United States. Mississippi River Commission United States. Army. Corps of Engineers.

Annual report of the Chief of Engineers to the Secretary of War for ..., Part 3 online

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dents of Lake City as to location, operations were suspended. Later,
the differences were reconciled, and by the voice of the city council the
Government was asked to locate the work where, in its opinion, it
would best serve the interests of commerce.

The new plans contemplated the building up of a foundation of
gravel, which would serve to so reduce the depth of water and amovnt
of crib-work as to permit a useful length of pier to be built. On the
23d of May, 1887, a dredging outfit was sent to Lake Oity and the foun-
dation was commenced. Work was continued through the season and
resulted in the construction of a pier extending into the lake from the
foot of Elm street about 871 feet, of which length 513 feet are of crib-
work, and the balance earthen embankment. The crib- work rests on a
gravel foundation, which reduced the depth of the lake on the line of
the pier from 28 feet to about 5 feet at low water.

The crib- work was built with sloping side and end, and this plan
proved itself to be much better than that of vertical sides, as used at
Stockholm. During the past spring there was an unprecedented com-
bination of very high water, solid ice, and severe storms which mate-
rially damaged the Stockholm pier and destroyed much private prop-
erty ; but the pier at Lake City was, so far as can be now discovered,
only slightly injured by the tearing away of its top planking.

This pier, during the time of high water and storms, furnished pro
tection to the shops and warehouses in the harbor and saved from de-
struction property valued at a far greater amount than the cost of the
pier.

A record and description of the work is given in the following ex-
tract from the season's report of United States Superintendent W. A,
Thompson, under whose immediate direction the operations were carried
out:

Owiug to the depth of water being from 20 to 2d feot at low-water stage for most
of tbo lengtb of tbe proposed pier, it was decided to lessen the cost by making a
foundation of gravel, dredged irom the gravel bars la the vicinity of Lake City. Ac-
cordingly, I was instructed in April, 1887, to get the dredge Phmnix and outfit ready
to do this work as soon as possible. The outfit^ consisting oi dredge, tow-boat J, G.
Parke f six dnmp-boats, and two coal-flats, reached Lake City Saturday, May 21, and
began work May 2^, Various bars within a distance of 4 miles of Lake City were
examined, but none were found to contain a better gravel than could be found in
front of the steam-boat landing.

During the month of June the dredge was necessarily taken away from Lake City

and put to work between Saint Paul and Hastings, dredffin^ new channels throagh

bars that obstructed navigation. Work was resumed at Lake City July 5. AuRust

10 the dredge was taken to Beef Slough and returned August 14, and continued to

' work at LaKO City until November 3, when it was laid up at Read's Landing.

During a portion of September and all of October the tow-boat was engaged a
greater part of the time in towing rock, and consequently but little work coiud be
done by the dredge.

For a distance of 355 feet from the shore as much gravel was de[>osited as was pos-
sible, and for the rest of the distance the gravel foundation was raised to within
about 5 feet of low water of 1864. The slopes of the sides of the foundation are about
4 feet horizontal to 1 vertical.

The gravel embaukmont at the shore end is 17 feet wide on top, with a height of lU
feot above low water of 1864. The gravel was deposited under water by means of
dump-boats, and for that part above water the gravel was wheeled onfo the embank-
ment from flat-boats.

The slopes above low water are 1^ horizontal to 1 vertical. On the lower slope,
there is a layer of rock 'ii feet thick at the bottom, decreasing to 1 foot in thickness



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APPENDIX Y — ^REPORT OF MAJOR MACKENZIE. 1531

at the top. Oa the upper side the rook is 1^ feet thick at base, and 1 foot at the top.
The top of the embaDlcinent is also covered with rock.

