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The Architect & engineer of California and the Pacific Coast (Volume v.27 (Nov. 1911-Jan. 1912)) online

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a r| {6i _** ^ H III


Frescoed Ceiling, Piccolominea Library, by Pinturicchio and His Pupils

The Architect and Engineer


PA 1 A ZZO "T=Q1_J_ IN I
X-iL- Te.roag\. i

Photo ami Sketches, by August G. Headman

Jacopo Delia Quercia of Siena, was one of the founders of Renaissance
sculpture and his somewhat graceful style, akin to thai of Michael Angelo
is well represented in the fonts of San Giovanni and Gaia.

Painting too, was the favorite art of the early Sienese, and was well
represented by Simone Martini, who has been immortalized by a sonnet
of Petrarch and who like his contemporary, Giotto, practiced his art and
exercised his influence far beyond the limits of his native city. Works l>y
him are to be found at Naples, < >rvieto, Assisi, and other southern towns,
so famous indeed was his name that it i> unusual n> attribute to him all
the best works of his period. The paintings and vault decorations of the
Piccolominea Library by Pinturicchio are supposed to In- a result of the


The Architect and Engineer



Height of tou^o /*dcotL.o

IN<j To £AiJ>£KrE'E— 33STT
■Bviu-r 1325" "FlM 1345" ^^stff!.


Ok of fe, NoH.J- T«ut«

i T"" c t"^'h

T>I_ANJ AT-LevelA-

P/iofoj oik/ Sketches by August C. Headman, San Franc

The Architect and Engineer






Sketched by August G. Headti

influence of this master, and are a marvel of harmonious composition and

The life of the town is centered about the Piazza del Campo, which
is enclosed by many interesting structures, the one of most importance
being the Palazzo Pubblico. a huge edifice built of brick and marble, with
pointed windows divided by small columns. Adjacent rises the slender
Torre del Mangia, dating from the fourteenth century. Howells is cred-
ited with saying that. "When once you have seen the Mangia, all cither
towers, obelisks, and columns are tame, vulgar and earth-rotted." This
tower seems to quit the ground, not as a monument but as a flight.

Within a few minutes walk is located the interesting Palazzo Pollini
by Baldassare Poruzzi the architect, and famous painter. This structure,
displays most interesting and delightful proportions with a splendid ami
logical use of brick and terra cotta. Almosl directly adjacent is located
the charming and delightful early Renaissance Church of San Sebastiano,
a church quite unfinished, but possessing enough real architecture for much
thought and study and is especially interesting on account of its true ex-
pression of plan.

All of these buildings, with their well studied details, have served for
many years as an inspiration to architects of this day.

Elevating the Building Business


THE erection of buildings by contract is an old, well established and
legitimate business and should be conducted on a dignified and con-
servative basis. The General Contractors Association has sought and
found future headquarters which will be of dignified proportions such as
will command the respect of the business community and tend to elevate
the standing of the building business.

In "The Saturday Evening Post" of November 4th appears an article
"How to beat the building game," written by Mr. B. A. Howes, who is
evidently familiar with all the evils which beset the building business.
His conclusions are well fitted "to point a moral and adorn a tale." It may
be well to remark that the author points out, in a logical way, that the
best method for an architect to get the best value for his owners' money
is by selecting some good, responsible general contractor and awarding
him the entire contract.

There is probably no legitimate business which is so largely engaged
in throughout the world, which gives employment to so many men and
which offers so many opportunities and inducements for crooked dealing
as the business of building. The first thing which an architect and owner
should consider is the honesty and responsibility of the contractor to whom
he proposes to award the contract for the erection of his building. The
lowest bid only too frequently means the poorest building and a poor
building is the poorest investment which capital can make.

