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profitable crop increase and a small profit is given by a few
of the other dressings. Here the heaviest crops result from
the complete artificials applied to plots 8 and 9. This land
does much better under tillage than under pasture. It may be
suffering from an alluvial deposit from lead workings farther
up the valley.

Broomside House results. — For the reason already stated
these must be disregarded. Attention is drawn, however, to
the marvellous effect of 4 tons of lime per acre on this peaty
loam soil, as it has produced over 2 tons hay per acre in
the first season after the application of lime, an increase of 13J
^wt. of hay per acre over the unmanured plot.



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37



l^t






1


H




7 ; '^ T "^T 1 1 7 1


[ncrease

over
unman-

ured

plot.


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:o(Mo6"'^'''cboo*o-*»cosco»o


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4>'


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Increase
over

unn an-
ured
plot.


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:«0'*«c<i'*t*«c»o»oooosi-i

1


1


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i-tC<l<M(MCOC<«C<IC0CC(M(Mr-i . .


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r-i r-.rHr-(<N(M'-^0»0'M


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r-i f-> rr' "Z"

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Average
of two
plots.


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^ ^ ^ ^ ,_, rH (M G<l « ^ (N C<« . .



•— s



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38



OLD LAND HAY EXPERIMENT AT EARL'S HOUSE,
COUNTY DURHAM.

This commences with 1902, and is made on the Durham
County Council's farm at Earl's House. The soil is a loam
on Boulder Clay, which overlies the Coal Measures. The
following table gives the plan of manuring and the results lOr
the past season : —



TABLE VII —FIRST YEAR OF OLD LAND HAY EXPERIMENT AT
EARL'S HOUSE, CO. DURHAM.

Plot J- acre in Abea. Figubes peb Acre.



Plot.


* Bfanures, 1902.


Cost of
manure.


Yield of


mcnue

orer

unmanand

plot






8 d.


Owt.


Cwt.


1


No manure ... •••




28i




2


20 tons dung


100


39^


lU


3


392;ib. kainit


7 11


25t


-3


4


J ton slag + 392 lb. kainit


30 6


33J


5i


5


i ton slag


22 6


sii


3i


6


2^ tons common lime


57 6


28i






irther manures are applied for 1903, but kainit only may be repeated for 190i

are all heavy dressings, which, where suitable, will
to act for several years. Kainit has a deleterious
he first year and common lime has no influence on
Slag increases the crop in the first year and kaiait
slag also does so, although its action is otherwise
lied alone.



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Seeds Mixtures for Hay and Pasture
at Whitehall, Cumberland.



This experiment waa commenced in the spring of 1896,
on a field kindly placed at the disposal of the College by Mn
Parkin Moore.

The objects of the experiment are: — To ascertain the
value of different mixtures of grasses and clovers for two
years' hay ; and for the pasture thereafter.

Soil and climate. — The soil is a strong loam lying on a
subsoil of Boulder Clay. The land was in good ** heart " and
iu fairly clean condition when the seeds* were sown, the pre-
vious crop having been roots eaten on the field by sheep. The
field is about 330 feet above sea level, and the climatic condi-
tions are favourable to the formation of a pasture, being those
of the west coast generally, ix.y a fair amount of rainfall
throughout the year, and a milder winter and spring than
there is further inland or near the east coast.

Eight plots, each \ acre in area, were sown with different
mixtures of seeds in April, 1896, along with a few pounds of
rape seed per acre. The plots were, therefore, sown down
without a crop and were eaten off by sheep in the first season.
Full reports on the character of tbe different seeds mixtures^
and on the hay crops of 1897 and 1898 are contained in the
fifth, sixth and seventh College Reports, and are summarized
on Table VIII., page 40.



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TABLE VIII.— SEEDS MIXTURES SOWN AT WHITEHALL, 1896, AND
YIELD OF HAY, 1897 and 1898.





COBt

per lb.








Plots.






1^




, .1


2


3 1 4


5


6


7


s|




8. d. 1 lb.


lb.


lb. ! lb.


lb.


lb.


lb.


-!


rPerennial ryegmss ..


2i;32-7


18-7


' 9-3 i 14-0


140


...




93^


*Cocksfoot


11 , ...


3-7


4-9


7-4


3-7


3-7


4-9


1


•Timothy


5^' ...


1-2


2-3


3-5


1-7


1-7


2-3


31 1


* Foxtail


1 9 ...




...




3-8


3-8


51




* M eadow fescue


9 ...




...




4-9


4-9


6-5


13-0


*Tall fescue


12..




...




4-8


4-8


6-4




f Hard fescue


8








1-4


1-9




fCrested dogstail


1 4 1 ....


