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as the company is formed, he will command, guide left, place him-
self two paces before the center, face to the front, and take the
I ) step of the company.

158. At the command guide left, the second sergeant will promptly
place himself in the front rank, on the left, to serve as guide, and

i the covering sergeant who is on the oppo.sit« flank will remain
(\ there.



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. ^ 63

159. When the company marches by the left flank, thi.s move-
ment will hf executed by the same commands, and according to
the same principles ; the company being formed, the captain will
command gw'de right, and place hin\self in front of his company as
above ; the covering sergeant who is on the right of the front rank
will serve as guide, and the second sergeant placed on the left
flank will remain there.

160. Thus, in a column by com])any, right or left in front, the
covering sergeant and the second sergeant of each company will
Always be placed on the right and left, respectively, of the front
rank ; they will be denominated light guide and left guide., and the
one or the other charged with the direction.

161. The comi^any being in march by the flank, if it be the wish
of the instructor to cause it to i'orm platoons, he will give an order
""JO that eflect U.) the captain, who will command :

1. By platoon, into line. 2. March.

162. The movement will be executed by each platoon according
to the above principles. The cai)tain will ])lace himself l)efore the
center of the first platoon, and the first lieutenant before the cen-
ter of the second, ])assiiig through the opening made in the cent<!r
of the company, if the march be by the right flank, and around
the left of his platoon, if the march be by the left; in this last case
the captain will also pass around the left of tho second platoon in
order to place himself in front of the first. Both the captain and
lieutenant, without waiting for each other, will command guide left
(or right) at the instant their i-espective ]>latoons are formed.

16:J. Atthe command guide, left (or light) the guide of each p^a-
toon will pa^iK rapidly to the iiidicjited flank' of the platoon, if not
already there.

164. The riglit guide of the company will always servo as the
guide of the right or left of the fii'st platoon, and the left guide of
the company will serve, in like manner, as the guide of the second
•platoon.

165. Thus in a column, by }ilatoon, there will be but one gJiide
to each platoon ; hci will always be placed o)i its left flank, if the
right bo in fr(»nt, and on the right flank, if the left be in front.

166. In these movements the file closers will follow the platoons
to which they are att-ached.

167. The instructor will cause the company, marching by tlie
flank, to form by company, ur by platoon, into line, by his own
dir^'t commands, using those ]irescribed for the captain. No. 15H
or 161. '

HiH. The instructor will e.xi rii^e the (;om])any in passing, witli-
ont a halt, from the march by the front, to the march by the flank,
and nH'iprocally. In either case, he will employ the commands
proscriltf<l in the Sch(K>l of the Soldier, No. HfJiJ, sul)stituting eom-
pony for nqvad. Tlu^ company will fac(^ to the riglit or h-fl in
•narching, and the cnptnin. the guides, and flle closers will fonforni
tH^msolvVj* to ivhat is )>rcs<riltrd for (dch in tlw m.-u'i It by thr



64



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY.



flank, or in the march by the front of a company supposed to be
a subdivision of a column.

169. If, after facing to the right or left, in marching, the com-
pany find itself faced by the I'ear rank, the captain will place him-
self two paces behind the center of the front i"ank, now in the rear,
the guides will pass to the rear rank, now leading, and the file
closers will march in front of this rank.

170. The instructor, in order to avoid fatiguing the men, and to
prevent them from being negligent in the position of shoulder arms,
will sometimes order support arms in marching by the flank, and
arms on the right shoulder, when marching in line.

LESSON FIFTH.

Article I. — To break into column by platoon, either at a halt or in

march.

171. The company being at a halt, in line of battle, the instruc-
tor, wishing to break it into column, by platoon to the right, will
command :

1. By platoon, right wheel. 2. March.








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SI Cb iS E B £ □

172. At the first command, the chiefs of platoon will rapidly
place themselves two paces before the centers of their respective
platoons, the lieutenant passing around the left of the compan3\
They need not occupy themselves with dressing, one upon the
other. The covering sergeant will replace the captain in the front
rank.