8ixteea cribs, each 3*2 feet long and 32 feet wide, were sunk continuously from the
end of the embankment. These cribs were constructed to a height of about G inches
above low water of 1HG4. Pine logs were used from 12 to 20 inches thick, and at
least 32 feet long. The logs were fastened together by seveu-eights-inch drit't-bolu.
The pine timbers in superstructure were 6 inches thick, I foot wide, and from 12 to
16 feet long. These timbers were fastened together by drift-bolts three-fourrhs-inch
in diameter, and from 12 to 18 inches in length. A slope was given to the lower side
and outer end of the superstructure of 16^ horizontal to 12|- vertical. These slopes
are covered with oak plank 3 inches thick, and the vertical side is planked with oak
2 inches thick. The top is planked with 3-inch pine.

The total length of breakwater is 871 feet, of which 355 feet are embankment. The
top of superstructure is 12f feet above low water of 1864.

The cribs and superstructure are filled with rock, most of which was taken from
theshore of the lake and from ravines where it had been exposed to frosts and moisture
for years without injury.

Material used in work^ and cost.

516 pieces pine, 3 inches by 12 inches by 16 feet, top planking 371. 52

100 pieces piue, 6 inches by 12 inches by 14 feet^ superstructure 126. 00

76 pieces pine, G inches by 12 inches by 12 feet, superstructure 82. 08

2,840 pieoeB pine, 6 inches by 12 inches by 16 feet, superstructure 4, 089. 60

336 pine logs, 7 1,940 feet, B. M., crib- work 1,124.10

516 pieces oak, 2 inches by 12 inches by 12 feet, side planking 309. 60

520 pieces oak, 3 inches by 12 inches by 10 feet, side planking 390. 00

521 pieces oak, 3 inches by 12 inches by 10^ feet, side planking 410. 29

18,045 pounds drift-bolts 5:^7.73

6,762 pounds spikes * 201.21

300 pounds 60-penny nails 8.25

8,675.5 cubic yards rook on barges 5,437.85

329.9 cubic yards rock on bank 69.61

73,680 cnbic yards gravel put in embankment and foundation 1 1, 715. 12

Labor constructing cribs, superstructure, and embankment 5, 359. 54

Saperintendence and contingencies, and care and repair of plant during

winter and spring 1,752.72

' Total 31,985.23

There remains available for repairs (from allotment for harbor at
Lake City, from appropriation for '^ improving Mississippi River from
Saint Paul to Des Moines Kapids/' act of July 5, 1884), the sum of
13,014.77.

The work carried out at Lake City gives a good harbor protected from
all storms, excepting those coming across the lake. The latter are
rarely such as to interfere with the use of the harbor.

It is not thought that any extension of this work will be necessary ;
and as the available balance of allotment from general appropriation for
"improving Mississippi Eiver from Saint Paul to Des Moines Rapids.''
($3,014.77), together with such aid as can be given this work in connec-
tion with the general improvement, will probably be sufficient to keep
tbe pier in repair during the coming year, no further special appropria-
tion is recommended. *

Abstract of appropriations.

By act passed August 2,1882 $10,000

By aUotment act of July 5, 1884* 15,000

By act passed August 5, 1886 10,000

Total 35,000

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1532 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY.

Money statement.

July 1, 1887, amoaat available* $16,350.83

July 1. 1838, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of liabilities
outstanding July 1, 1887 16, 350. b2



Y9-
HARBORS OF REFUGE ON LAKE PEPIN, AT STOCKHOLM, WISCONSIN.

A crib-pier 579 feet long, exteudiDg into the lake and affording pro-
tection from storms on one side or the other in nearly all conditions of
wind, was completed in September, 1885. A description and history of
the work is given in my annual report for fiscal year ending Jane 30,
1886.

