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permit one to say "Let there be a breeder re-
actor," and, lo, there is a breeder reactor.
There are many real scientific and techno-
logical hurdles which must be crossed. In
addition there are other tyi3es of advanced
reactors — near breeders — which for the near-
term have considerable economic promise. If
one looks about the world today, one can see
several types of advanced reactors, including
breeder reactors, under intensive develop-
ment.

The breeder reactors, representing a some-
what more difficult technology than the near
breeder tyiies, will be more expensive to con-
struct. The near breeder reactor types, after
all, are built on technology closer at hand.
The operating costs of the low-gain breeder
and the near breeder reactors based on jires-
ent uranium fuel prices are not too different.

These near breeder and breeder reactors,
from a simple economic viewpoint, all
promise to have remarkably low operating
costs reflecting efficient fuel cycles. This also
indicates that there is some incentive for de-
veloping these advanced reactors regardless
of whether the price of uranium should in-
crease — for they may be more economical
than current types.

Of importance from a national and world-
wide viewpoint is the built-in insurance
policy which one can purchase with these
near breeder reactors and breeder reactors.
This insurance policy is reflected in the insen-
sitivity of the total generating cost to the
price of natural uranium. Doubling the price
of natural uranium increases the generating
costs of the near breeder reactors about two-
tenths of a mill per kilowatt hour or less, and
of the fast breeders perhaps one-tenth of a
mill or even less. The fast breeder reactor, in
fact, may prove so efficient that ore costing
$100 or more per pound of UaOs, available in
virtually unlimited quantities, could still be
used without a sizable economic penalty.

One other important consideration that
must be borne in mind in analyzing the



JANUARY 16, 1967



95



future trend of reactor development and its
impact on nuclear fuel resources and the
economy of electric power generation is the
specific power of these future reactors. The
specific power, that is, the power generated
per kilogram of fuel placed in the reactor,
can perhaps be viewed more simply in terms
of the inventory of fuel required by a given
size reactor. The higher the specific power,
the lower the inventoiy. A low inventoiy has
the effect of lowering the generating costs
because the fuel carrying charges are less;
that is, less capital funds are tied up in fuel
inventory. Further, considering a breeder re-
actor economy, a smaller reactor inventory
affects the doubling time, that is, the time re-
quired before a breeder reactor could refuel
a carbon copy of itself. Also a smaller reactor
inventory in any type of nuclear plant means
that the resource requirements are less.
Therefore, there is considerable incentive to
develop near breeders and breeder reactors
with high specific power and therefore low
fuel inventoi-y requii'ements.

Any future reactor economy will probably
be a mixed reactor economy. We will prob-
ably always have several types of reactors,
with new reactor construction determined,
among other factors, by the projected rate of
growth of electric power demands, the price
of natural uranium, and the price of bred
fissionable material at the time the decision
to go ahead with a reactor unit is made.

Large-Scale Plutonium Production

In conclusion, let me focus on an important
point: the plethora of fissionable material.
Whether or not near breeder reactors and
breeder reactors are, in fact, developed, built,
and operated, significant amounts of fission-
able materials, especially plutonium, will be
bred throughout the world. And, as you know,
plutonium can be used as the explosive in-
gredient of nuclear weapons. Figure 6 sum-
marizes the cumulative quantities of plu-
tonium that would be produced by the years
1980 and 2000 — astonishing amounts indeed.
This plutonium will be produced throughout



FIGURE 6



YEAR


CUMULATIVE PLUTONIUM
PRODUCED WORLD-WIDE


TOTAL KGS. OF PLUTONIUM


1970
1980
2000


10,000

180,000
4,000,000



the world by 1980, if our projections are cor-
rect, at the rate of more than 100 kilograms
a day! In other words, material will be pro-
duced over the face of the globe sufficient for
the potential production of a substantial
amount of the world's electrical power — or,
alternatively, sufficient for tens of nuclear
weapons a day.

The cumulative figures are striking: We
calculate that the worldwide stock of plu-
tonium by 1970 will be 10,000 kilograms. By
1980 this will have increased almost twenty-
fold— to 180,000 kilograms. Just 20 years
later this figure will have mounted to the
almost unbelievable total of 4 million kilo-
grams !