The General Contractors Association is endeavoring to establish a
high standard of efficiency among its stockholders and to admit only those
who are financially capable of carrying out the work they undertake, and
whose skill and efficiency will lead to confidence on the part of owner
and architect alike. This does not mean that only those of large means
are admitted, but applications for stock are carefully investigated and the
applicants past record in the building business examined. In this way it
is intended to build up an Association which will stand for responsibility
and be a guarantee to the architect and owner that the contractor is one
from whom he may reasonably expect good work and full value for his

The membership of the Association is divided into two classes, stock-
holders and members. The stockholders are composed only of general
contractors, each of whom holds one share of stock, (neither more nor
less), of the par value of $500, for which he must subscribe before being
elected. The members are composed of specialty contractors, material
men, insurance men, etc. The general contractors control the Association
and the specialty contractors have their own, individual associations.

The Architect and Engineer X7

An important work which the Association is planning to carry oul
is to keep out the irresponsible men from entering the local field and com-
peting for business. A practical plan for accomplishing this much to
desired end is now being put into effect and it is expected that the building
business of this city, in the rush times which all expect before the World's
Fair, will thus be relieved of the "carpet bagger" class of "fly-by-nights"
who created so much confusion and loss alter the fire. The legitimate,
responsible contractor, coming in here from the East, will be taken into
the Association and the stamp of its approval thus put on Ins name.

This is good work, along legitimate lines, and should meet with the
approval and support of architects and owners alike.

* * *
The Liability Situation.

THE passing of Constitutional Amendment No. .^J has cleared the way
fur the enactment of compulsory compensation to workingmen in

of industrial accidents.

We are glad to be able to state that the drafting of the proposed law
will go over until the next session of the Legislature in January. 1913, as
we are in receipt of a letter from Senator Roseberry (the author of the

present liability law), to this effect. We say that we are glad that this
is the case, because such a bill as is proposed will be very drastic in many
of its features, and such important legislation should only be approached
with the greatest care and consideration. The proper compilation of the
necessary data cannot possibly be accomplished in less time, as such
a law is only an experiment in this country up to the present.

While it is true that compulsory compensation insurance has been in
•effect in some of the countries of Europe for a number of years, yet the
conditions and wages governing the workingmen and mechanics in those
countries are entirely different t<> what we have here, and the tables which
the}' have compiled from past experience, and on which their rates are
based, could not possibly be used in this country except in a comparative

By the foregoing we do not mean to say that the proposed law is
going to work a hardship on the contractors. ( In the contrary, it will prob-
ably prove beneficial in the long run, as the burden will be borne by the
community at large.

Practically all the contractors are carrying liability insurance under
the new law, and very few have elected to carry voluntary compensation
insurance owing to the prohibitive charge of the liability companies for
that class of policy. God knows the rates on straight liability insurance
are high enough! However, some of the largest employers of the State
have decided to bring themselves under the provisions of voluntary com-
pensation insurance without waiting for the compulsory statute. The
award of $92,000 to one injured man by a recent decision against the
Southern Pacific Company is no doubt the reason for these large employers
being willing to settle out of court under the terms of the voluntary com-
pensation feature. The Pacific Telephone and Telegraph Company is
among the large employers of the State who have elected to protect their
employees under compensation insurance. This company alone employs
seventy-five hundred men.

The voluntary compensation law, which is embodied in the new liability
act, and which has now been in force for two months, simply provides that
in case of injury the employer shall be liable for doctor and hospital bill

88 The Architect and Engineer

up to $100, and if disability is caused he shall pay 65 per cent of the average
weekly wage during disability, the total of such payment to be not more
than three years' wages. In case of death the payment is to be made
weekly to dependent relatives, and shall not aggregate more than $5000
or less than $1000. Payment must be made for each and every accident,
however, regardless of the fault of either party. It is this latter feature
which makes the cost of the insurance greater than for straight liability
insurance. The contracting business being on a keen (almost cut-throat)
basis at present, the contractor naturally hesitates to increase his expenses
unnecessarily. When compulsory compensation insurance is in effect
the charge for the protection will have to be borne by all alike, and will
become a fixed charge on a building and on the community at large, where
it properly belongs.

