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organs containing provisions relevant to the ques-
tion of the violation of human rights and funda-
mental freedoms. E/4662. June 30, 1966. 124 pp.

Economic Commission for Africa. Report of the Ex-
traordinary Joint Meeting of the EC A Working
Party on Intra- African Trade and OAU Ad Hoe
Committee of Fourteen on Trade and Development,



Geneva, August 22-26, 1966. E/CN.14/361. August
29, 1966. 39 pp.
United Nations Children's Fund.

Digest of UNICEF Projects Currently Aided in

Asia. E/ICEF/551. September 1, 1966. 97 pp.
Digest of UNICEF Projects Currently Aided in

the Americas. E/ICEF/550. September 2, 1966.

140 pp.
Digest of Interregional Projects Aided by

UNICEF. E/ICEF/553. October 17, 1966. 20 pp.
Commission on the Status of Women. Economic
Rights and Opportunities for Women. ILO Stand-
ards Relating to Women's Employment. Report by
the International Labour Office. E/CN.6/465. Oc-
tober 10, 1966. 22 pp.
Implementation of a Five-Year Survey Programme
for the Development of Natural Resources. Report
of the Secretary-General. E/4281. November 4,
1966. 33 pp.
Commission on the Status of Women. Information
Concerning the Status of Women in Non-Self-
Governing Tei-ritories. Report of the Secretaiy-
General. E/CN.6/464. November 17, 1966. 22 pp.



TREATY INFORMATION



Current Actions



MULTILATERAL

Aviation

Convention on international civil aviation. Done at
Chicago December 7, 1944. Entered into force
April 4, 1947. TIAS 1591.
Adherence deposited: Guyana, February 3, 1967.

Maritime Matters

International agreement regarding the maintenance
of certain lights in the Red Sea. Done at London
February 20, 1962. Entered into force October 28,
1966. TIAS 6150.

Acceptance deposited: Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics, December 16, 1966.

Amendment to the convention on the Intergovern-
mental Maritime Consultative Organization (TIAS
4044). Adopted at London September 15, 1964.
Enters into force: October 6, 1967.

Convention on facilitation of international maritime
traffic, with annex. Done at London April 9, 1965.
Acceptance deposited: Belgium, January 4, 1967.
Accession deposited: Czechoslovakia, December 19,

1966.
Enters into force: March 5, 1967.'

Patents

Agreement for the mutual safeguarding of secrecy
of inventions relating to defense and for which
applications for patents have been made. Done at



• Not in force for the United States.



FEBRUARY 20, 1967



305



Paris September 21, 1960. Entered into force
January 12, 1961. TIAS 4672.

Ratification deposited: Luxembourg, February 1,
1967.

Space

Treaty on principles governing the activities of
states in the exploration and use of outer space,
including the moon and other celestial bodies.
Opened for signature at Washington, London, and
Moscow January 27, 1967.'

Signatures: Belgium, Brazil, February 2, 1967;
Guyana, February 3, 1967; Jordan, February
2, 1967; Nepal, February 3, 1967; Niger, Feb-
ruary 1, 1967; Norway, February 3, 1967;
Somali Republic, February 2, 1967.

Trade

Protocol supplementary to the protocol to the Gen-
eral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade embodying
results of the 1960-61 Tariff Conference. Done at
Geneva May 6, 1963. Entered into force July 7,
1963.>

Acceptance: Federal Republic of Germany, De-
cember 13, 1966.



BILATERAL

Philippines

Agricultural commodities agreement under title IV
of the Agricultural Trade Development and As-
sistance Act of 1954, as amended (68 Stat. 454;
7 U.S.C. 1731-1736), vrith exchange of notes.
Signed at Manila December 22, 1966. Entered into
force December 22, 1966.

Saint Christopher Nevis and Anguitia

Agreement relating to the establishment of a Peace
Corps program in St. Kitts. Effected by exchange
of notes at Bridgetown and St. Kitts December
19, 1966, and January 10, 1967. Entered into force
January 10, 1967.

St. Vincent

Agreement establishing a Peace Corps program in
St. Vincent. Effected by exchange of notes at

' Not in force for the United States.
' Not in force.



Bridgetown and St. Vincent December 16, 1966,
and January 18, 1967. Entered into force Janu-
ary 18, 1967.