In the light of this, there are some who
would say that the only rational course is to
bring an abrui^t and complete halt to the de-
velopment of nuclear power here and now,
that the price we pay for a little additional
energy is much too high for the risk of nu-
clear annihilation, and that no adequate
means of control can be developed to insure,
in fact, that these nuclear fuels will not be
misused.

But most of us know that such thinking is
not fully realistic. Even in the early days of
nuclear development, while there were some i
who felt we could hold back all our infonna-
tion and discoveries on this new form of
energy, thus keeping others from obtaining
nuclear weapons, most of us knew that it was
only a matter of time before other countries



96



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN



could achieve a nuclear capability independ-
ently of the United States, the U.S.S.R., and
the United King-dom. The major seci'et of the
atomic bomb was, of course, that it worked —
and this had been revealed to the world.
Many countries of the world had their own
supplies of natural uranium and, ])erhaps
more important, their own scientists. We
also considered that if we failed to cooperate
in sharing: our peaceful nuclear technology
and nuclear materials, there would be other
countries which might be willing to provide
nuclear materials and technology without a
firm assurance as to their eventual peaceful
end use.

Choosing, therefore, a more positive and
constructive approach, the task has thus be-
come not a matter of forbidding the further
spread of nuclear science but rather one of
helping one another to develop the peaceful
uses of nuclear energy under conditions
which assure the peaceful use of the nuclear
equipment and materials which are supplied.

An org'anization already playing a very
significant role in guaranteeing that the
peaceful atom will remain peaceful through-
out the world is an agency whose existence is
hardly known to the general public. This
organization is the International Atomic



Energy Agency (IAEA), with its headquar-
ters in Vienna and its current membership
of 96 nations, with 3 additional member na-
tions about to be admitted. We have in the
work of the International Atomic Energy
Agency perhaps the forerunner of a fully in-
ternational safeguards and control system.
The essence of this system lies in the right to
inspect facilities and materials supplied
through international agreement. Such in-
spections are carried out by IAEA interna-
tional inspection teams at facilities in
countries which have agreed to accept inter-
national safeguards.

In addition to its present activities relat-
ing to the inspection of reactors, the IAEA
has recently considered and developed appro-
priate safeguards and controls for chemical
reprocessing plants to assure that none of the
materials separated and purified in these
plants are diverted to nonpeaceful uses.

I am hopeful that the future will show a
continued increase in the application of these
IAEA safeguards and controls and that
eventually we may have a worldwide system
of safeguards and controls under which all
nations will be able to develop and share the
peaceful atom free from the fear of a poten-
tial nuclear threat.



JANUARY 16, 1967



97



The Work of the 21st Session of the U.N. General Assembly



Statement by Arthur J. Goldberg

U.S. Representative to the United Nations '



At the conclusion of the 21st General
Assembly of the United Nations it is fitting
that its actions should be evaluated in the
light of the only meaningful standard: the
purposes of the charter and, above all, the
cause of peace.

Judged by this standard, the record of the
session — and of the Security Council during
the same period — shows many constructive
achievements and some regrettable short-
comings.

In addition to the specific actions discussed
below, the session was also significant for its
atmosphere. Issues raised for propaganda
purposes did not make much headway. A
searching for bridges between East and West
was more evident this year than a year ago
or in some previous sessions. The strength of
this apparent desire for greater cooperation
and accommodation must of course be tested
by concrete action. Some evidences of posi-
tive action were present in this session, and
we hoije to see more in times to come.

1. The Secretary-General

A highly important achievement was the
unanimous reappointment of U Thant as
Secretary-General for a second 5-year term.
His willingness to serve again in response
to the unanimous wish of the membership
demonstrated anew his devotion to the ideals
of the organization. It is greatly to be hoped
that the resounding new vote of confidence



> Released at New York, N.Y., on Dec. 21 (U.S./
U.N. press release 5044).



98



in him will enable him to apply those ideals
with renewed effectiveness even to the most
difl^cult problems confronting the interna-
tional community.