...






0-9


1-3




fSmooth-stalked meadow
grass


9...




1




05


0-0




fRough-stalked meadow
grass


12 ...




... 1


...


03


0-6


0-9


Cowgrass clover


10 \ 4-7


4-7


4-7


7-0


7-0


70


9-4


25


Alsike clover


9 i 1-4


1-4


1-4 2-1


2-1


21


2-8


211


White clover


1


1-4


1-4


1-4 21


21


2 1 1 2-8


5-6'


Yarrow


3 4


...




•••! -




...


...


0-3^


Total Dumber of lb. per acre


40-2


31-1


24-0


36-1


441


33 2 44-5


41-5


Ml' Hi on a nf cyprminafinor spirit;



















10


10


10


15


15


16 1 20 20




13/2


14/2


13/11


20/10


32/8 1


32/8 1 43/7 j 28 ll




Cwt.


Cwt.


Owt.


Cwt.


Cwt


Cwt. j Cwt. Cwu




41i


37


44


47J


46i


37i 1 37f ! 47f




39


33


35^


33


36i !


30 39i


*






m


35


39i


401


41i


33f 38i


*"'



t Bottom



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The graces on this table are classified into " top " and
"bottom" grasses, the former being the more vigorous and
producing more stems than root leaves, while the latter have
a less vigorous habit of growth, and on the whole produce
more root leaves than stems.

Plot 1 had perennial ryegrass and clovers only; on plot 2
30 per cent, less ryegrass was sown, but this was made up
by adding cocksfoot and timothy; plot 3 had still less rye-
jrrass (I of plot 2), while cocksfoot and timothy were pro-
portionately increased ; plot 4 had the same seeding as plot 3,
but the quantity was increased by half ; plot 5 had as heavy a
seeding as plot 4, but three other grasses — foxtail, meadow
fescue, and tall fescue — were added, to make room for which
the cocksfoot and timothy were reduced by one-half ; on plot 6
ryegrass was entirely omitted — its place being taken by hard
fescue, dogstail, smooth and rough stalked meadow grass,
otherwise the seeding was similar to plot 5 ; plot 7 had the
same plants as plot 6, but the amount of seed was increased
by one-third ; and plot 8 had the same number of germinating
seeds as plot 7, but foxtail, tall fescue, hard fescue, dogstail,
and smooth stalked meadow grass were withheld, and their
places taken by perennial ryegrass and yarrow, while white
clover was considerably increased and the other clovers
decreased.

The cost of the seeds mixtures (per acre) is given on
Table VIII. . The first three were considerably the cheapest,
tbat on plot 7 was the most expensive, while that on plot 8
wag very much cheaper, although it contained as many ger-
minating seeds as the one on plot 7 ; many of the more
expensive seeds were excluded from plot 8.

The germinating power of all the seeds was tested at the
College, and the calculated number of millions of germinating
seeds sown on the plots is given on Table VIII.

The yield of hay for 1897 and 1898 is also given on
Table VIII. The smallest average crop was given on plot 6 ;



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on plot 7, where the same seeding was increased by one-third,
the crop was still the third smallest. It is important to note
when comparing plots 7 and 8 — ^the latter grew the heavier
crops of hay — smooth-stalked meadow grass, dogstail,
hard fescue, tall fescue and foxtail were omitted from
the latter plot, but a small seeding of perennial ry^rass was
added, aa well as some yarrow, while meadow fescue was
doubled and white clover was increased at the expense of
the other clovers, especially cowgrass. Ryegrass and clover
only (plot 1) gave the same yield of hay as on plot 3, where
cocksfoot and timothy largely took the place of the ryegrass,
although when these did so to a smaller extent, the yield of
hay was smaller. The yield of hay on plot 4 was not greater
than on plot 3, although the same seeding was increased by
50 per cent. The seeds mixture on plot 8 was, therefore, the
most useful in producing a hay crop.

Condition of pasture as indicated by plants present in
1903. — The plots have been grazed since 1899, but small
portions of each were fenced off in 1902, so that the herbage
could be sampled and analysed. The sampling was care-
fully done by Mr. Lawrence on July 4th, and a botanical
analysis of the herbage of each plot has been made at the
College. The results of this analysis, as well as the per-
centage of germinating seeds in each mixture, are given
on Table IX., page 43. The number of seeds per ft varies
very widely, and it is, therefore, most important to consider
the percentage of germinating seeds sown on each plot (and
not the weight of seeds) along with the percentage of plants
now present in the herbage. The percentage of plants now
present is given by weight and not by number. The time
of the year (July 4th) must also be taken into account in con-
sidering these figures. The earlier grasses, such as foxtail
and sweet vernal, are considerably past their greatest weight
and luxuriance by this time, while a lat« grass like timothy



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would not yet have reached its greatest weight. At this time
also Yorkshire fog is at about its most bulky state. If this
is allowed for, however, in considering the results, very useful
lessons can be derived from the figures.

