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American Free Trade Association afford in-
teresting examples of what developing coun-
tries are doing to further the development of
their trade and their economies on the basis
of regional cooperation. As the GATT survey,
"International Trade 1965," notes, intra-
Latin American trade increased by almost
one-fifth in 1965. Intra-Central American
trade increased by about 14 percent in that
year. In the period 1960-1965 the total trade
of the Central American Common Market
countries increased about 1%. times; trade
among these countries, however, grew nearly
three times as rapidly and in 1965 was 41/2
times what it was in 1960.

The United States continues to be a strong
supporter of these regional common markets
in Latin America. We believe that a study of
their experience might be of great benefit to



434



developing countries in other parts of the
world. We would encourage the Latin Ameri-
can countries to disseminate through the Con-
tracting Parties fuller knowledge of the tech-
niques they have found useful in lowering'
trade barriers and furthering economic de-
velopment.

The Contracting Parties, in article XXIV
of the GATT, established guidelines for the
formation and operation of regional customs
unions and free trade areas so that they
may contribute on the one hand to the
advancement of national planning for trade
and development and on the other to the
worldwide interchange of resources through
trade. The United States has proposed that
the GATT be amended to permit the estab-
lishment, when certain criteria are met, of
regional arrangements other than customs-
unions or free trade areas for trade lib-
eralization among developing countries.

Negotiating Workable Commodity Agreements

Mr. Chairman, the problems of trade ini
primary commodities have two general aS'
pects. There is the question of removing tarifl(
and nontariff barriers which impede trade iij
these products. There is also the question oli
negotiating workable commodity agreements!
for certain of them. My delegation considera
it important and in the interest of develop
ing countries exporting primary products t(
progress on both fronts.

On the one hand, for some products of de
veloping countries— coffee and cocoa ar«
examples of such commodities — commodity
agreements could be useful. The Unitec
States hopes that the International Coffe*
Agreement may be supplemented by a work
able cocoa agreement and perhaps by othei
commodity agreements as well. However
there do not appear to be many commoditie;
for which comprehensive commodity agree
ments could be negotiated, and the complex
task of dealing with proposals for such nego
tiations falls largely outside the GATT.

On the other hand, in the GATT we cai
negotiate the reduction of tariff and non
tariff barriers not only for the relatively fev



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIM






3Ut important commodities that migfht sooner
)r later be the subject of commodity agree-
ments but also for the whole range of com-
modities which, for one reason or another,
may never be dealt with in such agreements.

Tariff Preferences for Manufactured Products

As we indicated when we were considering
the status of the Kennedy Round, we sub-
scribe fully to the objective of maximum re-
ductions in trade barriers to facilitate in-
creased LDC earnings. We consider that cuts
in the Kennedy Round can do much to achieve
this aim.

Many countries have suggested that in
addition to such most-favored-nation cuts, we
go further and reduce barriers to developing
countries even in cases where developed coun-
tries are not prepared at the time to reduce
"duties among themselves. A number of spe-
cific suggestions as to how this would be done
have been put forward. As you know, the
OECD [Organization for Economic Coopera-
tion and Development] Ministerial Council
asked for a special study to try to arrive at a
harmonized, constructive position designed
to promote the export earnings of the devel-
o]iing countries. While this study has not
been completed, we believe that good progress
has been made and that the work will be
inessed forward with all participants show-
i| ing flexibility and an openminded willingness
I to give fair consideration to all suggestions
I put forward.

The question of special tariff treatment for
developing countries raises a number of basic
policy issues. In the first place, the continued
progress toward the reduction of trade bar-
riers on a worldwide basis should not in any
way be hindered. And the maintenance of
trading rules which minimize interference
with the free flow of goods is essential. There
are also questions about the relationship of
any new scheme to existing special arrange-
ments. These, and many other considerations,
add up to a major policy issue, and we in the
United States Government are looking at
them very carefully.

The GATT Trade Information Center and



the program of GATT trade and development
plan studies are two areas of special activity
in behalf of developing countries which we
can all endorse. We believe that the Con-
tracting Parties have done well in establish-
ing the International Trade Center and in
gradually expanding it with the advice of the
Group of Experts on Trade Promotion.

In view of the growing demand for the
services offered by the center and the endorse-
ment by developing countries of the useful-
ness of these services, I have been authorized
to inform this meeting that my Government,
for its part, expects to be able to lend to the
center in 1967 an experienced trade promo-
tion officer from the United States Depart-
ment of Commerce. We hope that this will
further strengthen the center's work and will
complement the assistance given by other
governments which have contributed per-
sonnel and technical assistance to the center.