2. Viet-Nam

The continued inability of the United Na-
tions to work eff"ective]y in the conflict in
Viet-Nam has been a failure not of the orga-
nization but of key members and govern-
ments which have been unwilling to consent
to such action. We were encouraged by the
fact that a majority of speakers who referred
to Viet-Nam in the Assembly's general debate
took note of our significant proposals of
September 22 ^ and supported, as does the
United States, discussions looking toward a
peaceful settlement. We continue to hope the
United Nations may play a more positive
role. We especially hope that the Secretary-
General will find it possible, in response to
our appeal to him on Monday,' to help bring
about discussions which could lead to a mu-
tual cessation of hostilities and an honorable
settlement.

3. Outer Space

A most significant Assembly action was
the unanimous vote commending the outer
space treaty and urging the widest possible
adherence to it.^ The treaty was negotiated in



^ Bulletin of Oct. 10, 1966, p. 518.
' Ibid., Jan. 9, 1967, p. 63.
* For background, see ibid., p. 78 ; for text of the
treaty, see ibid., Dec. 26, 1966, p. 952.



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN



i



the United Nations Outer Space Committee
in Geneva and this autumn at the United Na-
tions in New York. It is a pioneerinof exten-
sion of international law into the newly
entered realm of outer space. It embodies the
most important aiTns control measure since
the imrtial test ban treaty of 1963, as well as
principles for peaceful cooperation in the ex-
ploration and use of outer space, including-
the moon and other celestial bodies. The con-
clusion of this treaty at the present time is
a major step tow^ard peace and an encourag-
ing sign that the actions of nations, in the
charter's words, can be harmonized in
significant fields even while major discords
in other fields remain unresolved.

4. Nonproliferation

It is greatly to be hojjed that the outer
space treaty will quickly be followed by the
conclusion of the long-sought nonprolifera-
tion treaty, banning the further spread of
nuclear weapons. The seriousness of the de-
bate in the First Committee on this subject,
and the resolution urging an early agree-
ment,^ are hopeful auguries for this vitally
important arms control measure, which we
hope may pave the way for still further dis-
armament agreements.

5. Human Rights Covenants

In a field equally important to peace — that
of human rights — the General Assembly took
another jiioneering step when it ovenvhelm-
ingly approved two instruments long in the
making: the Covenant on Civil and Political
Rights and the Covenant on Economic, Social
and Cultural Rights.'' The United States
voted for these documents. Whatever their
imperfections, they will be remembered in
histoiy as the first major attempt by the
community of nations to extend to the entire
range of human rights the protection of bind-
ing international agreements. The day is sure
to come when no government can any longer
ignore its obligation, implicit in the United



Nations Charter, to respect at least the mini-
mum standards of human rights which these
covenants seek to define.

6. South West Africa

Of the numerous difiicult colonial issues
that faced this Assembly session, the one on
which the most important action was taken
was the dispute over the territory of South
West Africa. The Assembly created an Ad
Hoc Committee for South West Africa to
recommend practical means by which the ter-
ritory can be administered so as to enable the
people to exercise their right of self-deter-
mination.''

This resolution, adopted by a nearly unani-
mous vote, was strongly supported by the
United States as a realistic, practical, and
important foi-ward step. We will serve on the
new committee, which is to report by next
April to a special session of the Assembly.
The teiTus of the resolution, and the nearly
unanimous support which it received, give
grounds for hope that it may lead toward a
solution of this thorny problem which will be
both just and peaceful and will lie within the
capacity of the United Nations.

7. Southern Rhodesia

The General Assembly considered the prob-
lem of Southern Rhodesia, but it was the
Security Council's unprecedented action in
imposing mandatory sanctions on key expoi-ts
and on oil imports into the territory that was
the most significant.^ While no one can guar-
antee the success of this undertaking in
advance, the probabilities will be greatest if
all of us undertake good-faith eflForts to make
it succeed. I repeat that the United States will
apply this decision with the full force of law.
We hope it will contribute to a peaceful solu-
tion and to the essential goal of assuring that
all the people of Southern Rhodesia, not just
the 6 percent of European ancestry, achieve
the right to control their own destiny.