The State Board is getting all possible data from other States and
foreign nations upon the rates and extent of compensation, and the rules
governing its collection from employers, so that the law, when passed by
the Legislature, may be comprehensive and the rates established enough to
properly maintain a sufficient reserve fund.

Commissioner Pillsbury is preparing a Id ill to be submitted at the next
regular session of the Legislature in January, 1913, which shall provide a
scheme of compulsory compensation of all employees against liability
under the compensation law, and fourteen months will not be any ton long
a time in which to gather the necessary data.

The California Building Law Association, of which this Association
is a member, is going to watch the proposed Legislature very carefully,
and will keep in touch with all that is being done in the framing of the
bill, and we may rest assured that we shall go to the bat in 1913 equipped
with full information of all that has been done, and prepared to work in-
telligently for a bill which will be fair to the contractors. It is well to
bear in mind in this connection that we now have the initiative, referendum
and recall in this State, and if any law passed by the Legislature does not
meet with our approval, there is now a means to hand whereby we can have

it repealed.

* * *

An Informal Banquet.

The General Contractors Association is giving an informal dinner at
the St. Germain, on the 23rd of November. This is by way of celebrating
the closing of its lease on its new headquarters in the building to be erected
by the Sharon Estate Company on the northeast corner of New Mont-
gomery and Jessie Streets. A number of those not yet members of the
Association have been invited to attend as it is desired to get all the re-
sponsible general contractors together in this strong Association.

While this is to be merely an informal occasion the dinner is neverthe-
less an important event in the history of the building industry of this city
as it celebrates the closing of a lease on headquarters for the builders such
as they have never had before.

An Embryo Architect

A popular conception of the architect's failing in completing a house
within the estimate is illustrated in the story of the proud father who
thought he discerned great architectural talent in his six-year-old son.

"Why," asked a neighbor, "does he draw well?"

"No," replied the father, "but he started a few days ago to build a
hencoop at an estimated cost of 65 cents, and it has already cost me about
$3.50." — Exchange.

The Architect iiml l:iii;iih\'r


Building Mm

ick Fitted With
trial rransportai

Motor Trucks for the Contractor and Material Man

BUILDING material men have been studying the subject of motor
truck delivery for a number of years, and quite a large number of firms
have installed them with the most satisfactory results. No association
meeting of dealers, whether it be a state organization or the national body,
has a program of addresses up to date, unless it includes something on the
subject of motor trucks. The dealers are interested, and they are buying

The purpose of this article is to tell the dealer something on the
subject that will aid him in arriving at a conclusion. It is said that every
man on earth with real red blood in him either owns an automobile or
wishes he did. The dealers who own motor trucks are glad of it, and the
time is at hand when every dealer will wish he had such a delivery con-

It is, of course, the matter of cost that determines in every case the
wisdom of making use of anything new. It is probably true that the
average dealer keeps no accurate account of the cost of maintaining hi-

If the proper items are charged up for depreciation and upkeep of
horses, wagons and harness, stable expenses, etc., the round figures of $6
a day for a two-horse team and $8 a day for a three-horse team will be about
right for ordinary work. Twenty miles a day is the limit for a light vehicle,
and sixteen to eighteen miles for a three-ton load, or a three-horse shift
for five tons. To cover the mileage mentioned horses have to be on the
move five or six hours a day. The remaining four or five hours can be
used in loading and unloading.