TABLE IX.— WHITEHALL SEEDS MIXTURES FOR HAY AND PASTURE.
PeKCENTAQE of botanical composition op HEBBAOIC, 1902.

(Percentage in seeds mixtures of plants sown in 1896 is given in brackets



underneath those of the above.)










t


Plots.




1


2


3 4


5


6


7


8


j Perennial ryegrass ...

Cocksfoot

Timothy

Foxtail

Fescues

Crested dogstail

Oat grasses

Bent grasses (agrostis sp.)

Yorkshire fog

Clovers

Yarrow

Weeds, seeds, dirt, etc.




21-2
(70)
5-4

3-2

1-8
13-9

1-2

221

26-7

1-7
(30)

2-8


16-3

(40)
14-3
(15)
16-0
(15)

2-0
10-0

23-3

17-4

0-9
(30)

1-8


13-8
(20)
181
(20)
19-4
(30)

14-8

18-6

9-6

4-6
(30)

1-1


10-2
(»0)
25-8
(20)
15-8
(30)

1-2
10-9

14-9
15-6

4-7

(30)

0-9


7-7
(20)
25-8
(10)
11-6
(15)

4
(10)
17-3
(15)
20-6

0-4

2-6

4-3

41
(30)

1-6


0-8

42-2
(10)

1-9
(15)

2
(10)
J 5-8
(20)
23-8

(5)

51

6-1

1-3

(30)

...

1-0


2-6

48-2
(10)

7-4
(15)

6
(10)
15-0
(20)

5-5

(5)

12-4
10

1-4

(30)

0-5


12-4
(10)
401
(10)
5-1
(20)

7-7

(15)
91

6-7
3-0

7-4

(30)
5-6

(5)
2-9


Total




lOO-O


100-0


100-0


1000


1000 lOO-o! 100


100-0



Results of botanical analysis. — ^Whea Mr. Lawrence
collected the samples for analysis he also made the follow-
ing notes on the appearance of the pasture and hay on the
plots on July 4th : —

" Plot 1. — Mainly dogstail and Yorkshire fog, weedy,
veiy little clover. Grazed badly, and inferiority very
marked.



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" Plot 2. — Some clover and ryegrass ; more cocb'
foot, tall fescue, dogstail, timothy and trefoil, and sffl
more Yorkshire fog. Thin pasture.

"Plot 3. — Yorkshire fog abundant, with a fair
amount of cocksfoot, timothy and tall fescue. Fairly
heavy hay with some red clover and trefoil. Pasture
poor and benty, with thistles, but a fair white clover
plant.

" Plot 4.— Similar to plot 3.

" Plot 5. — Some ryegrass ; more cocksfoot, timol
tall fescue and dogstail ; much less Yorkshire fog; aj
fair hay crop. Pasture has a poor bottom and is some-l
what benty. I

"Plot 6. — Strong tall fescue and cocksfoot, somi
timothy. Pasture grazed bare, with bents of fescue
and dogstail only ; a fair plant of white clover. |

" Plot 7. — Heaviest hay crop ; mainly cocksfool
and tall and meadow fescue, with a little timothy ani
some white clover. Stems of dogstail abundant oi
pasture, but all other grasses closely grazed.

" Plot 8. — Good hay crop of luxuriant whit«
clover, with cocksfoot and dogstail, and a fair quantity
of timothy and meadow fescue ; a little Yorkshire fog,
ryegrass and red clover, but no rough-stalked meadow
grass. Best grazed pasture, with very little bent and a
good sole of white clover — an excellent plot.'^

notes, describing as they do the appearance of the
n the different plots as well as the hay on the portions
3ts fenced o£E for the purpose, are of great assistance
sing the results.
nial ryegrass has not proved to be a good lasting

a pasture. Plots 1 and 2, which have the largest
n of this grass, are now the thinnest pastures.
I, shows that on all the plots, except plot 8, the pro-



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Dortion of this gra^s now growing is very much less than the
proportion sotvti. Tlxe small amount of this grass now on
plots 6 and 7, wKer© none was sown, indicate its small powers
rf establishing itself naturally on this land.

