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now become the right. In the fire by rank, the firing Avill com-
mence with the front rank, now become the rear.

73. To resume the proper front, the instructor will command :

1. Face by the front rank. 2. Company. 3. About — Face.

74. At the first command, the captain covering sergeant and file
closers will conform to what is proscribed Nos. 60 and 70.

75. At the third command, the company having faced about, the
captain and covering sergeant will resume their places in line.

76. In this lesson, the instructor will impress on the men the
importance of aiming always at some particular object, and of
holding the piece as prescribed irf'the school of the soldier, No.

178.

77. The instructor will recommend to the captain to make a



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 63

short pause between the commanda aim and /ire, to give the men
time to aim with accuracy.

78. The inHtructor will place himself in position to see the two
ranks, in order to detect faults ; he will charge the captain arid file
closers to be equally watchful, and to report to him when the ranka
are at rest. He will remand, for individual instruction, the men
who may be observed to load badly.

79. The instructor will recommend to the soldiers, in the firings,
the highest degree of composure or presence of mind; he will
neglect nothing that may contribute to this end.

80. He will give to the men, as a general principle, to maintain,
in the direct fire, the left heel in its place, in order that the align-
ment of the ranks and files may not be deranged ; and ho will
verify, by examination, after each exei'cise in firing, the observ-
ance of this principle.

81. The instructor will observe, in addition to these remarks, all
those which follow.

82. When the firing is executed with cartridges, it is particularly
recommended that the men observe, in uncocking, whether smoke
escapes from the tube, which is a certain indication that the piece
has been discharged ; but if, on the contrary, no smoke escapee,
the soldier, in such case, instead of reloading, will pick and prime
again. If. believing the load to be discharged, the soldier should
put a second cartridge in his piece, he ought, at least, to perceive
it in ramming, bj' the hight of the load ; and he would bo very-
culpable should he put in a third. The instructor will always
cause arms to be inspected after firing with cartridges, in order to
observe if the fault has been committed, of putting three car-
tridges, without a discharge, in the same piece, in wliich case the
ball screw will be applied.

83. It sometimes happens when a cap has missed fire, that the
tube is found stopped up with a hard, white, and compact powder;
in this case, picking will be dispensed with, and a new' cap substi-
tuted for the old one.

LESSON THIRD.

Akticlk I. — To advance in line of battle.

84. The company being in line of battle, and correctly aligned,
■when the instructor shall wish to exercise it in marching by the
front, he will assure himself that the shoulders of the captain and
covering sergeant are perfectly in the direction f)f their respective
ranks, and that the sergeant accurately covers the captain ; the
instructor will then place himself twenty-five or thirty paces in
front of them, face to the rear, and place liimself exactly on the
prolongation of the line passing between tlteir heels.

85. The instructor, being aligned on th' 'lir<rting file, will
command :

% 1. Company, foricard.

86. At thin, a Aergoant, previously designated, will move six



54 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY.

paces in advance of the captain : the instructor, from the position
prescribed, will correctly align this sergeant on the prolongation
of the directing file.

87. 'This advanced sergeant, who is to be charged with the
direction, will, the moment his position is assured, take two points
on the ground in the sti*aight line which Avould pass between his
own and the heels of the instructor.

88. These dispositions being made, the instructor will step aside,
and command :

2. March.

89. At this, the company Avill step off with life. The directing
sergeant will observe, with the greatest precision, the length and
cadence of the step, marching on the two points he has chosen ; he
will take in succession, and always a little before arriving at the
point nearest to him, new points in advance, exactly in the same
line with the first two, and at the distance of some fifteen or
twenty paces from each other. The captain will march steadily
in the trace of the directing sergeant, keeping always six paces
from him ; the men will each maintain the head direct to the front,
feel lightly the elbow of his neighbor on the side of direction, and
conform himself to the principles, school of the soldier, for the
march by front.

90. The man next to the captain will take special care not to
pass him ; to this end, he will keep the line of his shoulders a little
in the rear, but in the same direction with those of the captain.

