abroad makes further expansion both necessary
and desirable. Volunteers have been welcomed
with friendliness and affection in every one of the
villages, towns, schools, factories and hospitals
to which they have gone to share their skills with
the peoples of less developed nations.

In many instances Peace Corps Volimteers are

' Bulletin of Mar. 20, 1961, p. 400.
/March 26, 7962

working where no American has ever lived or even
travelled. The enthusiasm with which they are
received is perhaps best reflected in this statement
on the Peace Corps by President Alberto Lleras
Camargo of Colombia: ". . . the finest way in
which the United States could prove to the hum-
ble people of this and other lands that the primary
purpose of its international aid program is to
build a better life in all of the free world's villages
and neighborhoods."

The reception accorded the Peace Corps is un-
derscored by the fact that every one of the twelve
countries in which volunteers are now at work has
requested additional volunteers. In most cases
the Peace Corps has been asked to triple and
quadruple the number of men and women already
supplied. Nigeria, for example, has requested
400 additional teachers.

Equally heartening has been the enthusiasm for
the Peace Corps in our own country. More than
20,000 Americans have volunteered to serve — a
convincing demonstration that we have in this
country an immense reservoir of dedicated men
and women willing to express by their actions
and convictions the highest values of our society.
Although the average age is 24% for men and
25 for women, many of the volunteers are in their
thirties and forties — and three are in their sixties.
Approximately i^ are women — nurses, home econ-
omists, social workers and teachers. These volun-
teers are from every part of the Nation and
represent every segment of American life. As an
extra bonus to our own country. Peace Corps
graduates will constitute an invaluable addition
to the veiy limited pool of trained manpower in
our own country with this kind of constructive
overseas experience; and I have no doubt that
many of them will go on to make still further
contributions to their country in the Foreign
Service and other posts.

The Peace Corps has successfully weathered its
experimental period, and has enjoyed widespread
bi-partisan support. I urge prompt consideration
of the legislation authorizing an increase in the
authorization to 63.75 million dollars for Peace
Corps programs in fiscal year 1963. This legis-
lation will also effect a small number of other
changes designed to make it more effective. I
urge the Congress to give prompt consideration
and approval to this clearly justified measure.


John F. Kennedy



Progress in National Development Through CENTO

The Economic Com/mittee of the Central Treaty
Organization held its 10th session February 26-28
at Washington, D.C} Following are a statement
rrmde at the opening session on February 26 hy
Walt W. Rostow, Counselor and Chairman of the
Policy Planning Council, Department of State,
and the text of a com/munique issued at the close
of the session.


Press release 122 dated February 26

I am delighted to welcome you here, both as
old allies and colleagues in the great adventure of
economic development. I am honored to greet
you officially on behalf of my Government. We
are deeply committed to CENTO ; we are honor-
ing our commitments to its objectives and enter-
prises; and we intend to move forward with you
in the spirit of this alliance.

Although I have never before had the occasion
to attend a CENTO meeting, I have followed for
some years the collective enterprises sponsored by
this Committee as well as the economic develop-
ment of Turkey, Iran, and Pakistan. I have
taught a generation of American students the il-
luminating story of Turkey's modernization and
followed the Turkish economy since the days after
the war when I was engaged, like many other
Americans, in problems of European reconstruc-
tion. In Cambridge, Massachusetts, during the
1950's a great many of us worked on problems
of the developing nations; and, although it was
my friends at Harvard, rather than at MIT, who
were most directly associated with the Govern-
ments of Iran and Pakistan, we shared our ex-
periences along the Charles River and became
equally caught up with the emerging plans and
programs generated in Tehran and Karachi.

' For an announcement of the meeting and names of the
members of the U.S. delegation, see BtJLLETiN of Mar. 12,
1962, p. 436.

CENTO has always been identified with prob- .
lems of both defense and economic development,

Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 46, Jan- Mar 1962) → online text (page 99 of 101)