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tain a uniform stream for an indefinite
period. Consequently, in a njajoritv of
instances, where there is a motor engine
used with steamers, the motor machine
will throw from 1000 to 2000 gallons of
water on the fire before serviceable
streams can be gotten from the steamers,
and that supply of water will often hold
in check most effectively a blaze until
steam engines arrive with reinforce-

The question naturally comes up,
"What is the life of a motor fire engine?"
It is not yet practically determined. But
it may be fairly estimated. The average
fire apparatus will travel approximately
from 250 to 300 miles in a year in cities
of about 60,000 population, or nearly
6000 miles in twenty years; while the
motor apparatus, not being taken out to
"exercise" twice a week, travels from 120
to 150 miles a year. Not only that, but
to estimate from a ten-year average of
the steamer's fire-pumping, I figure out
that a motor fire engine will have to
pump for only about ten hours per year,
therefore, judging from the mileage and
endurance of the touring car which I use
in responding to alarms, inspecting build-
ings, visiting fire stations, etc., a car yet
giving excellent service, which has trav-
ersed 4500 miles in the past year, and
fully 17,000 miles in the past four years,
I see no reason, as the motor apparatus

The Architect and Engineer


Unique AJverlising i'c/ifme Dciisi'd by Manager H. H'. Force, of the California Corrugated Culvert


is constructed alonpf lines for practical
fire service, and is built much stronger
than the average car used by chiefs, why
the motor apparatus should not, with no
more repairing than the ordinary steam
apparatus, serve effectively for ten or
fifteen years. This is an estimate which
I make from practical observation.

The Charleston department has used a
motor tire engine for over nine months
with satisfactory results. This engine was
built by the Webb Motor Fire Apparatus
Company, and is a ninety-horsepower,
six-cylinder Thomas motor machine,
equipped with a rotary pump of a capac-
ity of 800 eallons per minute at plug
pressure; it carries a crew of eight men,
1000 feet of hose, axes, ladders, extin-
gfuishers, pipes, etc.. and has been in
commission since October 1, 1910. It
has not failed to respond to any fire,
and has answered sixty-six alarms and
traveled ninetv-three miles, pumping at
fires nine hours and fifty-one minutes.
The cost to maintain this machine, for
gasoline, cylinder oil, grease, spark plugs,
recharging storage batteries, etc., has
been $52.10, or 19 cents a day. The tires
show no material wear, and have vet to
experience their first blow-out or punc-

To accomplish this motor engine's
work for nine months, using horses,
would require four animals, which cost
to maintain, for oats, hay, veterinary
services, harness repairing and shoeing,
about $15 per month per horse, a total
of $540 for nine months. Coal for boiler
would cost $15 per month, or $136 for
nine months. This means a maintenance
cost of $675 for the steamer. Compari-
son shows a saving to the city of Charles-
ton of $622.70 in nine months in the use
of the motor apparatus.

We also save the salaries of two driv-
ers, one on the steam engine and one on
the hose wagon, and of a stoker, at $65

per month each, or a total of $1755 for
nine months. Of the four engine and
hose wagon horses, worth $300 apiece,
one is lost by death, accident or unfitness
for service every three or four years,
making an additional cost of $100 per
year. In comparison of totals for nine
months' use of two types of apparatus
there appears a balance in favor of the
motor engine of $2,447.90 in nine months,
or $3,303.72 in a year. Think of a saving
like this in nine months, and you cannot
but agree with me that the motor ap-
paratus is wonderfully economical. I
have not in my comparison of mainte-
nance cost included repair expenses for
either apparatus, estimating that this
item of upkeep will average about the
same for each.

While the first cost of the self-pro-
pelled apparatus is greater than that of
the horse-drawn equipment, the differ-
ence is made up in a short time after
purchasing the motor engine by low
maintenance and operating expense. Yet
it appears to me that the economy of the
motor engine is a minor argument in its
favor, for, after all, it is efficiency we
want, and I believe that you will all con-
cede that quick action is the most essen-
tial feature in fire fighting, and when we
take into consideration the fact that the
motor apparatus will make a run in less
than half the time required by the steam
engine, then it is that its real value comes
home to us.