91. The file closers will march at the habitual distance of two
paces behind the rear rank.

92. If the men lose the step, the instructor will command :

To the— Step.

93. At this command, the men will glance towards the directing
sergeant, retake the step from him, and again direct their eyes to
the front.

94. The instructor will cause the captain and covering sergeant
to be posted sometimes on the right, and sometimes on the left of
the company.

95. The directing sergeant, in advance, having the greatest
influence on the march of the company, he will be selected for the
precision of his step, his habit of maintaining his shoulders in a
square with a given line of direction, and of prolonging that line
without variation.

96. If this sergeant should fail to observe these princij^les, undu-
lations in the front of the company must necessarily follow ; the
men will be unable to eonti-aet the habit of taking steps equal in
length and swiftness, and of maintaining their shoulders in a
square with the line of direction — the only means of attaining
perfection in the mai'ch in line.

97. The instructor, with a view the better 1» establish the men
in the length and cadence of the step, and in the principles of the



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 5^

inarch in line, will cause the company to advance three or four
hundred paccH, at once, without halting, if the ground will permit.
In the first exercises, he Avill inarch the company with open ranks,
the better to observe the two rankn.

98. The instructor will see, with care, that all the principles of
the march in line arc strictly observed ; he will generally be on
the directing flank, in a position to observe the two ranks, and the
faults they may commit; he will sometimes hjilt behind the direct-',
iug file during some thirty successive steps, in oi"der to judge'
whether the directing sergeant, or the directing file, deviate fvotii^
the perpendicular.

Article II. — To halt the company, marching in line of battle^ and

to align it.

W. The instructor, wishing to halt the company, will command :

1. Company. 2. Halt.

100. At the second command, the company will halt; the direct-
ing sergeant will remain in advance, unless ordered to return to
the line of file closers. The compan}' being at a halt, the instruct-
or may advance the first three or four files on the side of direc-
tion, and align the comjiany on that basis, or he may confine him-*"
self to causing the alignment to be rectified. In this last case, he
will command : Capfaiyi, rectify the alignment. The captain will
direct the covering sergeant to attend to the rear rank, when
each, glancing his eyes along liis rank, will promptl}' rectiry it,
conforming to what is prescribed in the school of the soldier. No.
320.

Article III. — Obliqui: march in line of battle.)

101. The company being in the direct march, when the instruct-
or shall wish to cause it to march obliquely, he will command :

1. Right (or left) oblique. 2. March.

102. At tho command inarch, the company will take the oblique
step. The men will accurately observe the principles prescribed
in the school of the soldier, No. .^,;}1. The rear rank men will pre-
serve their distances, and march in rear of the man next on the
right (or left) of their habitual file leaders.

103. When the instructor wishes the din-et »n;ire}i t'> bo iv^umcd,
he will command:

1. Foruard. 2. Mak< n.

104. At the command mnrch, the company will resume the direct
march. The instructor will move briskly twenty paces in front of
the captain, and facing the company, will place himself exactly in
the prolongation of the captain and covering sergeant; and then,
by a sign, will move the directing sergeant on the same line, if h«
be not already on it; the latter will immediately take two point%|
on the ground between himself and the instructor, and as he ad-
vancoft, will take new points of direction, as is explained 2^0. 89-



s^'



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY.



105. In the oblique march, the men not having the tonch of el-
bows, the guide will aways be on the side toward which the oblique
is made, without an}"^ indication to that effect being given ; and when
the direct march is resumed, the guide will be, equally without
indication, on the side w^iei-e it was previous to the oblique.

106. The instructor will, at first, cause the oblique to be made
toward the side of the guide. He will also direct the captain to
have an eye on the directing sergeant, in order to keep on the same
perpendicular line to the front with him, while following a paral-
lel direction.

