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Department of State bulletin (Volume v. 56, Jan- Mar 1967) online

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The tariff changes proclaimed by the
President will become effective immediately.



Escape-Clause Duty Rates

on Watch Movements Terminated

The White House announced on January
11 that President Johnson had that day pro-
claimed the termination of escape-clause
rates of duty on imports of watch move-
ments.i By restoring the rates of duty pre-
vailing before escape-clause action was
taken 12 years ago, the proclamation will
have the immediate effect of reducing U.S.
tariffs on watch movements by about one-
third. The changes in the many particular
rates of duty will vary according to the size
and type of watch movement. The reductions
in rates of duty from the escape-clause levels
will apply to watch movements of pin-lever
construction or of jewel-lever construction
but containing not more than 17 jewels.

The escape-clause rates of duty that are



• Proclamation 3761 ; for text, see 32 Fed. Reg.
367.



being terminated have been in force since
mid-1954. At that time. President Eisen-
hower increased the tariffs from the levels
established in 1936 in the U.S. trade agree-
ment with Switzerland. The 1954 increases
were declared necessary to avoid serious
injury to the domestic watch industry as the
result of increased imports attributable to
the trade agreement concessions.

The President's decision to terminate the
1954 increases was based on a recommenda-
tion by the late Christian A. Herter, his
Special Representative for Trade Negotia-
tions, and concurred in by the Secretary of
Commerce, the Secretary of Labor, and the
"heads of other Government agencies. Gov-
ernor Herter submitted his recommendation
to the President upon the completion of a
review that his office and other Government
agencies had undertaken following the sub-
mission in March 1965 of a Tariff Commis-
sion report on the escape-clause case. In
that report, the Tariff Commission gave its
judgment as to the probable economic effects
on the U.S. watch industry of a reduction or
termination of the escape-clause rates of
duty.

During the period of the interagency
review of the escape-clause case, the Office
of Emergency Planning, at the request of
the President in April 1965 and with the
assistance of Goveriunent defense agencies
and the Departments of Commerce and
Labor, examined the national security
aspects of trade and production in watch
movements. As a result of OEP's investiga-
tion, under section 232 of the Trade Expan-
sion Act, the Director of the Office of
Emergency Planning, Farris Bryant, re-
ported that watches, watch movements, and
watch parts were not being imported in a
manner which threatened to impair the
national security and that horological-type
defense items will continue to be available
without regard to the level of imports of
watches, movements, and parts.



FEBRUARY 6, 1967



217



In this article prepared especially for the Bulletin, James
N. Cortada, Dean of the School of Professional Studies at
the Foreign Service Institute, and A. Guy Hope, a coTisultant
to the Department of State and lecturer at the Maxwell
Graduate School, Syracuse University, examine the trends^
in FSI training programs contributing "toward a greater
professionalization of officers in the foreign affairs commu-
nity."



The Foreign Service Institute: Patterns
of Professional Development



by James N. Cortada and A. Guy Hope



In recent months the staff of the Foreign
Service Institute, under its new Director,
George V. Allen, has been examining criti-
cally the role and performance of the Insti-
tute in the professional preparation of
American diplomats and other members of
the Government's foreign affairs community.
Consultants from the academic community
and from within the Government are partic-
ipating in extensive and intensive evalua-
tions of FSI activities and directions.

The Institute's tasks are complicated by
the fact that as a unit of the Department of
State it has direct and absorbing responsi-
bilities for Departmental and Foreign Serv-
ice training problems. At the same time, the
Foreign Service Act of 1946 contains a man-
date for the Institute which extends beyond
these responsibilities, extensive though they
are, to the large and rapidly growing foreign
affairs concerns of other Washington agen-
cies.

While interesting and promising steps
have been taken to accommodate the needs
and interests of American foreign affairs
personnel of many types, perhaps the best
evidence of the Institute's increasingly ma-



ture and sophisticated outlook toward its
mission relates to recent innovations in the
formal training of Foreign Service officers.