With these advantages of the motor
fire engine in view, not to mention others
that could readily be cited, when we con-
sider its facility for speedy response to
alarms, its ability to respond to any num-
ber of alarms in close succession, its
quick water-throwing power, and its ca-
pacity for long service, we can but feel
compelled to advise the installation of
one or more pieces of auto apparatus by
every fire department.


The Architect and Engineer

I would advise cities planning to place
motor apparatus in their fire departments
to station this apparatus alone with the
horse-drawn equipment in the congested
business districts, and have it respond
to some of the calls from the outskirts
as well. That method is the quickest
and best wav to try the auto engine out
and to overcome any difficulties that ex-
perience might anticipate.

And now a word about the care of the
motor engine. Proper lubrication is one
of the most essential factors for good
service. The very best lubricants should
be used, care being taken that the engine
oil contains as little carbon as possible, a
result obtained principally by filtration.
The transmission oils and grease for the
running gear should be free from acid.
Strained gasoline of the best quality
should be used, for the cheaper grades
produce carbon. The tires should be
given the best of attention, and be keot
properly inflated at all times, cuts being
treated with cement preparation, as this
adds to the life of the tires, which, when
properly inflated, are less susceptible to

Driving a motor engine at a speed
greater than twenty miles an hour
through city streets does not pay, as the
small amount of time saved by fast driv-
ing does not warrant the risk of acci-
dents incurred. In regard to the men
who handle the engine, I have found that
it does not require experts. Any cool,
sober man. with ordinary common sense,
and with some knowledge of machinery,
can learn to drive and operate a motor
engine with the training of some two or
three weeks.

In conclusion, I wish to say that I feel
that Charleston is well pleased with the
motor fire engine. As a matter of fact,
I have recommended that our city order
a motor combination chemical and hose
wagon in the near future. But the motor
apparatus has not reached its fullest de-

velopment, as a matter of course. The
motor fire engine pump, as constructed
today, while giving excellent service and
no trouble, can, I believe, and will be
improved upon shortly, so that the
vvater-throwing caoacity of the motor en-
gine will compare favorably with a first-
size steamer. Manufacturers of fire ao-
paratus in this country have been watch-
ing carefully the progress of the gasoline
motor fire engine for the express purpose
of introducing this type of aponratus into
fire departments, and thev will no doubt
soon see that the pump is brought to its
proper power. I would advise you not
to discard steam engines, but to keep
them all, and as soon as opportunitv
offers, to put in one or two pieces of
motor apparatus, and give the auto en-
gine type a fair trial, arriving at your
own conclusions as to its value.

Boston Uses Soap and Oil

The cit)' of Boston is now sprinkling
the entire city with an emulsion of as-
phaltic oil made by dissolving 25 pounds
soan in 100 gallons of hot water and
mixing this with 200 gallons oil. One
hundred gallons of this emulsion is di-
luted with 500 gallons of water in the
wagon and spread, using an ordinary
Studebaker watering cart. The first ap-
plication is followed by a second in four
days, after which the street is gone over
again once in from fifteen to thirty-five
days, depending upon the weather and
conditions. This was found to give excel-
lent results, both as to laying the dust
and preserving the roads. Last year the
amount of dust swent from the streets
was reduced 50 per cent. The only ob-
jectionable feature is the condition of
the road for the first two or three davs
after sprinkling, as the heavy black oil
forms clots which are picked up by car-
riage wheels, etc. After it is beaten
down, however, the roads have a smooth,
hard, and clean surface.