107. During the continuance of the march, the instructor will be
watchful that the men follow parallel directions, in conforming to
the principles prescribed in the school of the soldier, for preserv-
ing the general alignment ; whenever the men lose the alignment,
he will be careful that they regain it by lengthening or shortening
the step, without altering the cadence, or changing the direction.

108. The instructor will place himself in front of the company
and face to it, in order to regulate the march of the directing ser-
geant, or the man who is on the flank toward which the oblique is
made, and to see that the principles of the march are properly ob-
served, and that the files do not crowd.

Article IV. — To mark time, to march in double quick time, and the

back step.

109. The company being in the direct march, and in quick time,
the instructor, to cause it to mark time, will command :

1. Mark time. 2. March.

110. To resume the march, he will command :

1. Fonoard. 2. Makch.

111. To cause the march in double quick time, the instructor
will command :

1. Double quick. 2. March.

112. The command inarch will be pronounced at the instant either
foot is coming to the ground.

113. To resume quick time, the instructor will command :

1. Quick time. 2. March.

114. The command march will be pronounced at the instant
either foot is coming to the ground.

115. The company being at a halt, the instructor may cause it to
march in the back step ; to this effect, he will command :

1. Company backward. 2. March.

116. The back step will be executed according to the principles
prescribed in the school of the soldier, No. 247, but the use of it
being rare, the instructor will not cause more than fifteen or twenty
steps to be taken in succession, and to that extent but seldom.

117. The instructor ought not to exercise the company in march-



sc;hooj. of the company. 5f^'

ing in double quick time till the men are well established in the
length and pwiflncss of the pace in quick time; he will then en-
deavor to roiuler the march of one hniuired and eixty-fivo Bteps in
the minute equally easy and familiar, and also cause them to ob-
serve the same erectness of body and composure of mind, as if
marchinif in quick time.

118. When marching in double quick time, if a subdivision (in
a column) has to change direction by turning, or has to form into
line, the men will quicken the pace to one hundred and eighty steps
in a minute. The same swiftness of step will be observed under
all circumstances where great rapidity of movement is required.
But, as ranks of men cannot mai'ch any length of time at so swift
a rat<>, without breaking or confusion, this acceleration Avill not bo
considered a prescribed exercise, and accordingly companies or bat-
talions will only be habitually exercised in the double quick time
of one hundred and sixty -five steps in the minuto.

Articlk V. — To march in retreat.

119. The company being lialted and correctly aligned, when the
instructor shall wish to cause it to march in retreat, he will com-
mand :

1. Company. 2. About — Fack.

120. The company having faced to the rear, the instructor will
plac« himself in front of the directing file, conforming to what is
prescribed, No. 84.

121. The instructor, being correctly- established on the prolon-
gation of the directing file, will command :

3. Company, foricard.

122. At this, the directing sergeant will conform him.s«if to what
is prescribed Nos. 86 and 87, with this ditierence — he will place
himself six paces in front of the line of file closers, now leading.

123. The covering sergeant will step into the line of file closers,
opposite to his interval, and the captain will place himself in the
rear rank, now become the front.

124. This disposition being pi'omptly made, the instructor will
command :

4. March.

125. At this, the directing sergeant, the captain, and the men,
will conform themselves to what is prescribed No. 89, and following.

126. The instructor will cause to be executed, marching in re-
treat, all that is prescribe<l for marching in advance; the com-
mands and the means of execution will be the same.

127. The instructor having halted the company, will, when ho
may wish, cause it to fac« to the front by the commands prescribed
No. 119. The captain, th«! covering sergeant, and the directing
sergeant, will resume their habitual places in line, the moment thoy
shall have faced al>out.

128. The company being in march by the front rank, if the in-



68 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY.



sti'uctor should wish to march in retreat, he will cause the right
about to be executed while marching, and to this effect will com-
mand :

1. Company. 2. JRiyht about. 3. March.

129. At the third command, the company will promptly faco
about, and recommence the march by the rear rank.

130. The directing sergeant will face about with the company^
and will move rapidly six paces in front of the file closers, and
upon the prolongation of the guide. The instructor will place him
in the proper direction by the means prescribed No. 104. The
captain, the covering sergeant, and the men, will conform to the
principles prescribed for the march in retreat.