PUBLICATIONS



Recent Releases

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.,
20102. Address requests direct to the Superintendent
of Documents, except in the case of free publications,
which may be obtained from the Office of Media
Services, Department of State, Washington, D.C.,
20520.

Civil Rights and Race Relations: A Seminar. The

Universality of Race Relations, by Elliott P. Skin-
ner, Ambassador to Upper Volta; Civil Rights in the
United States, by Thurgood Marshall, Solicitor Gen-
eral of the United States; and Implications for
Human Development in the Whole Civil Rights
Movement, by The Very Reverend Monsignor Rob-
ert J. Fox. Three addresses made at a seminar held
on June 23, 1966, as part of a predeparture briefing
program for U.S. students going to Latin American
universities on Fulbright-Hays grants. The second in
a series of publications prepared under the auspices
of the State Department's Equal Employment Op-
portunity Program. Pub. 8157. Department and For-
eign Service Series 135. 40 pp., illus., 20^.

Educational and Cultural Diplomacy — 1965. Annual
report on the Department's International Educa-
tional and Cultural Exchange Program and the
progress made in advancing mutual understanding
between the people of the United States and the
people of other countries. Appendixes contain statis-
tical tables and definitions of terms. Pub. 8160.
International Information and Cultural Series 92.
100 pp., illus., 35^.



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN VOL. LVI, NO. 1443 PUBLICATION 8200



The Department of State Bulletin, a
weekly publication issued by the Office of
Media Services, Bureau of Public Affairs,
provides the public and interested agencies
of the Government with information on
developments in the Sdd of foreign rela-
tions and on the work of the Department
of State and the Foreiem Service. The
Bulletin includes selected press releases on
foreigrn policy, issued by the White House
and the Department, and statements and
addressee made by the President and by
the Secretary of State and other officers of



the Department, as well as special articles
on various phases of international affairs
and the functions of the Department. In-
formation is included concerning treaties
and international agreements to which the
United States is or may become a party
and treaties of general international Inter*
est.

Publications of the Department, United
Nations documents, and legislative material
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listed currently.

The Bulletin is for sale by the Saper-



FEBRUARY 20, 1967

intendent of Documents, U.S. Government
Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402.
Price: 62 issues, domestic $10, foreign $1S ;
single copy 80 cents.

Use of funds for printing of this publi-
cation approved by the Director of the
Bureau of the Budget (January 11, 1960).

NOTE: Contents of this publication are
not copyrighted and items contained herein
may be reprinted. Citation of the Depart-
ment of State Bulletin as the source will
be appreciated. The Bulletin is indexed in
the Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature.



306



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN



,



NDEX February 20, 1967 Vol. LVI, No. 1U3



4inerican Principles. Building a Durable Peace
(Rusk) 269

Angola. The United States, the United Nations,
and Southern Africa (Goldberg) 289

Asia

Building a Durable Peace (Rusk) 269

Fourteen Points for Peace in Southeast Asia 284
Congress. The War on Hunger: Food for India
(President's message to Congress) .... 295

Foreign Aid. The War on Hunger: Food for
India (President's message to Congress) . 295

Human Rights. The United States, the United
Nations, and Southern Africa (Goldberg) . 289

India. The War on Hunger: Food for India
(President's message to Congress) .... 295

Mozambique. The United States, the United
Nations, and Southern Africa (Goldberg) . 289

Outer Space. Outer Space Treaty Signed by 60
Nations at White House Ceremony (state-
ments at ceremony) 266

Portugal. The United States, the United Na-
tions, and Southern Africa (Goldberg) . . 289

Presidential Documents

Outer Space Treaty Signed by 60 Nations at
White House Ceremony 266

President Urges Ratification of Consular Pact
With U.S.S.R 287

The War on Hunger: Food for India (Presi-
dent's message to Congress) 295

Publications

Department Issues 1967 Edition of "Treaties

in Force" 288

Recent Releases 306

South Africa. The United States, the United

Nations, and Southern Africa (Goldberg) . 289

South West Africa

Tasks of the Ad Hoc Committee for South
West Africa (Rogers) 302

The United States, the United Nations, and
Southern Africa (Goldberg) 289

Southern Rhodesia. The United States, the
United Nations, and Southern Africa (Gold-
berg) 289

Treaty Information

Current Actions 305

Department Issues 1967 Edition of "Treaties in
Force" 288

Outer Space Treaty Signed by 60 Nations at
White House Ceremony (statements at cere-
mony) 266

President Urges Ratification of Consular Pact
With U.S.S.R 287

U.S.S.R.