•DOUGLAS -1773-

The Architect and Engineer


Economy of Concrete Bridges

A miinicipalitv in New Hampshire re-
cently obtained a satisfactory concrete
bridge for le<;s than $75,000 after being
tola it would cost from $150,000 to
$225,000. It is altogether likely, says
Cement Age, that many individuals, if
not communities, have been deceived bv
superficial cost estimates of this charac-
ter. Had these New Hampshire tax-
payers accepted the first statements with-
out question, they would have had a
steel bridge costing almost as much as
concrete, plus an annual maintenance tax
that would soon exceed the difference in
the first cost of the two types, and a tax
that would continue indefinitely, or dur-
in"- the life of the bridge. It is the
popular impression that concrete always
costs more than other materials, but the
situation has been entirely reversed in
more than one instance. Especially has
this been the case in bridge construction.
In the case of a certain bridge in Phila-
delphia, concrete was substituted for
steel at half the cost of the steel. This
was an unusual case, perhaps; but ev^n
at anything like eaual first cost, concrete
has the advantage of low maintenance
charges. Furthermore, the labor and
materials, except perhaps cement, are
usually obtained in the locality, thus
keeping in the community a large share
of the money expended. Therefore, as
a matter of precaution, cost estimates on
concrete should never be accepted as
final, unless made by an engineer or con-
tractor thoroughly conversant with the
subject and entirely free from all preju-
dice against concrete.

Best Pavement for Steep Grade

L. S. Cooper, city engineer of Yonkers,
N. Y., writes to 5lunicipal Engineering
as follows: "I note in your issue an in-
quiry as to the best material for a street

improvement from a safety point of view
with a grade of 10 per cent. Perhaps our
experience in Yonkers, which is a very
hillv city, may help answer this inquiry.
"We have tried all the standard pave-
ments except wood, and we find that
p-ranite is too slippery for grades over 8
per cent. We use macadam on most of
our hilly streets, but we have had very
satisfactory results with bitulithic on
grades up to II per cent. One street
paved with bitulithic on this grade is now
ten years old and in good order. The
only thing that has been done to it since
it was laid, was to cover with coarse
screenings the first year or two where the
bitumen showed a tendency to work to
the surface in very warm weather. For
light traffic I consider this pavement
excellent up to 10 per cent grades, and I
know of none better."

Good Roads Notes.

Good roads contribute to the glory of
the country, give employment to idle
workmen, distribute the necessaries of
life, the products of the fields, the forests
and factories, encourage energy and
make mankind better, greater and
grander. * » »

An officer of the Ohio Good Roads
Federation expresses the situation tersely
in the following words:

"The cry for good roads in Ohio, once
a feeble wail, is now taking on the pro-
portions of a roar. .Ml interests are
beginning to see that Ohio must join the
procession of modern States and improve
its highways in order to boost its agri-
cultural, bring down the cost of living
in the cities and give the farmer a
chance to market his goods when the
time is ripe, and not be compelled, be-
cause of mud holes, to pass up good
prices and wait for weather that will
dry water-soaked highways."



Bonds and Casualty Insurance for Contractors

"~ rc"l472

I Kcarnv I4S2




Plumbing and Electrical Work

Heating Homes in a Way to Insure

I WISH to make a little talk to the
' architects concerning the subject of
the heating of residences. There is noth-
ing more valuable to an arhcitect in his
profession than to keep up with the latest
developments in the construction of
buildings provided those developments
are along sound, safe and conservative

I believe that the time has now arrived
in the United States when there will be
increasing attention paid to the ventila-
tion of residences, and I believe that the
architect who is up to the times will
certainly specialize in the future along
the line of ventilating — -the human habi-
tations which he plans and erects for his

There are but two methods of heating
that lend themselves to ventilation as a
part of the heating proposition — direct
heating on the one hand and indirect
heating on the other. Indirect heating
consists of pouring warm air into the
apartments of a building for the sake of
warming them. Direct heating means
the heating of the apartments by means
of radiators — hot surfaces located in the
rooms to be heated. Direct radiation
heating I am convinced will not be the
permanent form of heating that will be
applied in residences or in any other
buildings for that matter.

'Extracts from an address by Chas. S. Prizer at
Seventh Annual Convention National Association
of Sheet Metal Contractors.

Steam and hot water heating have their
proper place but in their direct form
they are unsanitary because they involve
a negation of ventilation. It is impossi-
ble to heat a building by direct radiation
located in the rooms thereof and at the
same time ventilate that building. It is
impossible to have a healthful winter
climate in your home provided that home
is heated by any form of direct heating,
be it stoves, radiators or any other meth-
od of direct heating. Therefore the sj'S-
tem of heating that ought to be applied
to residences is indirect heating.

