Managing the Men
A. AY. SHAW COMPANY
CHICAGO X E \V Y O R K
GETTING THE MEN BEHIND
NEW IDEAS AND
HOW FACTORY EXECUTIVES
CHARGE SPOILED WORK, LEARN
MEN'S EARNING POWER, FIX WAGES
AND AWARD INCREASED PAY
MAKING THE FORCE
GET IN ON TIME,
READ THE RULES AND
A. W. SHAW COMPANY
CHICAGO NEW YORK
COPYRIGHT. 1913, ItY
A. \V.SII.\W COMPANY
CMDKK THK TITLK "flOW TU HANDI.K W
SELLING IDEAS TO WORKMEN
Work to Schedule
I GETTING SHOP CO-OPERATION ... 6
II THE WHITE COLLAR MAN IN THE FACTORY
HANDLING TKE WAGE QUESTION
Square I'he Pay Roll
III SETTLING FOR SPOILED WORK ... 18
IV WHEN TO GIVE A MAN A RAISE ... 24
Shaping Men to Your Plan
V GETTING EMPLOYEES TO WORK ON TIME . 32
VI MAKING WORKMEN READ FACTORY
RULES .... 40
MAXIMUM OUTPUT FROM MEN
VII WINNING DEPARTMENT INTEREST . . SO
VIII SHOWING EMPLOYEES HOW TO WORK 58
1 REPORT OF DEFECTIVE GOODS RETURNEt) . 19
.2 IRON FOUNDRY DELIVERY SHEET . . . 20
3 MOLDER'S AND HELPER'S CHARGE BACK
RECORD J . . 21
4 PIECE-WORK LABOR TICKET .... 25
5 TIME-WORK SEMI-PAY PERIOD REPORT . . 25
6 DEPARTMENTAL JOB TICKET / ... 25
7 DAILY DEPARTMENTAL REPORT OF ALL
EARNINGS . . . . / . . . . 26
8 DAILY CLASSIFIED REPORT OF LABOR COSTS 27
9 INDIVIDUAL EARNINGS RECORD TIME
10 RECORD OF INDIVIDUAL PIECE-WORK
11 PIECE-WORK AVERAGE REPORT ... 28
12 AVERAGE EARNING PER HOUR REPORT . 29
13 RECORD OF TIME WOBKER's EARNINGS
CALCULATED AT FIECE-WORK PRICES . 29
TJ/TfEN a belt parts, every-
thing on the line stops short
men and machines lie by for
the trouble crew.
When a foreman fails to come
through with his work, the whole
shop lets down the pull ahead
and the push of material coming
in slacken and tangle.
Only team-play can safe-
guard the weak spots in your
factory schedule. Have your
foremen get together, and they
will learn to check up, trade
help and patch the schedule be-
fore a break ties up production.
Show your workmen that the
Schedule is the Business. Make
promptness a game.
Make the work pull evenly
from stock bin to shipping plat-
form, and you will cut idle
buildings, machines and men
from your pay roll.
GETTING SHOP CO-OPERATION
BESIDE the road over the hill to the
south of a large Ohio manufacturing
company's plant wound a long line of
shipping boxes, each box labeled and flagged.
At night a sixteen candlepower lamp twinkled
above each case. A big signboard pointed at
the row of boxes. It read: "This is an aver-
age single day's shipment from this factory.
If this line represented an average year's
shipment, it would extend to Atlanta, Geor-
That single exhibit sold one idea to the
visiting salesmen during a convention. Ex-
pressed in a paragraph of type, it would have
been read, perhaps, and remembered. But
driven home in this graphic way, not only was
the idea remembered; that one plan sold an
General managers know the value of this
approach to a selling situation. They know
that if a salesman is to sell he must himself
be sold. Few apply this principle in the pro-
duction end of the business.