This pier was built by contract, in accordance with plans which gave
as substantial a structure as the available funds permitted. The work
passed through two winters and springs without injury from storms
and ice; but during the past April an unprecedented combination of
circumstances led to the breaking up of the top of this pier. The con-
ditions and results are described as follows in a petition presented by
the citizens of Stockholm and Lake City, with a view to securingan ap-
propriation for repairing the damaged pier :

During the present spring; there was a higher stage of water in the lake than was
ever before known when the ice broke up, reaching the top of the pier, the ice at the
time being two feet thick and as solid as in mid-winter. During the high stage of
water a violent wind-storm moved this great mass of ice with such force as to break
every thing before it, taking off about 4 feet of the top of the pier. More damage
was done to private property by ice along the lake than during the previous twenty-
live years.

Since the breaking up of the ice in Lake Pepin the stage of water
has been too great to permit a proper examination of the pier to be
made ; but it is thought that about 4 feet have been taken off the top.
There is now on hand, from appropriation pertaining to this work, a
balance of $5,029.06, which is available for repairs. It is probable this
amount would be sufficient for rebuilding the pier in accordance with
the original plans ; but in making repairs it would appear advisable to
so modify plans as to make them conform more nearly to those adapted
for the breakwater built last year at Lake City, which structure, in a
more exposed position, passed comparatively safely through the same
storm that injured the Stockholm pier. At Stockholm the breakwater
was given vertical sides, so that it could also be used as a landing pier.
At Lake City the pier was built with sloping side and end, permitting
the ice to slide over rather than push.

The cost of rebuilding the Stockholm pier with sloping sides, in ac-
cordance with proposed change of plan, can not be estimated with any
degree of accuracy until the present condition of the pier is known, bat

* The act of July 5, 18;J4, appropriated $15,000 for " improving harbor at Lake City,
Miun., continuing improvement ; " but the title was cliauged on the books of tbe
Treasury to " Improving Mississippi River from Saint Paul to Des Moines Rapids— ap-
plied to Lake City" — and the $15,000 is now considered as an allotment from the gen-
oral appropriation, rather than as a separate item. It is therefore considered in the
money statement under heading of ** Improving Mississippi River from Saint Panl to
Des Moines Rapids," and omitted from ** amount available July 1, 1887," in above
statement,



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APPENDIX V — REPORT OB* MAJOH MACKENZIE. 1533

it is probable that tlio cost of suck work will be $15,000 in excess of tiie
balance uow on hand.

The original project for this work contemplated the constraction of a
breakwater at a cost of $53,498, and there has been appropriated under
this project, as modified by change in plan of breakwater, $25,000. It
being thought heretofore that the balance on hand woul^ be sufficient
to provide for repairs, no further appropriation has been recommended
in my annual reports, but it is now necessary to present an estimate for
$15,000.

Abstract of appropriation a.

By act passed Angnst 2, 1882 $10,000

Bj act approved Joly 5, 1884 15,000

ToUl 25,000

Money statement

July 1, 1887, amout available |6,209.39

July 1, 1688, amoant expended daring fiscal year, osclasive of liabilities
oatstandlng Juno 30, 1887 280.33

Julyl, 1888, balance available 5,929.06

r Amoant (estimated) required for completion of existinfi; project 15, 000. 00

j Amoant that can be prontablv expend^ in fiscal yearending Juno 30, 1890 15, 000. 00
) Sobmitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
I harbor aoto of 18(56 and 1867.



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APPENDIX Z.



PRESERVATION OP THE FALLS OP ST. ANTHONY AND IMPROVEMENT
OF THE MISSISSIPPI ABOVE THE FALLS— IMPROVEMENT OP THE
CHIPPEWA AND ST. CROIX RIVERS, WISCONSIN, AND OP MINNESOTA
RIVER AND BED RIVER OP THE NORTH, MINNESOTA AND DAKOTA-
RESERVOIRS AT THE SOURCES OF THE MISSISSIPPI— IMPROVEMENT OF
THE MISSOURI RIVER FROM SIOUX CITY, IOWA, TO FORT BENTON,
MONTANA, AND OF YELLOWSTONE RIVER, MONTANA AND DAKOTA.