There are but two practicable meth-
ods of ventilation that can be secured
through indirect heating. The one is
indirect steam heating where the stacks
are located underneath the rooms to be
heated, and the air is poured over them
into the apartments to be heated and
necessarily in heating the apartments you
are changing the air in the room con-

The other method is that of the warm
air heater or the warm air furnace meth-
od of heating. These two methods are
equally meritorious if they are each one
right, with this difference — a modern re-
finement of heating which will probably
grow as people get to a fuller under-
standing of the hj'gienic principles in-
volved is the humidification of air in
rooms artificially heated. Indirect steam
heating does not readily adapt itself to
the artificial humidification of the air.
That artificial humidification can be had
verv much better in connection with fur-

High Grade
Electrical Installation Work

Suttp Sngtnwrtng $c EUrtrir QIa.

683 -Bar ij^omarfi &trrrt
&an STraiiriaro


When writing to Advertisers mention this Magazine,

The Architect and Engineer


nace heatingr. but with that eliminated
there may he said to be no difference as
to the merits of heating a building indi-
rectly by steam or by tlie warm air fur-
nace method, provided both are well
done. However, there is this very great
diflference^a complete indirect system of
steam heating is very costly to the in-
staller. Most indirect work that is done
in residence heating today only applies
to some rooms in the building; whereas
it is oerfectly apparent the sleeping
chambers and baths and all of the differ-
ent apartments in a house should be

Steam indirect beating is expensive to
install and it is proportionately even
more expensive to operate, the fuel cost
being at least double the fuel cost of
operating a warm air furnace heating
plant; in fact, complete indirect steam
residence beating is so expensive as a
projjosition that it does not apply to a
great majority of the houses that are
built from year to year in the United
States, and even well-to-do people when
they know what it costs to install and
to maintain, are reluctant to put them-
selves under the burden of that expense,
but warm air furnace beating, if it be
properly done, fulfills every hygienic and
scientific requirement of the perfect heat-
ing and ventilating plant. It is reasona-
ble in its first cost, for you can do an

absolutely first installation of warm-air
furnace heating in connection with for-
mal ventilation at no greater expense to
the owner of the building than he would
pay for a system of direct steam radia-
tion heating which is unscientific, un-
hygienic and indefensible. At the same
time one has every advantage that he
could possibly get from the more ex-
pensive methods, provided the installa-
tion is correct, the apparatus is what it
ought to be and the proportioning of the
whole system is right, and that, by the
wav. is a very large proviso.

Big Concrete Bridge.

The engineering firm of Waddell &
Harrington of Kansas City, has been
awarded a contract by the city council
of Pasadena to prepare plans for the new
reinforced concrete bridge to be built
across the Arroyo Seco at Colorado
street. The city of Pasadena has voted
bonds in the sum of $100,000 and the
board of supervisors will appropriate an
additional $100,000 for the project. Of
this sum of $10,000 will be used for engin-
eering fees, leaving $190,000 for the actual
construction work on the bridge. The
contract with the engineers provides that
the plans be completed in 40 days and it
is hoped to begin actual work within 90

A good Tin Roof affords many advantages

Scott's Extra Coated

Hammered Open Hearth

Roofing: Tin

This Plate has a base of the purest practical
quality and a rich and heavy coating thoroughly
amalgamated, a standard throughout the country
for many years. Write for full information


Geo. S. Lacy, Marvin BIdg. Phone Douglas 4497
General Office: Pittsburgh, Pa.

When writing to Advertisers please mention this Magazine.


The Architect and Engineer






New wrinkle" Pull and Key Sockets
' perkins" push button switches


San Francisco Architects Are Busy

The election of Rolph has created an
easier and more hopeful feeling in San
Francisco banking, real estate and build-
ing circles, and the building outlook is
brighter than for many months.

Architect L. B. Button has completed
plans for a $70,000 apartment house to be
erected at California and Hyde streets,
for J. Warren Button, of Sacramento.