Why should a concern decide that next week
the factory hours shall be reduced by six and
the pay envelopes proportionately, and then
SHOP COOPERATION 7
post the announcement in three lines of type-
writer type in the shop? Can't workmen be
In Massachusetts there's a president of a
cable factory who never makes a change in
factory policy until he has explained that
change from the top of a barrel in the area-
way between the buildings. He sells his plan
to his workmen a so-called unintelligent
group of workmen. Over in Scotland a con-
cern puts in a bonus system of payments, a
premium plan that the management believes
has mutual benefit. It is hard to make the
men, intelligent machinists, understand the
bookkeeping of their wages. So the factory
manager gets out a little paper-bound book
explaining how the system works and illustrat-
ing the principles with examples from shop
practice. He sells his men the bonus system.
In many cases, the efficiency engineer is
looked upon by the workmen as an enemy to
labor, and, in a few instances, this opinion is
also shared by the factory manager. Why?
Because neither of them have been sold.
They have not been made to realize the value
of higher wages and larger profits that are
made possible through the elimination of
wastes and unnecessary physical effort
mutual benefits to both.
Managers all over the country are taking a
new point of view on work. They are saying,
"Is the way we've always done it, the best
way?" But, convinced themselves that it
isn't, too often they forget that their workmen
are apt to be just as biased. They " strong-
arm" foremen and department heads, when
they might sell them. An efficiency engineer
may leave the factory by the front door, while
the old abuses come trooping in the back door.
8 SELLING IDEAS TO WORKMEN
What the general manager gives to his sales-
men, the president his workmen, any man-
ager may give to his problem of handling em-
For if you really sell anything to anyone,
customer, salesman or workman, you wrap it
in satisfaction a kickless, worryless carton.
A rubber goods mill in the west hired a
young man to introduce efficiency methods.
At once he ran against the opposition of the
foremen and superintendents. They were not
interested in efficiency; they had not been sold
efficiency. So the first thing he did was to
get them interested. He posted newspaper,
clippings of Brandeis' speeches and of rail-
road managers' policies; he showed them
books and articles on the subjects that he was
interested in; he got the foremen to take mag-
azines home and read how other factories had
adopted such and such methods with success;
he posted up pictures of engineers whose
names were mentioned in the papers Taylor,
Emerson, Gantt, and so on; he tried to bring
the foremen and heads of departments into
closer personal relation with these men. And
he sold them; he sold them the efficiency idea
in the right way; he got them just as enthusi-
astic as he was in his new work.
In the practical operation of a plant many
questions come up which do not match with
theory, and in some plants conditions may
arise where, on account of the grade of work-
men, these ideas may not seem applicable.
Yet, from observation in many lines of work,
it seems almost certain that appeal to the bet-
ter motives of even the lowest grade of work-
man will arouse in him an interest in his work.
THE WHITE COLLAR MAN
IN THE FACTORY
A FIVE hundred dollar job went into the
scrap heap because of friction between
draftsmen and foremen. Lack of har-
mony between office men draftsmen, clerks,
timekeepers and inspectors and workmen
causes mistakes and petty losses.
Whenever a clash between the man with
the jumper and the white collar man, has
been adjusted with mutual satisfaction, there
is a point in handling men demonstrated
to the benefit of every other factory manager.
A factory manager in a Michigan town de-
veloped a production system for keeping track
of the work going through the shop. He
needed a man to follow the details and picked
from the shop men a youngster who seemed to
him to have the qualifications.
Now that factory manager had worked in
the shop. He knew that when the shop man
changed his jumper for a soft shirt and came
to the office, instinctively the men raised a
stone wall between themselves and their
former shop-mate. They felt that they were
on different sides of the fence. And, to carry
10 SELLING IDEAS TO WORKMEN
out the figure, unless the new production clerk
recognized his position and provided a few
gates in the fence, he could never carry on his
Here was the setting for a great deal of
friction under the average conditions, for the
office force is too often "on the outs" with the
shop crew. So the factory manager watched
his new man. The first time the production
clerk went down into the assembling room the
manager found an errand with the foreman in
The new man might have assumed authority
at once he might have started to give orders.
Instead of saying, "What sort of help are
you fellows giving me on this job?" he asked
jokingly of the foreman, "You fellows must be
trying to get me in wrong, right away; the
first holdup I get is on my old job."