SEFORT OF MAJOR CHARLES J, ALLEN, CORPS OF ENGTNEERS, OFFICER
/iV CffARGB, FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 18h8, WITH
OTHER DOCUMENTS RELATING TO THE WORKS.



IMPROVEMENTS.



1. Preseryation of the Falls of St. An-

tliony, Miniieflota.

2. Consi^otion of lock and dam on the

Mis&JBaippi River at Meeker's Island,
Minnesota.

3. Mississippi River above the Falls of

St. Antbony, Minnesota.

4. Reservoirs at headwaters of the Mis-

sissippi River.

5. Chippewa River, inclndinj; Yellow

Banks, Wisconsin.

6. St. Croix River, Wisconsin and Miune-

sota.



7. Minnesota R^ver,Miuuesota.

8. Red River of the North, Minnesota

and Dakota.

9. Constmctlon of lock and dam at Goose

Rapids, Red River of the North,
Minnesota, and Dakota.

10. Surveys for reservoirs at the sources of

the Mississippi, St. Croi:?, Chip-
pewa, and Wisconsin rivers.

11. Missonri River from Sioux City, Iowa,

to Fort Benton, Montana.

12. Yellowstone River, Montana and Da-

kota.



EXAMINATIONS AND SURVEYS.



13. Mississippi Rivet between Saint Panl

and St. Anthony's Falls, Minnesota.

14. Minnesota River, with a view to its

improvement by locks and dams.



15. Red River of the North, Minnesota,
from Moorhead to Fergus Falls.



United States Engineer Office,

Saint Paulj Minn.^ July C, 1888.
Sm: I have the honor to forward herewith reports upon the surveys
and works of river improvement in my charge for the fiscal year ending
June 30, 1888.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

Chas. J. Allen,



The Chief op Engineers, TJ. S. A.



Major of Engineers.



1533



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153G REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEER^, U. S. ARMY.

Z I.

PRESERVATION OF THE FALLS OF ST ANTHONY, MINNESOTA.

The liistory and details of this improvement are given at length in
the last annaal report. Ko work was done daring the past fiscal year,
there being no funds for it.

As there is no navigation at present dependent upon the preserva-
tion of the Falls of St. Anthony, and as Congress has made no ap-
propriation for that purpose since 1884, it seems proper to render no
estimate under this head for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1890.

Total expended under the last [the present] project, including out-
standing liabilities, $405,000.

Total expended under all projects, including outstanding liabilities
and the construction of a log-sluice ordered by act of Congress ap-
proved March 3, 1879, $015,000.

Money statement.

July 1, 188d, outstanding liabilities *t86.83

C Amoant (estimated) required for project 210,000.00

< Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
i harbor acts of 1866 and 1867.



Z2.

CONSTRUCTION OP LOCK AND DAM ON MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT MEEKER'S

ISLAND, MINNESOTA.

The project for this work is given in the Beport of the Chief of En-
gineers for the fiscal year ending Jane 30, ISTi, and the cost estimated
at $922,121.46, the object being to connect with the improvement of the
Mississippi River below Saint Paul, so as to secure steam-boat naviga-
tion up to the Falls of St Anthony.

No improvement of the river between Saint Paul and site of the pro-
posed lock and dam has been authorized by Oongress.

Congress, by act appi'oved July 23, 1868, made a grant of 200,000
acres of public lands to the State of Minnesota to aid in constracting
a lock and dam at this point in accordance with plan and, estimate pre-
viously submitted.

By act approved March 3, 1873, Congress appropriated :

For constraction of the lock and dam on the Mississippi River at Meeker's Island,
Minnesota, according to the surveys and plans of the War Department, $25,000 : Pro-
vided, That all rights and claims m and to the land grant made to the State of Min-
nesota for the above work, by act approved Jnly 23, 1868, shaU be fnlly reHnqnisbed
to the United States before any of this appropriation is expended.