Architects Welch & Carey have a
$35,000 anartment house and a two-story
reinforced convent to be erected at Liv-

Arhitecct B. C. Coleman has made
plans for a $75,000 . class C apartment
house to be erected by William Helbing,
the well known contractor.

Architect Charles Peter Weeks has a
hotel to be erected on New Montgomery
street, and a store and loft building for
Second and Howard streets.

Architect Henry C. Smith has several
apartment flats and a six-story class C

Architect William H. Weeks has a
two-storv class A building for Br. Way-
land, to be erected on Post street ad-
joining the Mechanics Library building.
This structure will eventually be nine
stories high.

Architects Cunningham & Politeo
have a large reinforced concrete garage
to be erected on Van Ness avenue.

.\rchitect G. A. Lansburgh has a seven-
story hotel, a two-story brick warehouse
and several smaller jobs.

Architects Righetti & Headman have
a seven-story reinforced concrete hotel
to be erected on Geary street near Tay-
lor, and a four-story store and loft
building, besides considerable smaller

Architect C. A. Meusdorffer has an
apartment house and the reconstruction
of the Eagle brewery, which was de-
stroyed by fire recently.

Architect Will Shea is making plans
for additional buildings for Santa Clara
College; also an addition of two stories
to the Bank of Italy building.

Architect B. G. McBougall is letting
contracts for the Standard Oil Com-
pany's eight-story building, and a $100,-
000 Episcopal church.

Architect Lewis Hobart has let part
of the contracts for a group of new
buildings for St. Luke's Hospital, to cost

Architects Julius Krafft & Sons have
let contracts for the new Mt. Zion's
Hospital, to cost $200,000 or more.

Plans for Pacific Grove City Hall

The trustees of Pacific Grove are call-
ing for plans for a City Hall to cost
$9500, and to be built of reinforced con-









Instantaneous — Economical — Clean.
Copper coils insure perfect circulation.

406 Thirteenth St.




525 Seventh Street


When writing to Advertisers please mention this Magazine.

The Architect and Engineer


Clay Interests to Have Big Show

To prove to the public the superiority
of burned clay and to demonstrate the
wide and varied uses to which clay prod-
ucts are put, a Clay Products Show will
be eiven at the Coliseum, in Chicago,
March 7th to 12th. 1912.

The manufacturers of clay products are
vitally interested in this exposition, and
should freely give it hearty support both
in advancing its interests and in arrang-
ing to exhibit. The sole aim of the
enterprise is to strengthen the standing
of clay products with the public.

In the building trade the fire loss in
the United States has reached a stu-
pendous figure, and it is time the public
is shown forcefully that the use of burned
clay buildinp material will cut the fire
loss to a fraction of its present total.
If nothing more were accomplished by
the Clay Products Show than that the
public would be brought to a realization
of the superior advantages of burned
clay as a building material, the accom-
plishment would be well worth all the
effort. But the scope of the Clay Prod-
ucts Exposition will be extended to
every branch of the clay trade and every
article made from clay will be brought
forcefully and favorably before the peo-

The following associations have signi-
fied their intention to hold their annual
conventions in Chicago during exposi-
tion week:

The National Brick Manufacturers As-

The National Paving Brick Manufac-
turers Association.

The Building Brick Association of

The Clay Machinery Manufacturers

The American Ceramic Society.

The Illinois Clay Workers Associa-

The Middle West Clay Workers Asso-

In addition to these conventions other
associations allied to the clay trade are
invited to hold their annual conventions
in Chicago during the exposition.

Los Angeles Office Building
Architects Edelman & Barnett of Los
Angeles, have drawn plans for an eleven-
story, basement and sub-basement, class
A office building to be erected at the
northwest corner of Fourth and Hill
streets for the Black Fireproof Building



An Up-to-Date Bath Room


Complete Systenis Installed in all
Classes of Buildings. CI Defective
Systems overhauled and corrected


Online LibraryUnited States. National Archives and Records ServiThe Architect & engineer of California and the Pacific Coast (Volume v.26 (Aug.-Oct. 1911)) → online text (page 38 of 42)