173. At the command march, the right front rank man of each
platoon will face to the right, the covering sergeant standing fast;
the chief of each platoon will move quickly by the shortest line, a
little beyond the point at which the marching flank will rest when
the wheel shall be completed, tace to the late rear, and place him-
self so that the line which he forms with the man on the right
(who had faced,) shall be perpendicular to that occupied by the
company in line of battle; each platoon will wheel according to
the principles prescribed for the wheel on a fixed pivot, and when
the man who conducts the marching flank shall approach near to
the perpendicular, its chief will command :

1. Platoon. 2. Halt.

174. At the command halt, which will be given at the inetint



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 65

the man who conducta the marching flank shall havo arrived at
three paces from tlio perpendicular, the platoon will halt; the cov-
ering sergeant will move to the point where the left of the first
platoon is to rest, passing by the front rank; the second sergeant
will place himself, in like manner, in respect to the second pla-
toon. Each will take care to leave between himself and the man
on the right of his platoon, a space equal to its front ; the caj)tain
and first lieutenant will look to this, and each take care to align
the sergeant between himself and the man of the platoon who had
faced to the right.

175. The guide of each platoon being thus established on the
perpendicular, eacli chief will place himself two paces outside of
his guide, and facing towards him, will command :

3. Left — Dress.

176. The alignment being ended, each chief of ])latoon will com-
mand, Front, and place himself two paces before its center.

177. The file closers will conform themselves to the movement
of their respective platoons, preserving always the distance of two
paces from the rear rank.

178. The company will break by platoon to the left, according
to the same principles. The instructor will command :

1. By platooji, left wheel. 2. March.

17i). The first command will be executed in the same manner an
if breaking by platoon to the right.

180. At the command march, the left front rank man of each
platoon will face to the left, and the platoons will wheel to the left,
according to the principles prescribed for the wheel on a fixed
pivot; the chiefs of platoon will confonn to the principles indica-
ted Nos. 173 and 174.

181. At the command halt, given by the chief of each j)latoon,
the covering sergeant on the right of the front rank of the first
platoon, and the second sergeant near the left of the second pla-
toon, will each move to the points where the right of his platoon
is to rest. The chief of each ])Iatoon should be careful to align
the sergeant between himseltVind the man of the platoon who had
faced to the left, and will then command :

Rigid — ^Dress.

182. The platoons being aligned, each chief of ])latoon will com-
mand Front, and place himself opposite its center.

183. The instructor wishing to break the company by platoon
to the right and to move the column forward after the wheel is
completed, will caution the company to that cffVict, and command :

1. By platoon^ right wheel. 2. March.

184. At the first comraand the chio& of platoon will move rapidly
in front of their rospoctivc platoons, conforming to what haa been
proscribed No. 172, and will remain in this position during the



66 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY.

continuance of the wheel. The covering sergeant will replace the
chief of the first platoon in the front rank.

185. At the command march, the platoons will wheel to the right,
conforming to the principles herein prescribed ; the man on the
pivot will not face to the right, but will mai'k time, conforming
himself to the movement of the marching flank ; and when the
man who is on the left of this flank shall arrive near the perpen-
dicular, the instructor will command :

3. Forward. 4. March. 5. Guide left.

186. At the fourth command, which will be given at the instant
the wheel is completed, the platoons will move straight to the front,
all the men taking the step of twenty-eight inches. The covering
Bergeant and the second sergeant will move rapidly to the left of
their respective platoons, the former passing before the front rank.
The leading guide will immediately take points on the ground in
the direction which may be indicated to him by the instructor.

187. At the fifth command, the men will take the touch of
elbows lightly to the left.

188. If the guide of the second platoon should lose his distance,
or the line. of direction, he will conform to the principles herein
prescribed, Nos. 202 and 203.