Furthermore, the U.S. Agency for Inter-
national Development and the GATT are cur-
rently working on a new training program to
help developing countries expand export
trade. A pilot project, which we hope to initi-
ate within a few months, would be focused on
developing of export potential in selected
countries and on meeting requirements for in-
ternational marketing. It would bring to-
gether governmental oflficials and entrepre-
neurs from developing countries in a training
partnership. The plan under consideration
would bring five teams of two participants
each to the United States. It would be aimed
at analyzing the extent to which the ingredi-
ents for a successful development of exports
for food processing industries were present
in the participants' countries, at studying
effective techniques for marketing such prod-
ucts abroad and for necessary action at home
so as to improve the viability of export activi-
ties.

We see this new program as a link between
promoting the growth of export earnings of
participating countries and of their economic
development. This of course is one of the
key objectives of part IV of the GATT.

Mr. Chairman, the many varied activities



MARCH 13, 1967



435



of the GATT and of the Committee on Trade
and Development make, in my view, an im-
portant contribution toward helping to lift
the level of export earnings of the developing
countries. As I have indicated in my survey of
the present situation, the United States has
in the past sought to play its part in collabo-
rating with this effort. We shall continue to
do so in the future. We believe that the
Kennedy Round and the many parallel activi-
ties of the GATT provide opportunities which
should not be missed. My delegation will fol-
low with interest the work of this Committee
during the coming days. We are confident
that this meeting in Punta del Este will go
down as another important milestone in the
history of the General Agreement.



Latin American Nations Conclude
Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

A treaty to prohibit nuclear tveapons in
Latin America {Treaty of Tlatelolco) was
signed by H Latin American nations at
Mexico City on Fehrrtary 14. The United
States ivas not a signatory but expects, along
tvith other non-Latin American nations, to
receive a formal request to sign additional
protocols. Follotving is a statement present-
ing the United States' initial vietvs on the
treaty, which ivas submitted to Alfonso
Garcia Robles, Chairman of the Preparatory
Commission for the Denuclearization of
Latin America, by Ambassador Fulton Free-
man, U.S. Observer to the Preparatory Com-
mission, and read at a plenary meeting on
Febmary 13.

Press release 35 dated February 14

The United States Government has fol-
lowed with interest the deliberations of the
Preparatory Commission for the Denuclear-
ization of Latin America, particularly with
respect to the question of peaceful nuclear
explosions.

It is our understanding of the text of the
treaty that, based on present and foreseeable



436



technology, contracting parties are prohib-
ited from acquiring nuclear explosive de-
vices for peaceful purposes, as well as de-
vices identified as nuclear weapons. This'^
follows from the provisions of articles 1 and
5 of the treaty.

We understand article 18 to permit the
carrying out of peaceful nuclear explosions
by contracting parties themselves only if and
when future advances in technology permit
the development of devices for peaceful ex-
plosions which are not susceptible of use for
weapons purposes. This is shown by the
concluding proviso in paragraph 1 of
article 18.

However, we understand article 18 per-
mits, as of the present time, the carrying out
of peaceful nuclear explosions through ap-
propriate international arrangements with
countries now possessing nuclear explosive
devices. This is shown by paragraph 4 of
article 18.

The foregoing understanding of the effect
of the treaty is fundamental to the United
States Government's position concerning it.
The United States considers the conclusion
of this first international instrument estab-
lishing a nuclear free zone to be an event of
unique significance, and the U.S. will study
the detailed provisions of the treaty with
great interest. We hope that the treaty will
constitute a milestone on the road to general
and complete disarmament and in particular
that it will lead in the near future to the
conclusion of a worldwide treaty prohibiting
the proliferation of nuclear weapons.

We therefore wish to extend to you, Mr.
Chairman, and to the representatives of the
nations participating in the Preparatory
Commission, the congratulations of the
United States Government on the achieve-
ment of the treaty.

In view of the restrictions that the mem-
bers of the Preparatory Commission have
agreed to accept on the development of nu-
clear explosive devices for peaceful purposes
— and which we hope other non-nuclear-
weapon countries will eventually also accept
— the United States believes that at such



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN



I) time as nuclear explosive devices for peace-
ful purposes may become technologically
dJfeasible and economically practical, their pos-
lii! sible benefits should be made available on
M( an equitable basis to all countries, regardless
of the stage of their technological achieve-
ment. Appropriate international arrange-
ments to this end will, of course, have to be
considered in a wider context than the Pre-
paratory Commission affords.