^ For text of Resolution 2153, see ibid., Dec. 19,
1966, p. 936.
•^ See p. 107.



' For text of Resolution 2145, see Bulletin of Dec.
5, 1966, p. 871.

* For background and text of a resolution, see ibid.,
Jan. 9, 1967, p. 73.



JANUARY 16, 1967



99



8. Middle East

Border disturbances in the Middle East
also came before the Security Council twice
during the session. Against a background of
incursions into Israel stemming from Syrian
territory, 10 members of the Council, includ-
ing the United States, voted for a resolution
asking Syria to strengthen its measures to
prevent incidents in violation of the Anni-
stice Agreement.9 Subsequently, again with
our support, the Council firmly denounced
the Israeli military action in November on
Jordanian territory.^o On both occasions the
United States expressed its opposition to all
use of violence across existing Middle East-
ern frontiers, regardless of the direction in
which it occurs.

We believe that the discussions demon-
strated the Council's desire that all such vio-
lence cease, and we regret that one of these
resolutions met a Soviet veto, which con-
tributed to instability in the area. Our own
basic policy of respecting the sovereignty
and territorial integrity of all countries in
the Middle East is unchanged and was reaf-
firmed during these debates.

9. Aden

In the difficult case of Aden, the Assembly
took another important step to assist in a
peaceful settlement. The imminent with-
drawal of Britain from Aden leaves the politi-
cal future of the area uncertain. The Assem-
bly, with full support from the United
Kingdom, asked the Secretary-General to
send a special mission to Aden to recommend
practical steps for self-determination by the
people, including possible United Nations
participation in elections there. This step
should help to stabilize an area which could
easily become one of the world's danger
spots.

10. other Issues in Africa

Several other resolutions, while reflecting
the Assembly's deep concern over colonialism



« For U.S. statements and text of the resolution,
see ibid., Dec. 26, 1966, p. 969.

'» For a U.S. statement and text of the resolution,
see ibid., p. 974.



and denial of human rights in southern
Africa — a concern which we share — were, we
felt, unrealistic in method, and the United
States was unable to give them full support.
Sweeping resolutions which do not reflect a
broad intention of practical support can only
in the long nm diminish the influence of the
Assembly.

11. Membership

With the end of colonial rule in still fur-
ther territories of Africa and the Caribbean,
the General Assembly increased its member-
ship to 122 with the admission of four new
members: Guyana, Botswana, Lesotho, and
Barbados. The return of Indonesia to active
participation in the United Nations was also
widely welcomed.

12. Chinese Representation

This year, as previously, the Assembly
gave thoughtful consideration to the issue of
the representation of China in the United Na-
tions. The proposal of Albania to expel the
Republic of China in order to seat repre-
sentatives of Communist China was rejected
by a solid majority of 57 to 46. Once again,
too, the Assembly affirmed, also by an in-
creased majority, that any proposal to change
the representation of China is an important
question and thus, under the charter, requires
a two-thirds vote for decision."

Although the Italian study-committee pro-
posal was not adoiJted, the United States sup-
ported it, noting that its mandate did not
prejudge the results of the proposed study.

As I indicated in my statement to the As-
sembly, the United States does not seek to
isolate mainland China. We were prepared
for the United Nations to ask Peking its atti-
tude on key questions involved: whether it
would drop its unacceptable demands, espe-
cially for the expulsion of the Republic of
China, and whether it would assume the
obligations of the charter— including the
obligation to refrain from the use of force
against the territorial integrity or political



" For a U.S. statement and texts of resolutions,
see ibid., Dec. 19, 1966, p. 926.



100



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN



independence of any state. Only Peking can
answer these questions.

13. Korea

On another longstanding Asian issue, the
Assembly clearly reaffirmed United Nations
support for the peaceful unification of Korea
through free U.N.-supervised elections and
rebuffed a major Soviet effort to end the
United Nations role in Korea.