189. If the company be marching in line to the front, the in-
structor will cause it to break by platoon to the right by the same
commands. At the command march, the platoons will wheel in the
manner already explained ; the man on the pivot will take cai-e to
mark time in his place, without advancing or rece(?ling ; the in-
structor, the chiefs of platoon, and the guides, will conform tO'
what ha« been prescribed Kos. 184 and following.

190. The company may be broken by platoons to the left, ac-
cording to the same princijDles, and by inverse mean^, the instructor
giving the commands prescribed Nos. 183 and 185, substituting
left for right, and reciprocally.

191. The movements explained in Nos. 183 and If 9 will only be
executed after the company has become well established in the
principles of the march in column, Articles Second and Third.

Remarks.

192. The instructor, placed in front of the company, will observe
whether the movement be executed according to the principles pi-e-
scribed above ; whether the platoons, after breaking into column,
are perpendicular to the line of battle just occupied ; and whether
the guide, who placed himself where the marching flank of his
platoon had to rest, has left, between himself and the front rank man
on the right (or left), the space necessary to contain the front of
the platoon.

193. After the platoons have broken, if the rearmost guard should
not accurately cover the leading one, he will not seek to correct
his position till the column be put in march, unless the instructor
wishing to wheel immediately into line, should think it necessary



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 67

to rectify the direction of the guides, which would be executed as
will be hereinafter explained in Article Fifth of this Lesson.

194. The instructor will obsei've, that the man on the right (or
left) of each platoon, who, at the command anarch, faces to the
right (or left) being the true pivot of the wheel, the front rank
man next to him ought to gain a little ground to the front in wheel-
ing, 80 as clear the pivot-man.

Article II. — To march in column.

195. The company having broken by platoon, right {oy left) in
front, the instructor, wishing to cause the column to march, will
throw himself twenty-five or tdiirty paces in front, face to the
guides, place himself correctly, on their direction, and caution the
leading guide to take points on the ground.

196. The instructor being thus placed, the guide of the leading
platoon will take two points on the ground in the straight line
passing between his own and the heels of the instructor. ^

197. These dispositions being made, the instructor will step aside
and command :

1. Column ^ forward. 2. Guide left (or right). 3. March.

198. At the command march, promptly repeated by the chiets of
platoon, they, as well as the guides, will lead off, by a decided step,
their respective platoons, in order that the wliole may move
smartly, and at the same moment.

199. The men will each fi-el lightly the elbow of his neighbor
toward the guide, and conform himself, in marching, to the prin-
ciples prescribed in the school of the soldier, No. 327. The man
next to the guide, in each platoon, will take care never \o pass
him. and also to march alwaj's about six inches to the right (or
lefl) from him, in order not to push him out of the direction.

200. The leading guide will observe, with the greatest precision,
the length and cadence of the stvp, and maintain the direction of
his march by the means prescribed No. 89.

201. The following guide will march exactly in the trace of the
leading one, preserving between the latter and himself a distance
precisely equal to the front of his platoon, and marching in the
same step with the leading guide.

202. If the followi?ig guide lose his distance from the one lead-
ing, "(which can only liap}ten by his own fault,) he will correct
himself by slightly' lengthening or shortening a few stejts, in or-
der that there may not be sudden quickenings or slackenings in
the march of his platoon.

203. If the same guide, having neglected to march exactly in
the trace of the preceding one, find himself sensibly out of the di-
rection, ho will remedy tiiis fault by advancing more or less the
shoulder opposite to the true direction,^and thus, in a few steps, in-
sensibly regain it, without the inconvenience of the oblique step,
which would cause a loss of distiince. In all cases, each chief of
platoon will c.au8e it to conform to the movements of its guide.



68 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY.

Remarks on the viarch in column.

204. If the chiefs and guides of subdivisions neglect to lead off
and to decide the march from the first step, the march will be be-
gun in uncertainty, which will cause waverings, a loss of step and
a loss of distance.

205. If the leading guide take unequal steps, the march of his
subdivision, and that which follows will be uncertain; there will
be undulations, quickenings, and slackenings in the march.