Cocksfoot is noTV- present in very much greater proportion
fehan it ^was. sot^xl in, except where sown with the larger
amounts of ryegrass (plots 2 and 3). The results indicate that
ryegrass sown Tvitli. this grass, tends to check its development,
ind this takes place in the earlier years, before the ryegrass
loses its vigour • Th.ere is a very large proportion (over 40 per
3ent.) of tliis grass now present on plots 7 and 8 and yet both
;hese plots are i^eported as being closely grazed, thus showing
ihat tliis grass gi^ves neither a coarse nor a benty pasture. On
jlot 1 where xlo cocksfoot was sown it has developed naturally
to a very small exitent.

Timothy^ This grass, unlike cocksfoot, has developed
better when so^vn with, than without, ryegrass. Timothy haa
\ very small plant for a considerable time after being sown,
md it may he that the protection given by the quick-growing
rveffrass is an advantage to it during the first season, or even
two seasons, after sowing. There is not much timothy on plot
1 where none was sown, and where this grass was included the
proportion novsr g^rowing is considerably less than that sown
(except on plot 2).

Meadoiv fa£ctail is present in moderate quantities where
sown hnt h.as not developed naturally on the other plots.
This irrass tio^^ever, is very luxuriant in May and early June,
and is not xrearly so abundant in July when the samples were

taken.

The fesc^tes are grouped together in Table IX. Tall

f one is xrxost abundant on plots 5, 6 and 7 where this grass

ar*\wTi axxd- greatly increases the proportion of fescues on
was so^^-*-*-

\\\ se T)lots- There is not much hard fescue where sown

lots 6 axxd 7. On plot 8, where meadow fescue only was

and is practically the only species of fescue present, the



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stems of this grass are mucli finer than those of tall fescue
The strong, tall fescue, as well as meadow fescue, are close!
grazed on all the plots where they were sown and do not forn
bents or withered stems, left uneaten by the grazing stoci
Where no fescues were sown they are present only to a ver
small extent.

Crested dogstail was sown in very small proportion oi
plots 6 and 7, but is present on all the plots to a large extent
The stems of this grass are not eaten by grazing stock, anc
so remain to form the bents noticed by Mr. Lawrence
especially on plot 6 where this grass forms about 24 per cent,
of the herbage. These stems are, therefore, allowed to pro-
duce seed and thus encourage the development of this grass
to the exclusion of better plants more relished by stock.

The meadow grasses (smooth-stalked and rough-stcilked) are
not present in the herbage of plots 6 and 7 where they were
sown, nor were they noticed by Mr. Lawrence.

The clovers are now present in comparatively small
quantities although 30 per cent, of these were sown on all
the plots. There is some red clover now but no alsike, and
probably the former is natural wild clover. White clover,
however, is present on all the plots in fair quantity, and on
plot 8, where the proportion of seed sown was four times
greater than on most of the other plots, this plant is
luxuriant and abundant, especially on the pasture. The pro-
portion shown by the botanical analysis does not indicate the
full amount of this plant because its creeping habit of growth
keeps it largely in the bottom herbage.

Yarrow has proved a useful plant on plot 8 and is present
in about the same proportion as when sown.

Yorkshire fog proves to be most troublesome by far where
ryegrass only was sown on plot 1. Here it constitutes over
one-fourth of the herbage. The thin bottom left when the
ryegrass began to fail, has evidently given the opportunity for
this pernicious grass. On plots 7 and 8, where close bottoms



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of herbage have been formed, this grass is present in very
small quantities, thus indicating that it may be held in check
by covering the ground with suitable pasture plants.

The bent grasses, or various species of Agrostis, have also
been allowed to develop to the greatest extent on plots 1 and 2
where the largest amounts of ryegrass were sown. These
grasses are even more troublesome to the farmer than York-
shire fog, the common bent being well-known as surface
Kjouch because of its stems creeping along the surface of the
ground. On plots 4-8 these plants have been fairly effectually
leld in check.

The best plot. — The heaviest yield of hay in the first two
years (1897 and 1898), and the excellent condition of the
pasture in 1902 on plot 8, when taken together indicate that
the meadow grasses and crested dogstail have not been use-
ful, that the four grasses — perennial ryegrass, cocksfoot,
timothy and meadow fescue — have made a very good combina-
tion in the proportions sown, that the larger proportion of
white clover than of the other clovers has been advantageous
both to the hay and the pasture, and that the heavier seeding
of 20 million germinating seeds has given good results.
Although cocksfoot is now present to the extent of 40 per cent,
on this plot, it is closely grazed and is not at all coarse. The
sowing of a small amount of yarrow on this plot has probably
also been useful. Probably also the increased amount of
meadow fescue and the exclusion of tall fescue has assisted
to the good result on this plot. Rough-stalked meadow grass
has probably not been useful on this plot, and, as the seed of
this cost Is. O^d. per acre, the cost of this seeds mixture might
have been reduced to 27s. lOd. an acre, while if yarrow were
omitted the cost would be still further reduced to 26s. 9d. an
acre.