To describe Foreign Service officer train-
ing as a difficult administrative task would
be to indulge in understatement. The prob-
lem is compounded by the necessity of keying
formal development plans, whether at the
Institute or in universities, to the Depart-
ment's assignment policies, to budgetary
realities, and to availability of personnel.
The last point is particularly important be-
cause in a highly competitive organization
such as the Foreign Service, the only civilian
agency of the Government with promotion-up
or selection-out procedures, promising offi-
cers fear that their careers will be affected
if they are removed from the policymaking
mainstream. The fact that promotions in re-
cent years tend to disprove the myth is in-
sufficient to fully offset the reluctance of of-
ficers to leave fascinating "hot" jobs for
prolonged periods of study.

Proposals to make general and broad
training programs mandatory throughout
the midcareer and senior officer levels are
not realistic. The Foreign Service Officer



218



DEPARTMENT OP STATE BULLETIN



Corps, totaling over 3,500 as of July 1, 1966,
has remained relatively unchanged in size
over the past few years despite the opening
of many posts throughout the world. Press-
ing operational needs would mean that ex-
emptions from extensive training would be
sought on a wholesale basis for promising
officers. Other officers with less cheerful ca-
reer prospects would probably discharge the
training quotas.

Furthermore, the heterogeneous back-
grounds of Foreign Service officers in terms
of functional specialization and levels of edu-
cation complicate the training problem con-
siderably.

In reassessing its training programs the
Institute recognized the need to consider in-
dividual differences and to meet varying
personal requirements for its student offi-
cers.

A further consideration was awareness
that the Institute could most efficiently deal
with the specialized application of academic
disciplines to foreign affairs, leaving to the
universities the task of solid education in the
traditional disciplines. The Institute staff
was mindful of the increasingly sophisticated
academic training characterizing recent en-
trants into the Foreign Service Officer Corps,
many of whom have received graduate de-
grees.

A third important consideration was the
realization that the Foreign Service, in
order to execute its tasks in the complex
world of the 1960's, had to move more ener-
getically toward high levels of professional-
ization. While the requirement was felt to
fall on the Service itself, the effort clearly
had far-reaching implications for the Insti-
tute's programs and philosophy.

Toward an Overall Training Philosophy

The first question to come under close
scrutiny was the training of junior Foreign
Service officers. It was patent that junior
officer training had to respond to the basic
training philosophy applicable to the Foreign
Service as a whole. This linkage led the In-
stitute, in close coordination with the Departs



ment's career development and placement
officers, to examine the goals of formal train-
ing at various levels and the relationship of
training to both experience and position re-
quirements.

Some months earlier the Department's
Office of Management Planning had reached
tentative conclusions in a project which es-
tablished all Department of State functions
at four major levels of responsibility. The
project developed within each group simpli-
fied title designations which corresponded to
specializations. This project, known as Man-
power Utilization System and Techniques
(MUST), enabled the Institute and its col-
leagues in the Department to develop a train-
ing grid related to the groups established in
MUST. Furthermore, since the MUST pro-
posal tentatively built in as job requirements
certain formal and practical training perqui-
sites, the search for an overall training
philosophy was simplified.

A training committee, chaired by the Di-
rector General of the Foreign Service and
comprising, in addition to the Director of the
Institute, geographic and functional bureau
representation at the Deputy Assistant Sec-
retary level, was established to examine the
problem of training philosophies and pro-
grams. In this fashion a mechanism was
created for total Departmental involvement
in training questions.

The training committee concluded that In-
stitute programs for Foreign Service offi-
cers, whether at junior, middle, or senior
levels, should be concerned with the applica-
tion of skills or disciplines to Foreign Serv-
ice situations. With this view as a guiding
principle, the Institute's junior officer train-
ing programs were pointed toward job-
related preparation.