131. When the instructor wishes the company to march by the
front i-ank, he will give the same commands, and will regulate the
direction of the march by the same means.

132. The instructor will cause to be executed in double quick
time, all the movements prescribed in the 3d, 4th, 5th and 6th lea-
sons of this school, with the exception of the march backwards,
which will be executed only in quick time. He will give the same
commands, observing to add double quid< before the command
march.

133. When the pieces arc carried on the right shoulder, in quick
time, the distance between the ranks will be sixteen inches. AVhen-
ever, therefore, the instructor brings the comjjany from a shoulder
to this position, the rear rank must shorten a little the first steps
in order to gain the prescribed distance, and will lengthen the
steps, on the contrary, in order to close up when the pieces are
again brought to a shoulder. In marching in double quick time

he distance between the ranks will be twenty-six inches, and the
pieces will be carried habitually on the right shoulder.

134. Whenever a company is halted, the men will bring their
pieces at once to a shoulder at the command halt. The i-ear rank,
will close to its proper distance. These rules are general.



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 59



i ( LESSON FOUETH.

Article I. — To march by the flank.

135. The company being in line of battle, and at a halt, when the
instructor shall wish to cause it to .march by the right flank, he
will command :

1. Company, ri{fht—FAc^. 2. Foricard. 3. March.

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136. At the first command, the company will face to the right,
the covering sergeant will place himself at the head of the front
rank, the captain having stepped out for the purpose, so far as to
find himself by the side of the sergeant, and on his left ; the front
rank will double as is prescribed in the school of the soldier, No.
352 ; the rear rank will, at the same time, side step to the right one
pace, and double in the same manner; so that when the move-
ment is completed, the files will be formed of four men aligned, and
elbow to elbow. The intervals will bo preserved.

137. The file closers will also move by side step to the right, so
that when the ranks are formed, they will be two paces from the
rearmost rank.

138. At the command march, the company will move offbri.skly
in quick time ; the covering sergeant at the head of the front rank,
and the captain on his left, will march straight forward. Tho
men of each file will march abreast of their respective front rank
men, heads direct to tiie front ; the file closers will march ojtposite
their places in line of battle.

139. The instructor will cause the ))rincii)lcs of the march by
the flank to lie observed, in placing himself pending the march, as
prescribed in the school of the soldier, No. 357.

140. The instructor will cause the march by the left flunk to be
executed by the same commands, substituting left for rigfU ; the
ranks will double as has been ]»rescribod in thc^cbool for the sol-
dier, No. 354 ; the rear rank will side-step to the left one pa^o bo-
fore doubling.

141. At the instant the company faces to the left, the left guide
will place himself at the head of the front rank ; the captain will



60i'



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY.



pass rapidly to the left, and place himself by the right side of this
guide ; the covering sei-geant will replace the captain in the front
rank, the moment the latter quits it to go to the left.

Article II. — To change direction by file.

142. The company being faced by the flank, and either in march
or at a halt, when the instructor shall wish to cause it to wheel by
file, he will command :

1. By file ^ left, (or right). 2. March.



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143. At the command march, the first file will wheel ; if to the
side of the front rank man, the latter will take care not to turn at
once, but to describe a short arc of a circle, shortening a little the
first five or six steps in order to give time to the fourth man of this
file to conform himself to the movement. If the wheel be to the
side of the rear rank, the front rank man will wheel in the step of
twenty-eight inches, and the fourth man will conform himself to
the movement by describing a short arc of a circle as has been ex-
plained. Each file will come to wheel on the same ground where
that which preceded it wheeled.

144. The instructor will see that the wheel be executed accord-
ing to these principles, in order that the distance between the files
may always be preserved, and that there be no check or hin-
drance at the wheeling point.

Article III. — To halt the company marching by the flank^ and to
face it to the front.