Outer Space Treaty Signed by 60 Nations at
White House Ceremony (statements at cere-
mony) 266



President Urges Ratification of Consular Pact
With U.S.S.R 287

United Kingdom. Outer Space Treaty Signed
by 60 Nations at White House Ceremony
(statements at ceremony) 266

United Nations

Current U.N. Documents 305

Outer Space Treaty Signed by 60 Nations at
White House Ceremony (statements at cere-
mony) 266

Tasks of the Ad Hoc Committee for South
West Africa (Rogers) 802

The United States, the United Nations, and
Southern Africa (Goldberg) 289

Viet-Nam

Building a Durable Peace (Rusk) 269

Fourteen Points for Peace in Southeast Asia . 284

General Taylor Discusses Recent Developments
in Viet-Nam 285

Secretary Rusk Discusses Viet-Nam in Inter-
view for British Television 274

Name Index

Dean, Sir Patrick 266

Dobrynin, Anatoliy 266

Goldberg, Arthur J 266, 289

Johnson, President 266, 287, 295

Rogers, William P 302

Rusk, Secretary 266, 269, 274

Taylor, Gen. Maxwell D 285

U Thant 266



Check List of Department of State
Press Releases; Jan. 30-Feb. 5

Press releases may be obtained from the Of-
fice of News, Department of State, Washing-
ton, D. C, 20520.

Release issued prior to January 30 which
appears in this issue of the Bulletin is No.
16 of January 26.

Subject

U.S. programs in international
education.

Books on Pakistani law presented
to Department.

Treaties in Force . . . 1967 re-
leased.

Cotton textile agreement with Is-
rael.

Boonstra sworn in as Ajnbassa-
dor to Costa Rica (biographic
details) .

Rimestad sworn in as Deputy
Under Secretary for Adminis-
tration (biographic details).



No.


Date


*17


2/1


*18


2/2


19


2/2


t20


2/2


*21


2/3



•22 2/3



* Not printed.

t Held for a later issue of the Bulletin.



tr U.S. Government Printing Office: 1967—251-933/33



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OFFICIAL BUSINESS



Foreign Relations of the United States
1944, Volume I, General

The Department of State recently released another volume in the Foreign Relations series cov
ering documentation of American policy and diplomacy for the year 1944.

Volume I is concerned with the multilateral diplomacy of the United States. Of particula:
interest in this volume is the extensive documentation on the Dumbarton Oaks conversations ani
on other preliminaries to the establishment of the United Nations, specifically preparations fo
the San Francisco Conference of 1945. There is also full coverage of U.S. participation in th
work of the European Advisory Commission, which drew up the Allied plans for the occupatioi
and control of Germany and the surrender terms for the Axis satellites. Other documents dea
with such questions as war crimes, censorship, repatriation of American citizens, and protection o
refugees.

Three other volumes for 1944 have already been published, and three others are in preparatior



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THE OFFICIAL WEEKLY RECORD OF UNITED STATES FOREIGN POLICY



THE

DEPARTMENT

OF

STATE




(VjAP ? ':\ jHR?




SECRETARY RUSK'S NEWS CONFERENCE OF FEBRUARY 9 317

EAST ASIA TODAY
hy Assistant Secretary Bundy 323

INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC POLICIES
Excerpts From the President's Economic' Report and the
Annual Report of the Council of Economic Advisers 333



UNITED STATES PEACE AIMS IN VIET-NAM
hy Ambassador Arthur J. Goldberg 310



For index see inside back cover



United States Peace Aims in Viet-Nam



by Arthur J. Goldberg

U.S. Representative to the United Nations ^



Our effort to open the door to peace in
Viet-Nam has been continuous. In recent
weeks public attention has been focused on
this effort by an unusual number of state-
ments, reports, and events: pronouncements
by the governments involved, appeals by
world leaders including Pope Paul and Secre-
tary-General Thant, news stories and inter-
views with various personalities — and the
perplexing events in mainland China. Right
now we are in the midst of another pause
in the fighting, the Lunar New Year truce.
Thus this may be a good moment to assess
the present status of our efforts for peace.