This double failure to act on the related
issues of peacekeeping and financing must be
set down among the chief shortcomings of
this session. Great powers can take care of
their own interests, but the ability of the
United Nations to function as a keeper of the
peace is vital to the interests of the great ma-
jority of members, particularly the smaller
ones, and, indeed, to the eflFectiveness of the
organization under the charter.



14. Peacekeeping

Although a constructive Canadian resolu-
tion on the highly important issue of peace-
keeping was approved by a large majority
in committee, the Assembly, to our regret,
put off final action on this measure until its
resumed session in April. The Canadian reso-
lution's most important provisions are those
reaffirming the role of the General Assembly
in peacekeeping in circumstances where the
Security Council is unable to act and sug-
gesting a model scale for the broad and
equitable sharing of the costs of expensive
peacekeeping forces.

We continue to believe that it is highly im-
portant for the Assembly to take prompt and
positive action on this question and not to
allow the recalcitrance of a few members to
impair the capacity of the United Nations to
fulfill its peacekeeping role.

A favorable development in peacekeeping
was the much improved vote by which the As-
sembly extended for another year the United
Nations Emergency Force in the Middle
East. This resolution provides for sharing
the cost of UNEF along the lines of the model
scale of assessments embodied in the
Canadian resolution.

15. Financing

As of the date of this report, it is also to be
regretted that the Soviet Union and France,
both of whom have refused to pay assess-
ments on past peacekeeping operations, have
still not made the substantial voluntary con-
tributions which were contemplated in the
consensus arrived at last year and which are
necessary to restore the United Nations to
financial health.



16. Population Growth

For the first time, the General Assembly
specifically recognized and took concrete ac-
tion on the urgent and important problem of
rapidly expanding pvopulations and their
pressure both on limited food supplies and on
other requirements of economic and social
progress. At the request of member states.
United Nations agencies are now authorized
to train population control experts. The
United States, which has a deep interest in
world food supplies and in the development
of nations, strongly supported this resolution.
We hope its adoption will encourage nations
in which this problem exists to move more
energetically to solve it.

17. iVIarine Resources

On the initiative of the United States, the
Assembly adopted without a dissenting vote
a resolution to promote international coopera-
tion in the study and development of marine
resources, including very great untapped pro-
tein resources of the oceans, which are likely
to play an increasing part in the world's food
supplies.

18. Capital Development Resolution

Over the dissenting votes of the United
States and the other major capital-exporting
countries, the Assembly adopted a resolution
to establish a United Nations capital develop-
ment fund which is supix)sed to begin func-
tioning in 1968. Such a fund would duplicate
longstanding and more soundly designed
machinery for international capital assist-
ance. It is most unlikely that enough funds
will be forthcoming to put this fund into
operation. This resolution demonstrates anew



JANUARY 16, 1967



101



that economic decisions taken even by larg-e
majorities are sterile unless they include the
concurrence of those who must furnish the
resources.

19. International Law

The Assembly acted to strengthen interna-
tional law in two significant areas. It estab-
lished a Commission on International Trade
Law to unify and hannonize divergent na-
tional laws in this important field. And it
decided to convene a major international
conference in 1968 and 1969 to draft a
"treaty on treaties," a set of rules governing
the law of treaties, their validity, interpre-
tation, and effect. Both these steps are of
great potential significance for the develop-
ment of the rule of law among nations.



IMCO Subcommittee Recommends
New Passenger-Ship Standards

Press release 300 dated December 23

A further significant step has been taken
in the improvement of international stand-
ards for the safety of passeng-er ships: The
Subcommittee on Fire Protection of the
Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative
Organization (IMCO) has successfully com-
pleted its assignment to recommend new fire
safety standards for future ships before the
end of 1966. This work supplements activi-
ties which culminated in November on meas-
ures to improve fire safety in existing ships
following recent disastrous casualties caused
by fire at sea.^

In its third and final session, held in
London, the committee considered many
specific problems in fire protection, including
crew training and equipment for firefighting.
ships cariying motor vehicles with fuel in
their tanks, fire insulation of bulkheads and
decks, and the precautions to be taken in the
design of machinery spaces.

Eighteen countries took part in the dis-



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 56, Jan- Mar 1967) → online text (page 23 of 90)