But what about the motor truck? It requires no rest. It is a fact that
the ordinary motor truck is capable of three or four times the mileage of
horses, and customers will get quicker delivery and the dealer will be able
to reach out further into new- territory and get business where he can
deliver materials. The following table of costs has been compiled by one
firm that has made long and careful observations, and they are regarded
by the motor truck trade as authoritative:


The Architect and Engineer

It is often the practice in cities to compel the horse to work as many
hours during the summer time as in the winter. There is no reduction in
his hours of work, and he is expected to carry as big a load. It is esti-
mated that in New York City alone, over 2000 horses died because of the
effects of the heat, during the excessive hot spell last summer. Beyond
a doubt a large part of these deaths were due to the unkindness of their
drivers and the hard treatment to which the horses were subjected. Many
individuals, however, are far more considerate of their horses and shorten
the hours during the terrific heat. This, however, was not enough in
many cases to prevent the death of the animal. Of course many attempts
were made to assist the horse to continue the work, and it was not an un-
common sight to see horses standing at the curb being sprinkled or
sponged off. But in spite of all these precautions, almost every block, at
some time or other, claimed its victims. Of course, the putting out of com-
mission of such a large number of animals has a very disastrous effect upon
the delivery system of the country. Much delay was experienced in the
delivery of bread, ice cream, drinking water and other necessities of life,
and many families suffered considerable distress upon this account. In
some sections of New York City it is claimed a famine of certain necessities
of life was brought about through the inability to make deliveries. The
fact is that the horse is not a proper means of delivery, and this was simply
emphasized by the conditions which prevailed. It is simply one more charge
against the horse delivery system.

It has long been claimed that the city is not the proper place for the
horse. The old claim that he is too slow, and, with his wagon, occupies
too much room, has been brought forward many, many times, and the
recent experience of many owners simply adds another point in favor of
the motor truck. Beyond a doubt the introduction of the truck is the only proper
solution of the hot weather delivery problem. It is faster and will not
be affected by the heat, and while the truck may suffer a breakdown,
owing to various causes, it can be repaired, which is not the case with the
horse. Let a horse injure himself in any way, and as a rule, he is put to
death at once. To all careful thinkers the introduction and exclusive use
of trucks in the city, offers the only solution to the present condition of
congested traffic. Each is enabled to replace three to eight horses and
when it is necessary a single truck does not occupy as much space as the
team and the dray. The relief which may be obtained by their use, is at
once evident. Because of these conditions and the inability of the horse
to perform his work as has been clearly shown by experience in summer
and winter, it is a foregone conclusion that the time is not far distant when
motor trucks will take the place of the horse for city service.


Per Day

No. Tons
Per Load


No. Miles

No. Miles

No. Ton

Cost Per
Ton Mile
One Way

1 -horse wagon and driver

2-hnrse wajjon and driver

1 4.00
















The . Irchiteci and Engineer 9]

Heating and Ventilating Two School Buildings from
a Central Plant*

THE construction of a new school building in Decatur, 111., at a point not
far from a similar building in which the heating and ventilating
apparatus was to be remodeled, led the school authorities to decide
upon a central heating plant from winch electric light and Mean, for power
and heating purposes could he supplied to both schools P

detai t^iTp'T' 1 man " interestin g Eeatur « wind, were described in
meetiW ,f' ' ^ ew 1 '"■ ' P*?" I"—-' at the recent semi-annual

Chica^. American Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers in

To h n :x'rl:::::f t^rL^t*?^ f ™ the ° id ****** wud.

was formerly heated, Mr. Lewis stated, b)
ground space for the new building and its
surroundings made it desirable to 'eliminate
from it any boiler plant, and the fact that
the furnaces in the old building were worn
out at the time of the designing of the new
building rendered it necessary to install new
heating and ventilating; apparatus there.

Concrete -

ten warm air furnaces. The

^ 4'Retwn


Underground Conduit for Supplying Heat and Electricity to the New School Building

The old building is of non-fireproof construction, hence it was proper
to remove all fire from within it. The new building was to be compl
in the spring of 1911. The old building had to be provided with a new plan.
m the fall of 1909. rhese considerations prompted the location of the
power house adjacent to the old building, especially as coal storage space
could be obtained under it, and it would be possible to provide enough
capacity to handle the old building through the winter at minimum cost

It was planned to provide the most efficient and economical tvpe of
apparatus known, with ventilation of all rooms up to at least 30 cubic feet
of air per minute per pupil, with new sanitary apparatus, all of the venti-
lated type, and power for fan propulsion, lighting and manual training
machinery in both buildings. Steam, return and electric conduits were
permitte d under the streets by special arrangement with the city.

the Healing and Ventilating Magazine.