In such an assessment a responsible oflficial
must, in all that he says in public, avoid
damaging the hopes for progress through
private diplomacy. But in a free society he
must also accept the inescapable respon-
sibility to keep the public adequately
informed. It is difficult to deal on both levels
at once, but it is essential to do so as well
as we can.

Let me begin, then, by recalling the basic
American peace aims in Viet-Nam. These
aims have been stated many times by Presi-
dent Johnson and other responsible spokes-
men of the United States. They have been
stated over a span of 2 years, but the ebb and
flow of the military situation during that



time has not made them any less valid as
guidelines for peace negotiations. We do not
subscribe to the false notion that a strong
military position obviates the desirability of
seeking peace through negotiations. Today,
therefore, I wish to review the essence of
these American aims.

The United States seeks a political solution
in Viet-Nam. We do not seek the uncondi-
tional surrender of our adversaries. We seek
a settlement whose terms will result not
from dictation but from genuine negotiations,
a settlement whose terms will not sacrifice
the vital interest of any party. In the words
of the Manila communique: ^ ". . . the settle-
ment of the war in Vietnam depends on the
readiness and willingness of the parties con-
cerned to explore and work out together a
just and reasonable solution." As President
Johnson said a week ago here in Washing-
tion: ^ Such a solution "will involve . . . con-
cessions on both parts."

We are not engaged in a "holy war"
against communism. We do not seek an
American sphere of influence in Asia, nor a
permanent American "presence" of any
kind — military or otherwise — in Viet-Nam,
nor the imposition of a military alliance on
South Viet-Nam.

We do not seek to do any injury to main-



' Address made at a special convocation at How-
ard University, Washington, D.C., on Feb. 10 (U.S./
U.N. press release 13).



' For text, see Bulletin of Nov. 14, 1966, p. 730.
^ At a news conference at the White House on
Feb. 2.



310



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN



land China nor to threaten any of its legiti-
mate interests.

We seek to assure to the people of South
Viet-Nam the affirmative exercise of the
right of self-determination, the right to de-
cide their o\vn political destiny free of ex-
ternal interference and force and through
democratic processes. In keeping with the
announced South Vietnamese Government's
policy of national reconciliation, we do not
seek to exclude any segment of the South
Vietnamese people from peaceful participa-
tion in their country's future. We are pre-
pared to accept the results of that decision,
whatever it may be. We support the early
consummation of a democratic constitutional
system in South Viet-Nam and welcome the
progress being made to this end.

As regards North Viet-Nam, we have no
designs on its territory, and we do not seek
to overthrow its government, whatever its
ideology. We are prepared fully to respect its
sovereignty and territorial integrity and to
enter into specific undertakings to that end.

We believe the reunification of Viet-Nam
should be decided upon through a free choice
by the peoples of both the North and the
South without any outside interference; and
the results of that choice also will have our
full support.

Finally, when peace is restored we are
willing to make a major commitment of
money, talent, and resources to a multilateral
cooperative effort to bring to all of Southeast
Asia, including North Viet-Nam, the benefits
of economic and social reconstruction and
development which that area so sorely needs.

These, then, are the peace aims of the
United States. They parallel the objectives
stated by the South Vietnamese Government
at Manila. Our aims are strictly limited, and
we sincerely believe they contain nothing
inconsistent with the interests of any party.
Our public pronouncements of them — both in
Washington and at the United Nations — are
solemn commitments by the United States.

Our adversaries have also placed their
aims and objectives on the public record over



the past 2 years. The major statement of
these aims is the well-known four points of
Hanoi, which I will summarize without
departing too much from their own ter-
minology.

Hanoi's Four Points

The first point calls for recognition of the
basic national rights of the Vietnamese
people: peace, independence, sovereignty,
unity, and territorial integrity. It also calls
for the cessation of all acts of war against
the North; the ending of United States inter-
vention in the South; the withdrawal of all
United States troops, military personnel, and
weapons of all kinds; the dismantling of
American bases; and the cancellation of what
they term the United States "military alli-
ance" with South Viet-Nam.