With the ice broken, the first tangle was
straightened out and the new clerk and the
shop crew from that time on worked together
like a well trained team.
The new production clerk adopted the
method of many a good salesman, make friends
with your prospect first, then sell him. He fol-
lowed one plan which is effective in handling
men. If you want to get the best work out of
a man, you must take his viewpoint on the job
and work with him.
Of course, there are as many ways of han-
dling men as there are men. But a great deal
of the friction which now exists between men
in the office and men in the shop would dis-
appear if the men in the positions of responsi-
bility would get the other's viewpoint on the
One day during the noon hour, at a fixture
factory, standing on a box in the factory yard,
THE WHITE COLLAR MAN 11
the president of the concern was talking to the
men grouped about him. And their faces, as
they listened, showed their interest and
This talk was an annual affair. Each year,
on the day preceding the distribution of a
bonus, the president talked with the men
about the year's work. The bonus was a per-
centage of the net profits. Each man received
a proportion of tnis percentage based upon
his steadiness, his reliability, his attention to
business and his average wage.
Now a bonus system seems to work out well
in some factories. In others it fails to accom-
plish its primary purpose of making men want
to work and work faithfully. The success of
the plan in this factory was due primarily to
the personality of the president. ' His methods
adopted by lesser men of authority would help
reduce the friction between working force and
One of the reasons why the president held
the good will of the men came out on the fol-
lowing day. I was talking with the foreman
in one of the departments and the president
came through the factory.
A laborer was pushing a heavy reel of wire
down an aisle in the factory. It was just about
all he could do to move the reel without assist-
ance so that when he came to an uneven spot
in the floor, the reel stuck obstinately. The
president was close behind. He was dressed
as the president of a company would be
dressed, but he did not call another man to
help the laborer. Without a word he stopped
by the reel, dug his heels in the floor and
pushed with the workman. If there is a
knack in handling men, the essentials of this
twist in personality were here apparent.
12 SELLING IDEAS TO WORKMEN
"I've seen him jump into a tank and give a
lift to the men when they wore rubber boots,"
said the foreman voluntarily.
Every one knows, the difficulty of the piece
work system is that it has a tendency to limit
the output of the shop after a certain point
has been reached, because any man with an
ordinary piece-work price on a job could make
much more than what the management con-
siders a fair day's wage if he exerted himself.
And unless, as in some shops, there is a yearly
contract not to cut piece-work prices, the ten-
dency in any factory is to cut prices when it is
found that men make more than a definite sum
on their work. For this reason workmen are
always careful to limit their output. As they
put it, "not to kill the job."
Failure to realize this attitude of workmen
toward a job has brought more than one cost
clerk into difficulty in figuring how to set a
piece-work price on a job.
Then there is the workman's attitude toward
the men he works with. If a foreman hires
men he may v/ell consider the plan of the owner
of a foundry in a mid-western city. Himself
an old-time molder, he knows the men's view-
point and has them help select good men.
Whenever a man asks for a job, the manager
goes out into the shop and consults the fore-
man. "Ever know Horstmyer?" "What do
you think of him?" "Anybody in the shop
live near him?" So he asks his questions and
finds out his workmen's opinion of the appli-
cant. If they do not like the newcomer, the
foundry man never hires him. "For," he
says, "unless men will work together in the
shop, there's no use in hiring them. When
they all know each other, the crew is cheerful."
Diplomacy often moves a load when lack of
THE WHITE COLLAR MAN *13
tact creates only friction. Men order when
they ought to explain; they keep their hands
clean, instead of holding up one end of the
Why One Inspector Always Loses the Train
He Ought to Be Able to Make
Two inspectors travel about the country.
One is always in hot water in the plants he
visits. The other not only gets out his work
on time but secures the co-operation of the
men. They work with him, not against him.
Yet a study of their methods makes the rea-
son for the one's failure evident. When the
tactless one arrives on the scene he issues or-
ders. "Got the machine ready? I want to
get out of here by noon. Hurry it up. "
The second man begins by making friends.