206. If the same guide be not habituated to prolong a given di-
rection, without deviation, he will describe a ci-ooked line, and the
column must wind to conform itself to such line.

207. If the following guide be not habituated to march in the
trace of the preceding one, he will lose his distance at every mo-
ment in endeavors to regain the trace, the preservation of which
is the most important principle in the march in column.

208. The guide of each subdivision in column will be responsi-
ble for the direction, distance and step; the chief of the subdivi-
sion, for the order and conformity of his subdivision with the
movements of the guide. Accordingly, the chief will frequently
turn, in the march, to observe his subdivision.

209. The instructor, placed on the flank of the guides, will watch
over the execution of all the j)i'inciples prescribed ; he will, also,
sometimes place himself in the rear, align himself on the guides,
and halt, pending some thirty paces together, to verify the accu-
racy of the guides.

210. In column, chiefs of subdivision will always repeat, with
the greatest promptitude, the commands march and halt, no chief
waiting for another, but each repeating the command the moment
he catches it from the instructor. They will repeat no other com-
mand given by him; but will explain, if necessary, to their subdi-
visions, in an under tone of voice, what they will have to execute,
as indicated by the commands of caution.



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY.



69



Article III. — To change direction.




211. Tlio changes of direclion of a column while marching, will
be executed according to the principles prescribed for wheeling on
the march. AVlienever, therefore, a column is to diange direction,
the inntructor will change the guide, if not already there, to the
flank opposite the nide to which the change is to be made.

212. The column being in march right in front, if it be the wish
of the instructor to change direction to the right, he will give the
order to the chief of tlie first platoon, and immediately go himBclf,
or send a marker to the point at which the change of direction is
to bo made ; the instructor, or marker, will place himself on the
direction of the guides, so as to present the breast to that flank of
the column.

213. The leading guide will direct hie march on tliat person, so
that, in passing. Ins left arm may just graze his breast. When the
leading guide shall have approached near to the marker, the chief
of his platoon will command :



70 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY.

1. Bight wheel. 2. March.

214. The first command will be given when the platoon is at the
distance of four paces from the marker.

215. At the command march, which will bo pronounced at the
instant the guide shall have arrived opposite the marker, the pla-
toon will wheel to the right, conforming to what is prescribed in
the school of the soldier, No. 396.

216. The wheel being finished, the chief of each platoon will
command :

3. Forward. 4. March.

217. These commands will be pronounced and executed a,s is
prescribed in the school of the soldier, Nos. 398 and 399. The
guide of the first platoon will take points on the ground in the new
direction, in order the bettor to regulate the march.

218. The second platoon will continue to march straight forward
till up with the marker, when it will wheel to the right, and
retake the direct march by the same commands and the same
means which governed the first platoon.

219. The column being in march right in front, if the instriictor
should wish to change direction to the left, he will command, guide
right. At this command, the two guides will move rapidly to the
right of their respective jjlatoons, each passing in front of his
subdivision ; the men will take the touch of elbows to the right ;
the instructor will afterwards conform to what is proscribed No.
212.

220. The change of direction to the left will then be executed
according to the same principles as the change of direction to the
right, but by inverse ineans.

221. When the change of direction is completed, the instructor
will command, guide left.

222. The changes of direction in a column, left in front, will be
executed according to the same principles.

223. In changes of direction in double quick time, the platoons
will wheel according to the principles prescribed in the school of
the soldier, No. 404.

224. In order to prepare the men for those formations in line,
which can be executed only by turning to the right or the left, the
instructor will sometimes cause the column to change direction to
the side of the. guide. In this case, the chief of the leading
platoon will command : Left (or right) turn, instead of left (or
right) wheel. The subdivisions wnll each turn, in succession, con-
forming to what is prescribed in the school of the soldier. No. 402.
The leading guide, as soon as ho has turned, will take points on
the ground, the better to regulate the direction of the march.