The United States would not find any
essential difficulty with a reasonable inter-
pretation of any of the terms included in this
point. Our chief concern is what it does not
include: namely, that North Viet-Nam also
cease its intervention in the South, end all of
its acts of war against the South, and with-
draw its forces from the South. Such a
requirement is obviously essential to the
"peace" to which this first point refers.

The second point relates to the military
clauses of the Geneva agreements. It pro-
vides that, pending the peaceful reunification
of Viet-Nam, both the North and the South
must refrain from joining any military
alliance and that there should be no foreign
bases, troops, or military personnel in their
respective territories.

Here again, the only real difficulty is the
omission of any obligation on the North to
withdraw its military forces from the South
— although the Geneva accords, which estab-
lished the demarcation line in Viet-Nam,
forbid military interference of any sort by
one side in the affairs of the other and even
go so far as to forbid civilians to cross the
demilitarized zone.

The third point calls for the settlement of
the South's internal affairs in accordance



FEBRUARY 27, 1967



311



with the program of the National Liberation
Front for South Viet-Nam. This point, of
course, was not a part of the Geneva accords
at all. It introduces a new element which I
shall discuss later in this analysis.

The fourth point calls for the peaceful
reunification of Viet-Nam, to be settled by
the people of both zones without any foreign
interference. We have no difficulty with this
point, as was indicated in my speech to the
General Assembly on September 22. *

There has apparently been added a fifth
point — put forward and repeatedly endorsed
by both Hanoi and the National Liberation
Front since the enunciation of the four points
in April 1965. This fifth point was stated by
Ho Chi Minh in January 1966, when he said
that if the United States really wants peace,
it must recognize the National Liberation
Front as the "sole genuine representative" of
the people of South Viet-Nam and engage in
negotiation with it. This, like the third of
the four points, introduces a new element
which was not part of the Geneva accords.

Now, from this brief summation of our
aims and those declared by Hanoi, it is clear
that there are areas of agreement and areas
of disagreement. Recent public statements
by Hanoi have been helpful in certain
aspects, but how great the disagreements are
is still uncertain, because the stated aims of
Hanoi still contain a number of ambiguities.
I would like to discuss some of these ambigui-
ties because they relate to very consequential
matters.

Ambiguities in Hanoi's Stated Aims

There is ambiguity, for example, on the
role of the National Liberation Front in
peace negotiations. I have already noted the
statement of Ho Chi Minh and other spokes-
men for our adversaries who have said that
we must recognize the Front as "the sole
genuine representative" of the South Viet-
namese people and negotiate with it. If this
means that we are asked to cease our recogni-



tion of the Government in Saigon and deal
only with the Front, insistence on this point
would imperil the search for peace. For the
Front has not been chosen by any democratic
process to represent the people of South Viet>
Nam. Nor has the Front been recognized by
the world community. It is pertinent to recall
that more than 60 nations recognize the
Government of the Republic of Viet-Nam in
Saigon, whereas none recognizes the National
Liberation Front as a government.

On the other hand, some public statements
seem to call for the National Liberation
Front to be given a place or voice at the
negotiating table. If this were the position
of our adversaries, the prospects would be
brighter; for President Johnson, as long ago
as July 1965,5 said that "The Viet Cong
would have no difficulty in being represented
and having their views presented if Hanoi
for a moment decides she wants to cease
aggression." He added that this did not seem
to him to be "an insurmountable problem,"
and that "I think that could be worked out."

A further ambiguity relates to the role of
the National Liberation Front in the future
political life of South Viet-Nam. Hanoi asks
that the affairs of South Viet-Nam be
settled "in accordance with the program of
the National Liberation Front." Our adver-
saries, in their various comments on this
point, take no notice of the internationally
recognized Government of South Viet-Nam
or of the steps which the South Vietnamese
leaders have taken and have currently under
way and the institutions they are now creat-
ing for the purpose of providing their
country with a constitutional and representa-
tive government. Nor would their statements
seem to leave any place for the South Viet-
namese who have participated in and pro-
moted such steps. Such an interpretation
would pose serious obstacles to a settlement.

However, some claim that what the
National Liberation Front really seeks is no
more than the opportunity to advance its pro-



* For text, see Bulletin of Oct. 10, 1966, p. 518.



' At a news conference on July 28, 1965.



312



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 56, Jan- Mar 1967) → online text (page 55 of 90)