,



Current U.N. Documents:
A Selected Bibliography

Mimeographed or processed documents (such as
those listed below) may be consulted at depository
libraries in the United States. U.N. printed publica-
tions may be purcliased from the Sales Section of
the United Nations, United Nations Plaza, N.Y.

Security Council

Reports on compliance with Security Council Reso-
lution 232 regarding Southern Rhodesia. Mexico,
S/7646, New Zealand, S/7647, December 27, 1966;
U.S.S.R., S/7672, January 10, 1967; Brazil,
S/7676, January 12, 1967; Algeria, S/7693, Janu-
ary 20, 1967; Gabon, S/7700, January 26, 1967;
United States, S/7701, Niger, S/7702, Ivory
Coast, S/7703, January 27, 1967; Bulgaria, S/7706,
January 30, 1967; India, S/7709, January 31,
1967; Australia, S/7710, Denmark, S/7711,
Greece, S/7712, February 1, 1967; Guinea, S/7714,
February 2, 1967; Poland, S/7715, February 3,
1967; Hungary, S/7716, Mongolia, S/7717, Ethi-
opia, S/7719, February 6, 1967.

Letter dated January 5, 1967, from the Secretary-
General to governments containing a further ap-
peal for voluntary contributions for the financing
of the U.N. Force in Cyprus. S/7669. January
9, 1967. 3 pp.

Note by the Secretary-General concerning technical
consultants to visit Zambia to study certain needs
for technical assistance which originated from the
application of mandatory sanctions against
Southern Rhodesia. S/7720. February 6, 1967. 2 pp.



General Assembly

UNHCR [United Nations High Commissioner for
Refugees] Programme for 1967. A/AC.96/342.
October 4, 1966. 100 pp.

Work of the Main Committees During the Twenty-
first Session of the General Assembly. Note by
the Secretary-General. A/6633. December 30,
1966. 15 pp.

Ad Hoc Committee for South West Africa. Infor-
mation on South West Africa. Working Paper
prepared by the Secretariat. A/AC.129/L.2. Feb-
ruary 3, 1967. 100 pp.



MARCH 13, 1967



Economic and Social Council

Economic Commission for Africa:

Report of the Sub-Regional Meeting on Economic
Co-operation in North Africa, Tangier, June
20-24, 1966. E/CN. 14/354. June 24, 1966. 55 pp.
Report of the Governing Council of the African
Institute for Economic Development and Plan-
ning. E/CN.14/367. November 8, 1966. 58 pp.
Report of the Sub-Regional Meeting on Economic
Co-operation in West Africa, Niamey, October
10-22, 1966. E/CN. 14/366. November 11, 1966.
91 pp.
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East:
Summary records of 22d session. New Delhi,
March 22-April 4, 1966. E/CN.11/740. July 5,
1966. 287 pp.
Commission for Social Development:

Land Reform. Conclusions of the 1966 World
Land Reform Conference in Relation to Social
Development. Note by the Secretary-General. E/
CN.5/411. January 10, 1967. 12 pp.
Technical Co-operation Activities in Social Devel-
opment. Report of the Secretary-General. E/
CN.5/412. January 23, 1967. 32 pp.
Progress Report on Programmes in the Field of
Social Development. Implementation of United
Nations social development programmes during
the period January 1, 1965-December 31, 1966.
Report of the Secretary-General. E/CN.5/409.
January 31, 1967. 29 pp.
Commission on Human Rights :