He goes to the factory in the morning on a
testing job that usually takes a half day. He
wants to get the 10:30 train. The case is ex-
plained, and in answer to his question, "Can
I get that train ?" the reply is, "Sure you
Inspector No. 1, although he makes the
rounds of the different factories periodically,
knows few of the workmen by their first
names. The second man knows all the work-
men by their shop-handles.
The first man never thinks of taking off his
coat and handling one end of a testing machine
himself. The second man, although he does
not always do it, sometimes takes a hand in
the work and directs while he works.
And the results are evident enough. There
is a saying that the undiplomatic inspector
gets more things put over on him than any
other man in the crew, not on account of dis-
honesty on the part of the men he works with
14* SELLING IDEAS TO WORKMEN
but simply because he arouses their antago-
nism instead of their co-operation.
Perhaps the test of right relation between
the man in the office and the man in the shop
comes when the former is the cause for the
latter's loss of his job. Unless the white col-
lar man handles the situation right he will
never hold the right relation to the other men.
A man in charge of testing work discovered
that one of the men in the factory was trying
to cheat him. For some unknown reason, the
workman had a grudge against the inspector
which he couldn't get over.
The inspector tried to get on a friendly basis
with the man. He tried to make him see that
it was to his personal advantage to give the
outsider a square deal. But he couldn't get
under the man's skin.
The Man Who Couldn't See Both Sides
How He was Handled
So he set a little trap and caught the
offender. Then he told him frankly that what
he had found out was sufficient to have the
man discharged, but he wanted him to feel
that they could work together right on the job
and then if the man would come half way the
inspector would forget the dishonesty.
But the man continued his surly attitude
and tried the same trick again. Again the in-
spector talked with the man and told him that
as he had said in the first place he would speak
to the superintendent about his w r ork.
When he went to the superintendent and
told him what the man had done, the head of
the plant wanted to discharge the test man at
once. But the inspector knew that the man
had a family and that while his wages were
not high that was all the more reason why he
THE WHITE COLLAR MAN 15
needed them. He told the superintendent that
as a personal favor he would prefer the man
not to be discharged but transferred.
This request was granted but the secret
leaked out among the men and they at once
saw that the inspector was not an enemy, but a
friend. After that incident there was no
question but what the inspector always re-
ceived a square deal.
How a Common Subject Keeps Men
Often the conditions of work make for or
against a " friction loss" relation between
office force and shop men. Some common
experience or common work smooths out
wrinkles in routine. The star pitcher of one
factory baseball team is a white collar man on
working days and the man with the mit is a
foundry molder. Team spirit in this shop is
nearly as strong as that in college.
This point of view on the question is illus-
trated by the relation of the band men in one
big company. Some of the men and officers in
this concern three years ago formed a com-
Members of the band are made up of men
from the various shops and also from the of-
fices of the company. They meet twice a week
for practice and once a week, on Thursdays,
give a concert. Three of the monthly con-
certs are held in the shops, each one being
given at a different place. The fourth con-
cert is given in the lounging room of the club
house building during the time the office and
engineering forces are having their luncheon.
The band for the most part is self-support-
ing and once each year gives a public concert in
one of the theaters of the city in order to raise
16 SELLING IDEAS TO WORKMEN
money for any necessary purpose.
At each concert held in the shops, from one
thousand to four thousand employees gather
together and as they come from all the de-
partments, the men have an opportunity to
get well acquainted. And the band made up
of men from the shops and offices has pro-
moted general good feeling.
Similar in idea to the band is the bowling
tournament held every winter in one manufac-
turing town. One team was captained by a
shop foreman, another by a chief draftsman, a
third by a husky production clerk, and any
existing grouch vanished in the game.
Whether the personality of the men in
charge of work or factory conditions are re-
sponsible for lost motion and friction between
office force and working crew, the loss is ob-
vious. And once the right viewpoint is taken,
once some attention is paid to making condi-
tions right, the differences vanish.
It is a question of handling men and of
pointing out to others the executive viewpoint.
As one manager has said, "Some men have
that within them which always spurs them on;
others need artificial initiative, outside en-
"Some men extend themselves under stern
discipline; some respond only to a gentle rein.