145. To effect these objects, the instructor will command:

1. Company. 2. Halt. 3. Front. .fjft jjj

146. The second and third commands will be executed as pre-"
scribed in the school of the soldier, Nos. 359 and 360. As soon as
the files have undoubled, the rear rank will close to its proper dis-
tance. The captain and covering sei'geant, as well as the left
guide, if the march be by the left flank, will return to their habit-
ual places in line at the instant the company faces to the front.

147. The instructor may then align the company by one of the
means prescribed, No. 100.



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 61

Article IV. — The company hein^ in inarch by the jftank, to form
it on the right (or left) by file into line of battle.

148. If the company be marching by the i-ight flank, the
instructor will command :

1. On the right, by file into line. 2. March.

149. At the command march, the rear rank men doubled will
mark time ; the captain and the covering sergeant will turn to the
right, march straight forward, and be halted by the instructor
when they shall have passed at least six paces beyond the rank of
file closers, the captain will place himself correctly on the line of
battle, and will direct the alignment as the men of the front rank
successively arive; the covering sergeant will place himself behind
the Ciiptain at the distance of the rear rank ; the two men on the
right of the front rank doubled, will continue to march, and pass-
ing beyond the covering sergeant and the captain, will turn to the
right; after turning, they will contiinie to march elbow to elbow,
and direct themselves towards the line of battle, but when they
shall arrive at two paces from this line, the even number will
shorten the step so that the odd number may precede him on the
line, the odd number placing himself by the side and on the left
of the cajitain ; the even number will afterwards oblique to the
left,, and place himself on the left of the odd number; the next
two men of the front rank doubled, will pass in the same manner
behind the two fii'st, turn then to the right, and place themselves,
according to the means just explained, to the left, and by the side
of, the two men already established on the line; the remaining
files of this rank will follow in succession, and be formed to the
left in the same manner. The rear rank doubled will execute the
movement in the manner already explained for the front rank,
taking care not t^) commence the movement until four men of the
front rank aro established on the line of battle ; the rear rank
men, as they arrive on the line, will cover ac<;urately their file
leaders.

150. If the company be marching b}' the left flank, the in-
structor will cause it to form by file on the left into line of battle,
aoc-ording to the same principles and by the same commands, sub-
stituting the indication t-elffor rig/U. In this case, the odd numbers
will short<>n the step, so that the even numbei*s may jirecede them
on the line. The captain, placed on the left of the front rank, and
the left guide, will return to their places in line of battle, bv
order of the instructor, after the company' shall be Ibrmod and
abgnod.

151. To enable the men the better to comprehend themochanism
of this movement, the instnict/ir will at fii-st cause it to be executed
separately liy each rank doubled, and afterwards by the two ranks

• united and doubled.

$' \b2. The instructor will place himself on the lino of battle, and
without the point where the right or left is U) re^t. in order to



rl^



SGHOOL OF THE COMPANY.



establish the base of the alignment, and afterwards, he will follow
up the movement to assure himself that each file conforms itself
to what is jii'escribed No. 149.

Article Y. — The company being in march by the flank, to form
it by company, or by platoon, into line, and to cause it to face to the
right and left in marching.
153. The company being in march by the right flank, the

instructor will order the captain to form it into line ; the captain

will immediately command :

1. By compaixy, into line. 2. March.

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154. At the command march, the covering sergeant will continue
to march straight forward ; the men will advance the right shoul-
der, take the double quick step, and move into line, by the shortest
route, taking care to undoublc the files, and to come on the line
one after the other.

155. As the front rank men successively arrive in line with the
covering sergeant, they will take from him the step, and then turn
their eyes to the front.

156. The men of the rear rank will conform to the movements
of their respective file leaders, but without endeavoring to arrive
in line at the same time with the latter.

157. At the instant the movement begins, the captain will face
f to his company in order to follow up the execution; and, an soon


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Online LibraryUnited States. National Archives and Records ServiArizona → online text (page 6 of 20)