Sub-commission on Prevention of Discrimination
and Protection of Minorities. Study of Dis-
crimination Against Persons Born Out of Wed-
lock. E/CN.4/Sub.2/262. November 7, 1966.
296 pp.
Working Group To Study the Proposal To Create
the Institution of a United Nations High Com-
missioner for Human Rights. Analytical and
Technical Study Prepared by the Secretary-
General Under Paragraph 3 of Resolution 4
(XXII) of the Commission on Human Rights.
E/CN.4/AC.21/L.1. December 30, 1966. 87 pp.
Draft Declaration and Draft International Con-
vention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Religious Intolerance. Note by the Secretary-
General. E/CN.4/920. January 11, 1967. 29 pp.
Question of Punishment of War Criminals and
of Persons Who Have Committed Crimes
Against Humanity. Preliminary draft conven-
tion on the non-applicability of statutory limi-
tation to war crimes and crimes against
humanity, submitted by the Secretary-General.
E/CN.4/928. January 25, 1967. 23 pp.
Report of the Nineteenth Session of the Sub-com-
mission on Prevention of Discrimination and
Protection of Minorities, New York, January
4-23, 1967. E/CN.4/930. January 27, 1967.
127 pp.
Measures Taken in Implementation of the United
Nations Declaration on the Elimination of All
Forms of Racial Discrimination. Texts of (or
extracts from) decisions taken by United Nations
organs containing provisions relevant to the
question of the violation of human rights and
fundamental freedoms, including policies of racial
discrimination and segregation and of apartheid
in all countries, with particular reference to
colonial and other dependent countries and ter-
ritories. First annual supplement prepared by
the Secretary-General. E/CN.4/923. February 1,
1967. 56 pp.



437



1



TREATY INFORMATION



Opened for signature at Washington, London, and ||

Moscow January 27, 1967.'

Signatures : Austria, February 20, 1967; Lebanon,

February 23, 1967; Malaysia, February 20, *

1967.



Current Actions



MULTILATERAL

Northwest Atlantic Fisheries

Protocol to the international convention for the
Northwest Atlantic Fisheries (TIAS 2089), relat-
ing to entry into force of proposals adopted by
the Commission. Done at Washington November
29, 1965.'
Approval deposited: France, February 15, 1967.

Protocol to the international convention for the
Northwest Atlantic Fisheries (TIAS 2089), relat-
ing to measures of control. Done at Washington
November 29, 1965.'
Approval deposited: France, February 15, 1967.

Satellite Communications System

Agreement establishing interim arrangements for a

global commercial communications satellite system.

Done at Washington August 20, 1964. Entered

into force August 20, 1964. TIAS 5646.

Accession deposited: Korea, February 24, 1967.
Special agreement. Done at Washington August 20,

1964. Entered into force August 20, 1964. TIAS

5646.

Signature: Ministry of Communications of Korea,
February 24, 1967.

Space

Treaty on principles governing the activities of
states in the exploration and use of outer space,
including the moon and other celestial bodies.



BILATERAL

Colombia

Amendment to the agreement of April 9, 1962
(TIAS 5330), for cooperation concerning civil uses
of atomic energy. Signed at Washington February
24, 1967. Enters into force on the date on which
each Government shall have received from the
other written notification that it has complied with
all statutory and constitutional requirements for
entry into force.

Indonesia

Agreement relating to investment guaranties. Ef-
fected by exchange of notes at Djakarta January
7, 1967. Enters into force on the date of a note
from Indonesia stating that agreement has been
approved in conformity with Indonesian constitu-
tional procedures.

Iran

Amendment to the agreement of March 5, 1957
(TIAS 4207), for cooperation concerning civil uses
of atomic energy. Signed at Washington June 8,
1964.
Entered into force: January 26, 1967.

Somali Republic

Agreement extending the technical cooperation
program agreement of January 28 and February
4, 1961, as extended (TIAS 4915, 5332, 5508, 5738,
5814, 6148). Effected by exchange of notes at
Mogadiscio January 31, 1967. Entered into force
February 1, 1967.



' Not in force.



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN VOL. LVI, NO. 1446 PUBLICATION 8212 MARCH 13, 1967



The Department of State Bulletin, a
weekly publication issued by the OflBce of
Media Servicee. Bureau of Public Affairs,
provides the public and interested agencies
of the Government with information on
developmenta in the field of foreign rela-
tions and on the work of the Department
of State and the Foreign Service. The
Bulletin includes selected press releasee on
foreign policy, issued by the White House
and the Department, and statements and
addresses made by the President and by
the Secretary of State and other officers of



the Department, as well as special articles
on various phases of international affairs
and the functions of the Department. In-
formation is included concerning treaties
and international agreements to which the
United States is or may become a party
and treaties of general international inter-
est.

Publications of the Department, United
Nations documents, and legislative material
in the field of international relations are
listed currently.

The Bulletin is for sale by the Super-



intendent of Documents, U.S. Government
Printing Office. Washington, D.C., 20402.
Price: 62 issues, domestic $10, foreign $16 ;
single copy 30 cents.

Use of funds for printing of this publi-
cation approved by the Director of the
Bureau of the Budget (January 11, 1966).