None of this appropriation has been used, the required relinquish-
ment not having been made.

This appropriation, but little more than 2J per cent, of the estimate,
has been lying unused for fifteen years.

A survey of the Mississippi River between Saint Paul and St. An-
thony's Falls, provided for in the river and harbor act of Congress
approved August 5, 1886, was made during the season of 1887. The

* Funds are on hand to pay oatstanding liabilities.

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APPENDIX Z — REPORT OF MAJOR ALLEN. 1537

report of the survey was rendered December 20, 1887^ and printed as
part of Ex. Doc Xo. 168, Bouse of Eepresentatives, Fiftieth Congress,
first session. For statistics reference is respectfully made to that re-
port

Money statement.

July 1, 1S87, amount available, subject to couditioDS in act |25,000. 00

Jaly 1, 16c!8y balance available, subject to conditions in act 25,000. 00

( Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 897, 121.46

/ Sobmitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
( harbor acts of 1866 and lt567.



Z3.

IMPROVEMENT OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER ABOVE FALLS OF* SAINT
ANTHONY, MINNESOTA.

The present project, under which "work has been carried on since and
iDcluding 1880, is based upon the project for the improvement of 252
miles oV the river, from Oonradi's Shoals to Grand Kapids, the latter
the present head of steam- boat navigation ; the estimated cost, $54,127.50,
is given in the report of February 8, 1875, upon part of the Mississippi
transportation routes to the seaboard ; plan of improvement to afiford 3
to 5 feet depth in the channel by removing snags, bowlders, and bars,
and confining the low-water discharge to widths practicable for naviga-
tion by means of wing-dams, where necessary.

This same report estimated the cost of improvement of the river be-
tween the Falls of Saint Anthony and Saint Cloud at $144,667.50 } the
improvement of this section to afford 5 feet depth in the channel at low
water between the Falls and Saint Cloud by removal of sand, gravel,
Hod bowlder bars and the construction of wing-dams. The sum of
120,000 appropriated by act of Congress approved August 14, 1876, was
expended between those places. Prior to the rendition of the report
aud estimate of February 8, 1875, Congress had appropriated, by act
approved June 23, 1874, the sum of $25,000 for improvement of the
river above the Falls of Saint Anthony, which was also expended in
improving the channel between the Falls and Saint Cloud.

Steam-boat navigation having discontinued between the Falls and
Saint Cload, a distance of 78 miles, the third appropriation made by
Congress, that of $15,000 by act approved June 14, 1880, was applied
to the stretch, 165 miles in length, of river between Aitken and Grand
Rapids, which stretch is included within the distance from the Rapids
to Conradi^s Shoals, as have been all subsequent appropriations for im-
proving the river above the Falls of Saint Anthony.

No work towards this improvement was done during the past fiscal
year, there having been no funds for continuing the work, and for the
liame reason none has been done since 3884.

Amount expended on the present project to June 30, 1888, including
outstanding liabilities, $35,000.

Before work of improvement commenced under the present plan the
Htream between Aitken and Grand Bapids was so obstructed by snags,
bowlders, and leaning trees that at low and even high stages of water
navigation was difficult and sometimes almost impossible for steamers
drawing less than 3 feet of water. There is now a general depth in the
improved channels of 3 feet at low water, though many masses of gravel
EKa88 ^97



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1538 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY.

and bowlders yet require to be removed in order to afford safficient
width. Snags form more or less every season, and caving bends fur-
nish leaning trees or sweepers. The movement of ice in the spring also
causes deposit, more or less, of bowlders in ^he channels.

The three completed reservoirs at the heaiiwaters of the Mississippi
Eiver above Grand Eapids may be relied upon henceforth to provide
sufficient depth for the steam-boats on the river at and above Aitken,
but the obstructions, as bowlders, etc , should be removed, as they con-
tract the channel and interfere with the movements of steamers at any
stage of water.