Some advisers from both outside and
inside the Department of State had argued
vigorously for a lengthy stay for junior offi-
cers in the Foreign Service Institute, during
which a wide range of university-type sub-
jects and instruction would be given in fields
normally dealt with in university graduate
schools. This approach was consistent with



FEBRUARY 6, 1967



219



concepts underlying the preparation of offi-
cers in the pre-World War II period. As
Ambassador Allen once observed, in that era
officers were considered to have accumulated
in their university education knowledge
which could be eked out as required over the
years. In contrast to this piecemeal concept,
the Institute and the training committee
eventually adopted the principle that because
of the speed of changing events at home and
abroad affecting the practice of modern di-
plomacy, it was preferable to return officers
at regular intervals throughout their careers
for up-to-date training either at the Institute
or in the universities or military colleges.

Meeting Specific Needs of Junior Officers

An examination by the Institute faculty of
the kinds of responsibilities which junior of-
ficers would encounter following initial Insti-
tute training, during a 2-year on-the-job
training period, pointed to certain specific
needs. New officers, since they would serve
during the 2-year probationary period in
each of the four major sections of an em-
bassy — economic, political, consular, and ad-
ministrative — needed help in the early devel-
opment of certain managerial and specific
skills, awareness of important American
foreign policy directions, examination of ele-
ments related to world tensions which have a
bearing on political and economic reporting
and other responsibilities, and at least mini-
mal understanding of the Washington policy
process.

The course developed as Part I for the
new officers extends over an 8-week period
which includes 2 weeks of preparation for
consular responsibilities. Role playing, case
studies, lectures, and individual research
projects are among the techniques employed.
Following the initial phase of the course, the
junior officers receive 3 weeks of intensive
training in area studies related to their first
posts of assignment. Officers who do not
speak the language of their first posts also
receive an additional 16 to 24 weeks of lan-
guage training. Intensive 6-hour-a-day



220



courses enable officers to proceed to their
posts with reasonable language competence.

Part II of the junior officer program has
been developed to meet the needs of junior
officers who return to the Department after .
their first service abroad, which normally
consists of a 2-year training assignment and
a 2-year assignment to a regular position.
The training committee had particularly rec-
ommended job-related preparation for these
officers prior to their Washington assign-
ments, most of which are concerned with the
first levels of policy coordination.

The new 4-week course, offered for the
first time in the fall of 1966, comprises in-
tensive training in executive development, a
broad review of problems of international
communism and other forms of extremist
political movements, examination of outside
pressures on the policy process, and inten-
sive analysis of problems of interagency
policy coordination. Case-study and role-
playing techniques are introduced early in
the course, and its final week culminates in
simulations in which the students are given
an opportunity to apply the principles which
they have studied.



The Segmented Midcareer Program

After reorganization of the junior officer
programs, the next step facing the Institute
and the training committee was what to do
about midcareer training. For nearly two
decades training for Foreign Service officers
was based on the principle that functional
and area/language specialization corre-
sponded to the midcareer phase and that for
senior officers broad general exposure was
indicated.

Translated in career terms, this meant
that in theory an officer started in a general-
ist capacity and developed as a specialist; for
those who survived the selection-out process,
generalist responsibilities would be their lot
in the top echelons of the Service. What has
actually occurred is that many officers
reached the senior grades as specialists and,
although exposed to broadening in the mili-



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN



tary colleges or the Foreign Service Insti-
tute's Senior Seminar in Foreign Policy,
nevertheless finished out their careers in spe-
cialist capacities or became ambassadors
almost directly from their fields of special-
ization.

Crossing this pattern of development,
there had been injected almost since the cre-
ation of the Foreign Service Institute the
additional concept that specialization at mid-
career level should be balanced by participa-
tion in a broad integrated program designed
to round out specialists. The problem w^ith
this concept was that by the time most oflS-
cers were ready for the midcareer course,
they had already become specialists either
through formal training or on-the-job expe-
rience. While they had acquired certain
strengths, their intellectual equipment also
reflected important gaps arising from the
fact of their specialization. Since the inte-
grated midcareer course presented a uni-
form curriculum regardless of individual dif-
' ferences of officers, a dysfunctional tone
persisted in the midcareer training pattern.