"Some men need driving; some coaxing.
Some need the spur; some the sugar lump.
Some men do their best with work piled
shoulder-high; some must have it given them
a piece at a time.
"Some men thrive on discouragement; some
cannot work without cheerfulness.'*
Study men the men over you, under you,
around you. Study them and learn how to get
from each the most that is in him.
more wages you can
pay the more your business
will prosper but they must be
honest wages, paid only for
value received. They must be
your investment in men, and
each dollar must pay you its
No investment is safer than
fair wages paid to good work-
men but the scant wage buys
Pay your men for their bigger
output and they will earn still
more. Square your pay roll with
value received and you will
keep your investment growing.
Know your men weigh their
value. Challenge the employee
who is working down to his pay
envelope. Give more to the man
behind your profits, and he will
give more in ambition, in effi-
ciency, in loyalty to you.
SETTLING FOR SPOILED
EVERY factory would run more smoothly
if the question "who pays for spoiled
work" could be answered to everyone's
satisfaction. The best of workmen make mis-
takes; it doesn't pay to discharge a good man
for spoiling a piece of work; it costs too much
to find and train another. On the other hand
if you retain his services and charge him for
the work spoiled, he becomes discontented and
"While we rely upon our foremen to keep
the amount of spoiled work as low as pos-
sible," says F. C. Everitt, "we have found it
helpful to keep a general record of bad mater-
ial returned to the foundry from our iron as-
sembly shops. We keep track of this in two
ways: clerically, by means of a daily report of
scrap and defective parts returned; mechani-
cally, by two boxes labeled respectively 'scrap'
and ' discount.'
"Scrap and discount boxes are located in
every iron department. The scrap box is for
all castings that are broken in the shop by the
men or rendered useless from other causes.
The discount box is for castings found defec-
SETTLING FOR SPOILED WORK 19
live under closer inspection than is given in
the foundry cleaning department.
" These two boxes are emptied every day
and the contents sent to the foundry depart-
ment for credit. We receive credit for scrap
iron at scrap price, and for the discount we
receive credit at the same price charged by the
"A sheet (Forml) for defective goods re-
turned is made out daily in triplicate, and
when the goods are delivered to the foundry
the three copies are signed. The foundry re-
tains the second copy, and the original is re-
turned to the mounting shop office. The third
copy, written on a tissue sheet, is kept in the
DEFECTIVE GOODS RETURNED
FROM MOUNTING SHOP
FORM 1 : All defective castings delivered under Form 2 are charged
back against the foundry on this blank. Credit is given for whatever
castings or scrap are returned
casting clerk 's book. The next day the mount-
ing shop is given credit (Form 2) for the
goods received. This sheet is called a de-
livery sheet. Every piece of casting delivered
to the shops is entered on this form each day,
and all the columns are filled out. When all
the charges have been written on these sheets,
the amount is totaled, and the credit is entered
on the same delivery sheet in accordance with
20 FIXING WAGES
the defective goods slip of the previous day.
These slips are totaled, and the difference be-
tween the amount delivered and the defective
goods is the net charge made against the shop.
" Goods returned to the foundry for scrap
or discount are itemized in both cases so that
it is an easy matter to know what articles are
passing through this routine daily. The orig-
inal delivery sheet is checked by the cast-
ing clerk when it is received; then it is passed
to the shop cost clerk, w r ho checks the charges.
Alter this it goes to the department head for
the final O. K., and is passed on to the main
office. Here the head accountant credits the
foundry for the net amount charged. The
second copy is held by the shop; the third copy
is held by the foundry. This daily routine
has been in operation for about three years.
"The discount castings are set aside by the
FORM 2: This delivery sheet is used to check the filling of all orders
for castings made on the iron foundry. In keeping track of spoiled work,
the foreman thus traces back imperfect castings to their source
cleaning shop foreman, and when the previous
day's cast is counted, these discount castings
are charged against the molder who made
them. In other words if a molder makes
twenty-five pieces and two come back from as-