NOTB; Contents of this publication are
not copyrighted and items contained herein
may be reprinted. Citation of the Depart-
ment of State Bulletin as the source will
be appreciated. The Bulletin is indexed in
the Readers* Guide to Periodical Literature.



438



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN



Index March 13, 1967 Vol. LVI, No. 1U6



.tomic Energy. Latin American Nations Con-
clude Nuclear Free Zone Treaty (U.S. state-
ment) 436

Ihina. Communist China (U. Alexis Johnson) . 420
Jongress. President Urges Ratification of New
Ship Safety Rules 429

)eveloping Countries

mproving Export Earnings of Developing
Countries (Blumenthal) 430

'he Politics of Progress (Rostow) 398

Nsarmament

jatin American Nations Conclude Nuclear
Free Zone Treaty (U.S. statement) ... 436

'he Politics of Progress (Rostow) 398

tconomic Affairs
greement To Solve Rio Grande Salinity Prob-
lem Approved (Johnson) 428

Constructive Initiatives in East-West Rela-
tions (Kohler) 406

mproving Export Earnings of Developing
Countries (Blumenthal) 430

The Politics of Progress (Rostow) 398

President Urges Ratification of New Ship
Safety Rules 429

'oward a Community of the Developed Na-
tions (Brzezinski) 414

J.S. and Japan Adjourn Talks on Fishing in
New U.S. Zone 424

BSthiopia. Emperor of Ethiopia Visits the United
States (Emperor Haile Selassie I, Johnson) . 425

Burope

lonstructive Initiatives in East-West Rela-
tions (Kohler) 406

Toward a Community of the Developed Na-
tions (Brzezinski) 414

Foreign Aid. The Politics of Progress (Rostow) 398

International Organizations and Conferences.

Improving Export Earnings of Developing
Countries (Blumenthal) ► 430

Japan. U.S. and Japan Adjourn Talks on
Fishing in New U.S. Zone 424

Latin America. Latin American Nations Con-
clude Nuclear Free Zone Treaty (U.S. state-
ment) 436

Mexico. Agreement To Solve Rio Grande Salin-
ity Problem Approved (Johnson) 428

Population. The Politics of Progress (Rostow) 398



Presidential Documents

Agreement To Solve Rio Grande Salinity Prob-
lem Approved 428

Emperor of Ethiopia Visits the United States 425
Trade. Improving Export Earnings of Devel-
oping Countries (Blumenthal) 430

Treaty Information

Current Actions 438

President Urges Ratification of New Ship

Safety Rules 429

U.S.S.R.

Constructive Initiatives in East- West Relations

(Kohler) 406

Toward a Community of the Developed Na-
tions (Brzezinski) 414

United Nations. Current U.N. Documents . . 437
Name Index

Blumenthal, W. Michael 430

Brzezinski, Zbigniew 414

Freeman, Fulton 436

Emperor Haile Selassie I 425

Johnson, President 425, 428

Johnson, U. Alexis 420

Kohler, Foy D 406

Rostow, Eugene V 398



Check List of Department of State
Press Releases: February 20-26

Press releases may be obtained from the
Office of News, Department of State, Wash-
ington, D. C, 20520.

Release issued prior to February 20 which
appears in this issue of the Bulletin is No.
36 of Febniary 16.

No. Date Subject

'*38 2/20 U.S.-Italian civil aviation nego-
tiations.

39 2/20 Rostow: "The Politics of Prog-

ress."

40 2/23 U.S.^apanese fisheries discus-

sions adjourn.
t41 2/23 Sisco: "The United Nations: An
Arena for Peaceful East-West
Engagement."



■* Not printed.

t Held for a later issue of the Bulletin.



■ir U.S. Government Printing Office: 1967—251-933/36



Superintendent of Documents
U.S. government printing office

WASHINGTON, D.C. 2040Z



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Dear Student Leaders

A revealing exchange of correspondence between Secretary of State Dean Rusk and a rej
sentative of 100 student leaders from around the country is reproduced in this new 17-
Depai-tment of State publication.

The letter from the students, addressed to President Johnson on December 29, 1966, 1
responded to in a point-by-point reply by Secretary Rusk on January 4, 1967. In his reply,|
Secretary outlines the basic philosophy of the United States position on Viet-Nam and "the
riding question for all mankind in this last third of the Twentieth Century — how to organi
durable peace."

PUBLICATION 8190 15 CEN

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ORDER FORM

To: Supt. of Documents
Govt. Prlntins Offie*

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