In an effort to resolve this problem, the
Institute "disintegrated" the midcareer pro-
gram into eight basic segments. The seg-
ments were then refined into short high-im-
pact courses. Promising officers were offered
opportunities on an invitational basis to take
those segments which balanced out their
strengths and helped eliminate weaknesses.

For example, a midcareer officer with a
strong background in political work and
Communist problems but with a weak back-
ground in economics was invited to partici-
pate in the economic segment and in any
other which he needed to complement his spe-
cialization. The eight segments, which could
be taken separately, concerned Communist
strategy; science, technology, and foreign
affairs; executive studies; Americana; mod-
ern economic concepts; international labor
affairs; problems of underdeveloped coun-
tries; and political science.

The revised segmented plan, after favor-
able recommendation of the training commit-



This article by Mr. Cortada and Dr. Hope is
one of a series being written especially for the
Bulletin by officers of the Department and the
Foreign Service. Officers who may be inter-
ested in submitting original bylined articles
are invited to call Jewell Wilson in the Bul-
letin office, extension 5806.



tee, was approved by the Deputy Under Sec-
retary for Administration and became
operative during 1966.

Language and Area Training

For many years, actually since long before
World War II, special language and area
preparation has been an established practice
for selected officers according to their Service
needs. For example. Ambassador Raymond
A. Hare, who retired in November 1966 after
some 40 years of service, had been an Arabic
and Turkish student language officer in Paris
in 1929. Others studied Chinese and Russian.
Such distinguished diplomats as Ambassa-
dors George Kennan and Charles Bohlen un-
derwent similar training. In the post-World
War II period, formal training in language
and area specialization underwent a marked
increase, particularly in the development of
specialists for service in the Far East, Mid-
dle East, and more recently, Africa. Formal
training for European and Latin American
specialists, particularly the former, is a rela-
tively recent development.

Originally the concept underlying area
specialization was concentration on the lan-
guage, with the area-study component on a
somewhat hit-or-miss basis. Student officers
in the earlier days were sent to universities
for 1 or 2 years of language study; they took
such area courses as were available and
seemed appropriate.

In the early Institute days the need for
language specialists became so great that a
new pattern of assignment and training had
to be found because the Service simply could
not afford to have large numbers of officers
out of circulation for long periods at univer-



FEBRUARY 6, 1967



221



sities. Thus, in its first 20 years, the Institute
devoted about half of its resources to up-
grading the language proficiency of foreign
affairs personnel.

The Foreign Service Institute responded
to the task by developing intensive language
training capabilities in its own quarters for
some 60 languages. For Japanese and Chi-
nese language training, there are Institute
schools in Yokohama and Taichung, respec-
tively. For Arabic, there are Institute schools
in Beirut and Tangier.

The Institute continued to depend on the
universities for the area component of lan-
guage-and-area specialization under close
monitoring by the Institute's faculty. This
formula is still followed, although serious
consideration is being given to developing on
an experimental basis one or two area spe-
cialization programs in the Institute. In the
meantime, the Institute is also continuing a
series of short interdisciplinary introductory
area courses.

Functional Specialization

The question of training for functional
specialization in fields such as economics,
petroleum, labor, consular affairs, and ad-
ministration was more difficult to resolve.

In the case of economics, for example, uni-
versities plan that undergraduate majors be
taken over a 2- or 3-year period. Graduate
schools presuppose a 2- or 3-year stay on
campus. Again, the Foreign Service came up
against the hard fact that it could not spare
officers for the length of time required by the
universities for a good grounding in eco-
nomics. Furthermore, a manpower survey
completed in 1965 showed that the Foreign
Service needed over the years 1966-1970
approximately 200 officers with training in
economics at least equal to an undergraduate
major.