•Extracts of a paper by Samuel R. Lewis.


The Architect and Engineer

Advantages of Indirect Heating.

It was decided to install the indirect type of heating, well governed by
automatic regulation, as being the most positive and sanitary, as well as
economical. Prominent advantages of this system are :

1. It is ordinarily difficult or impossible to hold school without run-
nine the fans and securing- ventilation.

Auxiliary Apparatus and Piping in Power House

2. The pupils in a given room are all subjected to the same tempera-
ture and some are not overheated, as they must be when direct radiators
are placed in the rooms.

3. The trouble and noise of air valves and steam and water circulation
in the radiators are eliminated.

4. The fake air circulation by direct radiators destroying diffusion of
fresh air is eliminated.

5. The all-indirect plants are found to be more economical of fuel.

The Architect and Engineer


: _:'


The Architect and Engineer

Cost of Heating Schools in Chicago and Kansas City.

The following data may be of interest :

Chicago: Five schools, with both indirect and direct heating, all of
about the same size, averaged, per cubic foot of space heated and ventilated
per season, 1.11 pounds of coal. Five other schools of approximately the
same size, burning the same kind of coal in the same sort of boilers, but
having indirect heating, averaged, per cubic foot of space heated and venti-
lated per season, only 0.67 pound of coal.

Kansas City: The Manual Training High School, having both indirect
and direct heating, cost in fuel, for the year 1909-10, per cubic foot of space
heated and ventilated, 0.273 cents. The Westport High School, having
entirely indirect heating, cost in fuel for the same year, per cubic foot of
space heated and ventilated, 0.124 cents. Both buildings burn oil in similar

In the Decatur plant direct radiation is used in all toilets, offices, cor-
ridors or rooms with plumbing which might be injured by excessive cold.
The advantage of having direct radiation in classrooms is that it tends to
keep them warm when the fans are not in operation, provided they are
furnished with steam. At Decatur the buildings were arranged in such a
manner that it was possible to group the indirect radiation in small cham-
bers near the banks of flues, and thus by gravity air circulation keep the

/ kt . h hti ■ and i ngmeer


• Return Air Damper

* - New Air
Tight Window

rooms reasonably warm without any direct radiation when the fans were
not in operation. This has proved in practice to work out with remarkable

The boiler-house is a fireproof building, containing three high-pressure

horizontal tubular boilers of 450 rated horsepower, with standard equip-
ment for bituminous coal. In a room adjoining the boilers are located the
feed-water heater, boiler feed pumps, all main operating valves, pressure
regulator, etc.. and two horizontal turbine-generators, with the accompan)
ing switchboards. The distribution lines for steam, compressed air and
electricity center in this room. The generators .10 1-1
250-volt direct current, and one of 75 K. \\ ., the other
of 50 K. \V. capacity. Together they have ample power
to carry all of the lights and power in both buildin
one time. In actual practice, however, the peal,
never has overtaxed the smaller machine.

It is admitted that the turbines are not as econom-
ical of steam as would be reciprocating engines, but the
fact that the plant is in service practically at no time
when heat also is not required, and that, therefore, the
electricity is practically a by-product disposes of this
argument. The turbines are practically noiseless, have
a very long life, require no internal lubrication, thus
relieving the boilers of oil, and they occupy very little
space. The feed water heater is of only 150 horsepower,
being used merely to purify the make-up water, or to
supply one boiler when exhausting to the atmosphere in

Online LibraryUnited States. National Archives and Records ServiThe Architect & engineer of California and the Pacific Coast (Volume v.27 (Nov. 1911-Jan. 1912)) → online text (page 8 of 41)