These results will not, of course, apply to all conditions of
soil and climate, but where these conditions are both some-

4



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48

what like those prevailing at Whitehall, the seeds mixture
sown on plot 8 should prove a successful one.

The portions of the plots fenced off for mowing in 1902^
had all been grazed in the previbus years, so that the various
plants found in the herbage are those developed by gracing.
Had the plots been mown every year and not grazed, the plants
present would have been those developed by growing hay
instead of pasture. A considerable amount of bottom herbage
is not removed by mowing, but the character of this is stated
in Mr. Lawrence's notes.

It is of the greatest importance, in purchasing grass and
clover seeds, to insist that the percentage of purity, and the
germinating percentage, as well as the number of germinating
seeds in a pound, shall be stated on the invoice, and to arrange
that the different seeds be forwarded separately. The greatest
care must, of course, be taken in mixing the seeds and in
sowing them. The prices given on Table VIII. were those of
the spring of 1896, and are, on the average, approximate to
those of the present spring.



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49



EXPERIMENT ON THE IMPROVEMENT OF ROIGH
PASTI RE AT PIKE WHINS.

This experiment is being made on the farm of Pike Whins,
County Durham, on land kindly placed at the disposal of the
College by Mr. Anthony Wilkinson, J. P., D.L. The farm
adjoins Hurworth Bum station, extends to about 200 acres,
and is all under rough pasture. It is laid up in narrow ridges,
but has probably not been under cultivation since the early
years of the nineteenth century. The land has become very
rough and uneven, and the greater part of it is covered with
heather and some wljins ; as a pasture it is not worth more
than a few shillings an acre. The improvement of this land
has been undertaken in a thorough manner. It is all being
drained with parallel drains about 42 feet apart ; a consider-
able part of it has been treated with basic slag, and a smaller
part with kainit in addition. Part has also been limed, and
other parts are being sown with renovating seeds mixtures,
lieavy-toothed chain harrows being used to cover in the seeds,
as well as to render the surface more even, and to remove some
of the heather stems. The heather has been burned on the
parts where it was present in greatest amount.

The soil varies from a sandy loam to a clay loam, and is
rather shallow in some parts but deeper in others. The
surface soil is moorish in character — dark in colour, and rich
in organic matter. The subsoil is a yellow to reddish sand
mixed with clay, boulders of limestone and other stones, and
gravel. It lies on Boulder Clay of a sandy character, and the
presence of gravel in addition to boulders of stone gives it
quite a different character from stiff Boulder Clay, such as
that at Cockle Park. As an indication of the freeness of
the subsoil it may be stated that the drains now being put in
4 feet deep and over 40 feet apart are doing their work



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effectively. The land on which the experimental plots are
laid off is very rough and heathery, and represents the heavier
land of the farm. .



The objects of the experiments are : — (1) To ascertain the
effects of different manures in improving this land ; (2) to
test the usefulness or otherwise of renovating seeds mixtures.

Effects of different manures. — 13 plots each ^j^ acre in. area,
have been laid off. The plan which follows shows the relative
position of the plots and the manuring per acre : —

N



Plot 1.
2^ cwt. slag (annually)



Plot 4.

3 J cwt. super., 3f cwt.
kainit (annually)



Plot 7.

10 tons dung 1902,
and in alternate years



Plot 10.

Nt. slag, 3f cwt.
t



Plot 2.

3f cwt. kainit (annu-
ally)



Plot 6.*

i cwt. sulph am.. ^
cwt. nitrate, 2} cwt.
slag, 3f cwt. kainit
(annually)



Plot 8.
No manure



Plot 11.

10 cwt. slag (arti-
ficials of plot 6, 1905
and annually there-
after).



Plot 3.

2J cwt. slag, 3| cwt.
kainit (annually)



lot 5 receives standard dressing of 20 lb. nitrogen
>. in nitrate and 11*25 lb. in sulph. am.); 50 lb. phos-
acid (all in slag) ; and 50 lb. potash (all in kainit).



Plot 6.

Half the dressiug of
plot 5 (annually)



Plot 9.

10 cwt. slag (10 tons '
dung 1905)



Plot 12.

10 cwt. slag and 4
tons lime



Plot 13.
4 tons lime



Digitized



Online LibraryUnited States. General Land OfficeAnnual report on field and other experiments / Durham, Eng. University ... → online text (page 30 of 41)