Acting on the advice of distinguished acad-
emicians, the Institute was encouraged to
develop its own program and adapt it to par-
ticular Foreign Service needs. Accordingly,



in January 1966 a 5V2-inonth course was
started for carefully selected officers having
no background in economics, during which
the equivalent of an undergraduate major in
the subject was covered. To test the efficacy
of the course, the Graduate Record examina-
tion in economics prepared by the Educa-
tional Testing Service at Princeton, N.J.,
normally taken by university seniors who
aspire to enter graduate school, was admin-
istered to the first graduates of the Insti-
tute's economics course. They scored well
above the national mean, thus demonstrating
that functional specialized training tailored
to meet Foreign Service requirements could
be successfully given in a relatively short
period.

After the initial experiment, the training
of economic officers in the Institute is now
an established practice. On the other hand,
both the Institute and the personnel officers
in the Department agreed on the advisability
of continuing to send to the universities a
small number of officers for preparation in
economics at the master's or doctoral degree
level.

A certain amount of formal training is
given in the Institute in administration and
consular affairs as specializations, but they
may be refined further. While both the Insti-
tute and universities are used in the training
of officers in the administrative and area
fields and other specialties, present ap-
proaches to these problems are currently un-
dergoing careful scrutiny to see whether
formulas such as the one adopted in the case
of economics should be followed. Probably in
certain fields, such as petroleum and com-
mercial specialization, a mix of inhouse
training and temporary assignments to pri-
vate companies may be the answer. In
others, perhaps an Institute-university ar-
rangement may be preferable. The problem
of how to develop broad executive capability
is one under constant review and experimen-
tation.

A very difficult problem is whether se-
lected officers engaged in political work



222



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN



should undergo intensive refresher courses
in political science techniques and methods.
The problem is not easy to resolve because of
the considerable changes in the political sci-
ence profession in recent years and the diver-
sity of judgments among political scientists
as to what kind of preparation is indicated
for experienced political analysts, whether in
or outside Government. It seems likely that
the Institute will undertake some training in
this field, but content, duration, and direction
are still undecided.

It has been a longstanding practice to
round out the formal training of officers who
ultimately will occupy key positions by send-
ing them to military colleges, universities, or
the Institute's Senior Seminar in Foreign
Policy. The theory behind these assignments
is that at that point in his career, a senior
officer should catch his breath and take a
look at developments in the United States
,and their effect on the foreign policy issues
(Confronting the Nation.

A new field being explored by the Foreign
Service Institute and the United States In-
formation Agency is the training of Govern-
ment officers engaged in overseas informa-
tional and cultural activities. The task is not
simple because, while there has been consid-
erable advance with respect to communica-
tions in general in the universities, little
attention has been given to the question of
crossnational and crosscultural communica-
tions. This field is an important one for all
people involved in overseas service, particu-
larly in the new nations.

In summary, the trend in the Foreign
Sei-vice Institute over the past 20 years has
been in the direction of training programs
contributing toward a greater professionali-
zation of officers in the foreign affairs com-
munity. The Institute is now moving steadily
in this direction not only by drawing on its
own resources but also by seeking faculty as-
sistance and advice from universities. Close
to 400 academicians contribute to the Insti-
tute's activities through lectures, direct



teaching, or consultations on curriculum and
methodology.

It is the philosophy of the Institute that,
regardless of how carefully developed train-
ing programs may be, they must complement,
not substitute for, professional experience
under competent and conscientious superiors.
Only to the extent that supervisors in the
Foreign Service, in the Department of State,
and in related foreign affairs agencies are
conscious of their responsibilities for person-
nel development can short- or long-term
training succeed. Programs with a formal
training content can only act as catalytic
agents to assist officers who are motivated to
improve their skills and understanding of
the complex tasks of a modern foreign policy



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 56, Jan- Mar 1967) → online text (page 42 of 90)