The caving of the banks in many places is due to the powerful wheel
of the steamer Andy Oibsouj which carries passengers, ftiight, and sup-
plies for the lumbermen's camps and settlements, the steamer being too
long over all for the narrow widths and sharp bends which occur on
this part of the stream.

The sum of $15,000 can be profitably expended during the fiscal year
ending June 30, 1890, in continuing the removal of obstructions from
the river between Aitken and Grand Rapids, the piece of river to which
steam-boat navigation above the Falls of Saint Anthony is at present
confined.

There are at present three steamers with barges engaged in freight
and passenger transportation between Aitken and Grand Rapids. The
comparative tables of commercial statistics herewith show that in 1880,
the year in which the work of improvement between Aitken and Grand
Rapids commenced, there was but one steamer (with its barges) plying
between those points, and that though the amount of freight transported
that year by steamer was unusually large, the freight rates were from
75 cents to $1 per 100 pounds } while in 1883, 1884,1885, and 1880 the
rates reduced to 20 to 40 cents per 100 pounds. The last-named figures
obtained in 1886, at which time there were three steam-boats engaged
in freighting and carrying passengers between Aitken and Grand lip-
ids. The country bordering the river north of Aitken is becoming more
and more settled, and there is no doubt that the improvement of the
river already effected by the United States Government has largely
contributed to the increase in settlement.

ThiB work is in the coUectioQ district of MinDesota. Tbe nearest port of entry is
Dnluth, Minn. Collections from all sources during the year ending December 31,
18tf7, $5,290.35 ; value of merchandise ** in transit " trade, $62.415 ; duties on same,
$5'2,205.49; value of domestic exports, $3,888,138.

Abstract of appropriations made for improving Mi$8i8$ippi Hirer above the Falls of Saint

Anthoniff Minnesota,

By act approved —

June 23, 1874 ., •$25,000.00

August 14, 1876 •20,000.00

June 14, 1880 : 15,000.00

March 3, 1881 10,000.00

By act passed August 2, 1882 10.000.00

Total 80,000.00

Original estimates for the work between Grand Rapids and Conradi's Shoals 54, 127. 50

Appropriations by acts —

June 14, 1880 $15,000.00

March3, 1881 10,000.00

August 2, ISfti 10,000.00

35,000.00

Remaining to be appropriated 19,127.50

• Made and expended before the adoption of the present project.



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APPENDIX Z REPORT OF MAJOR ALLEN.



1539



Money statement

Jaly 1, 1887, amount available, inclading outstandiDg liabilities (|3.67) . . $3. 67

July 1, 1888, outstandiDg liabilities 3.67

Amount appropriated by act of August 11, 1888 10,000.00

f Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project, viz,

I improvement between Grand Rapids and Conradi's Shoals 9, 1S7. 50

i Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30,1890 9, 127. GO
I Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
[ harbor acts of 1866 and 1867.

COMMERCIAL STATISTICS.

Cimparatire statement of the steam-boat business on tlie Mississippi JUver between Ailken
and Grand BapidSy of the logs run^ and of the lumber^ shingles^ and lath mtinyfactured
on the river above the Falls of Saint Anthony ^ for a period of eight yearsy Id80-lb87, i«-
(insive.



Year.


Steam-
boats.


Freight
earned.


Paasen-

gere
carried.


Logs ran.




Lumber.


Shingles.


Lath.


IW

1881


Nxmher.

1
I
2
2
2
2


Pounds.
7,874.260
2. 200, 000
3,026,000
2,800,000
16,000,000
6.000,000
3,000,000
3, 710, 400


Number.
1,000
1,540
1,764
1,100
1,346
2.400
3,500
2,881


Feet,B.M.
226,000.000
238,000.000
286,000.000.
420, 000, 000
367,000,000
317,003,000
282,600,000
:285,000,O00


Feet^B.M.
241.157,989



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