225. It is highly important, in order to preserve distances and
the direction, that all the subdivisions of the column should change
direction precisely at the point where the leading subdivision
changed ; it is for this reason that that point ought to be marked



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. . 71

in advance, and that it is prescribed that the guides direct their
march on the marker, also that each chief of subdivision shall not
cause the change to commence till the guide of liis subdivision has ■
grazed the breast of this marker.

226. Each chief will take care that his subdivision arrives at the
point of change in a square with the line of direction ; with this
view, he will face to his su])division when the one which precedes
has commenced to turn or to wheel, and he will be watchful that it
continues to march squarely until it arrives at the point where
the change of direction is to commence.

227. If, in changes of direction, the pivot of the subdivision which
wheels should not clear the wheeling point, the next subdivision
would be arrested and distances lost; for the guide who conducta
the marching flank having to describe an arc, in length about a
half greater than the front of the subdivision, the second subdi-
vision would be already up with the wheeling point, whilst the
first which wheels has yet the half of its front to execute, and
hence would be obliged to mark time until that half be executed.
It is therefore prescribed, that the pivot of each subdivision should
take steps of nine or eleven inches in length, according to the
swiftness of the gait, in oi'der not to arrest the march of the next
subdivision. The chiefs of subdivision will look well to the step
of the pivot, and cause his step to be lengthened or shortened as
may be judged necessary. By the nature of this movement, the
center of each subdivision will bend a little to the rear.

228. The guides will never alter the length or the cadence of the
step, whether the change of direction be to the side of the guide or
to the opposite side.

229. The marker, placed at the wheeling point, will always pre-
sent his breast to the flank of the column. The instructor will
take the greatest pains in causing the prescribed principles to be
observed; he will see that each subdivision only commences the
change of direction when the guide, grazing the breast of the
marker, has nearly passed him, and, that the marching flank does
not describe the arc of too large a circle, in order that it may not
be thrown beyond the new dii«cction.

230. In change of direction by wheel, the guide of the wheeling
flank will cast his eyes over the ground at the moment of com-
mencing the wheel, and will describe an arc of a circle whose
radius is equal to the front of the subdivision.

Article IV. — To holi the column.

231. The column being in march, when the ini?tructor shall wish
to halt it, he will command :

1. Column. 2. Halt.

232. At the second command, promptly repeated by the chie&
of platoon, the column will halt; the guides will also stand fa«t,
although they may have lost both distance and direction.



^



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY.



233. If the command halt^ be not repeated with the greatest
vivacity,, and executed at the same instant, distances will be lost.

234. If a guide, having lost his distance, seek to recover it after
that command, he will only throw his fault on the following guide,
who, if he have marched well, will no longer be at his proper
distance ; and if the latter regain what he has thus lost, the move-
ment will be propagated to the rear of the column.

Article V. — Being in column by platoon, to form to the right or
left into line of battle, either at a halt or on the march.

235. The instructor having halted the column, right in fi-ont,
and wishing to form it into line of battle, will place himself at
platoon distance in front of the leading guide, face to him, and
rectify, if necessary, the position of the guide beyond ; which
being executed, he will command :

Left — Dress.

236. At this command, which will not be repeated by the chiefs
of platoon, each of them will place himself briskly two paces out-
side of his guide, and direct the alignment of the platoon perpen-
dicularly to the direction of the column.

237. Each chief having aligned his platoon, will command
Front, and retui'n quickly to his place in column.

238. This disposition being made, the instructor will command i

1. Left into line, wheel. 2. March.

239. At the command march, briskly repeated by the chiefs of
platoon, the front rank man on the left of each platoon will face to
the left, and place his bi-east lightly against the arm of the guide
by his side, who stands fast ; the platoons will wheel to the left on
the principle of wheels from a halt, and in conformity to what is
prescribed No. 194. Each chief will turn to his platoon, to observe
its movement, and when the marching flank has approached near
the line of battle, he will command :

1. Platoon. 2. Halt.

240. The command halt, will be given when the marching flanlr
of the platoon is three paces from the line of battle.


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