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Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Volume 10 online

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Blades all involute, rather rigid; panicle very dense.

Leaves green ; spikelets glabrous or glaucous rubra densitucula.

Leaves and spikelets very glaucous rubra pruinosa.

Spikelets pubescent with short hairs rubra kitaibeliana.y

Spikelets villous, often somewhat woolly rubra lanugimmt, v

13a. Festuca rubra xnegaBtachys Gaud.

Festuca rubra rnegagtachyB iy2LXX^. Fl. Helv. 1: 287. 1828. Type from Switzerland.
Fettuea rubra divertifolia Gaud. op. cit. 288. Type from Switzerland.
Festuca oregona Vasey, Bot. Gaz. 2: 126. 1877. Type 8j)e<'imen in the National
Herbarium from Oregon.

Fe^uca rubra grandiflora Hack. Mon. Fest. 139. 1882. Based on F. rubra diveraifolia
The following specimens are referred here:

Point Seche, Gasp^, Ma^xmn 37.
Nkw Jbbsby:

Absecum, Commons 185.

Attah Island, Maeoun 22806.
Bbitish Columbia:

Nanaimo, Maeoun 29682.

Klickitat County, ^ksdorf 1140.
Klickitat River, Sukmiorf 1147.

Sauvies Island, Howell, June 15, 1882.

13b. Festuca rubra prolifera subsp. nov.

The plant of the White Mountains which has been referred to F. oiina vivipara L. is
in reality a viviparous form or state of F. rubra, differing only in its viviparous spike-
lets. It is said to be the only form of the plant occurring in the White Mountains,
and while properly a state rather than a subspecies, may be named as above. It
seems surprising that no similar form occurs in Eurojie.

The type is a specimen in the National Herbarium collected on Mount Washington
by Pringle in 1877.

Digitized by



13c. Festuca rubra i^laucodea nom. nov.

Fesluca glaucescens Hegetschwein & Heer, Fl. Schweiz. 93. 1840. Type locality,
Switzerland. Not F. glaucescem Roth, Nov. PI. Sp. 78. 1821, nor F. ovina glaucescens
Link, Hort. Berol. 2: 266. 1813.
Festuca rubra glaucescens Hack. Mon. Feat. 139. 1882.
The following specimens are referred here:

Nashville, GaUinger,
North Carolina:

Buncombe County, BiUmore Herbarium 1848b.

"Johiv^on County, Williams d* OHffiUis 177.

McMinnville, Shear 1771.

Sierra Madre, near Colonia Grarcia, Toiimsend dt* Barber 114.

i:W. Festuca rubra multiflora (Hoffm.) Asch. & Graebn.

Feshica muliiflora Hoffm. Deutschl. Fl. ed. 2. 1» : 50. 1800. Type from Germany.
Festuca rubra multiflora Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2 : 499. 1900; op. cit.
Index 43. 1903.
The following specimens are referred here:

Fort Kent, Femald 2186.

North Fork Clear Creek, WiUiams <(r Gnffiths 91, 146, 135a

Without locality, Kellogg d- Harford 1118.
Lake Tahoe, Hitchcock, July, 1901.
Bear Valley, Lemmtm 5434.

Spangle, Suksdorf lid.

13e. Festuca rubra densiuBoula Hack, subsp. nov.

Leaves all involute, smooth, rigid, green; panicle dense, 3 io 5 cm. long; spikelets
glabrous, often giautrous.

The foUowmg specimens are in the National Herlmrium :

Crescent City, Dat>y A Blmdale 5931 (type), 5932.

Tillamook Bay, Hmrell 74.

Cherbourg, L. Corbiere, June 6, 1886.

13f. Festuca rubra pruinosa Hack.

Festuca rubra pruinosa Hack, in Rep. Bot. Exchange Club Brit. Isles 119. 1884.
Type specimens from the Isle of Skye.

Festuca rubra littoralis Vaaey; Beal, Grasses N. Am. 2 : 607. 1896. Type in herba-
rium Michigan Agricultural College, collected at Tillamook Bay, Oregon, by Howell,
''on sand dunes by the sea.'' A duplicate specimen is in the National Herbarium.

Digitized by



The followiDg epecimens have been examined:

Fort Bragg, Daiy <Jt BUudale 6117.
Point Reyes Peninsola, Dewy 6811.
TUIamook Bay, Hou^U, July, 1882.

13g. Festucarubrakitaibeliana (Schnltes).

Fhiuca barbata Schrank, Prim. Fl. Salisb. 46. 1792, not L. 1759.

Fahica pubescms VVilld.; Link, Enuni. 1: 91. 1821, not Zea; R. & S. Syst. 2: 728.
1817. "InHungaria.'*

FesttuM rubm siibviUosa Mert. & Koch in Rohling, Deut«»hl. FL ed. 3. 1: 654. 1823,
not F. duriuscula mubrdlom op. cit. 648.

Fegtitca rubra tiUosa Mert. A Koch in Rohling, Deutechl. Fl. ed. 3. 1: 654. 1823,
not F. ovina viUom Schrad. Fl. Germ. 1: 320. 1806.

Festuoa kitmbdiana Schult. Mant. 2 : 398. 1824. New name proponed for F. pubescens

Bromus secundti* Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1: 280. 1830. Type specimen from Nootka
Sound, Vancouver'Island, collected by Haenke; a duplicate in the herbarium of the
MiflBouri Botanical Garden.

Fsshica rubra barbata Hack. Mon. Feet. 139. 1882. Based on F. barbata Schrimk.

Eaiuca rubra pubescens Vasey; Beal, Grasses N. Am. 2: 607. 1896. Type in her-
barium Michigan Agricultural Coll^?e, collected in Or^on by Howell.

l^uoa rttlra secunda Scribner, Rep. Mo. Bot. (iard. 10: 39. 1899. BaBe<l on Bromua
secundum Presl.

This ninch-named plant ranges in North America from Alaska to Greenland,
pouthward to Or^on, Wyoming, Ontario, and New Brunswick. Specimens from
South Burlington, Vermont (Janes)^ and Andover, New Hampshire {Briggs)^ are
probably introduced. Viviparous forms occur occasionally. Some Alaskan speci-
mens have exceptionally laige spikelets nearly 2 cm. long, but otherwise show no

13h. Festnca rubra lanuginosa Mert. & Koch.

Festuca dumetarwn Rafn. Danm. Hoist. Fl. 1: 549. 1796, not L. 1762.

Petluca arenaria Osbeck in Retz. Suppl. Prim. Fl. Scan. 1: 4. 1805, not Lam. 1791.

FsMuca rubra arenaria Frieis, Fl. Halland. 28. 1818.

Festuca villosa Schweigg, in Hagen, Chlor. Boruss. 35. 1819, not F. onna viUoaa
Schrad. 1806.

f Festuca oraria Dum. Agrost. Belg. 105. 1823.

Festuca rubra lanugmosa Mert & Koch in Rohling, Deutschl. Fl. ed. 3. 1 : 654. 1823.
"Auf magerm Flugsande am Gestade des Meeres in Hinterpomniern und Ostpreussen
(der Kurischen Nehrung)."

Festuca baUica Homann, Fl. Pomm. 1: 56. 1828.

Festuca lanuginosa Scheele, Flora 1 : 63. 1844.

F^uca richardsoni Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 2 : 250. 1840. Type from "the Arctic sea-
coast" of North America, collected by Richardson. Specimens in the Gray and
Torrey Herbaria are probably duplicate types.

The Richardson specimens are quite identical with Arctic European specimens,
and correspond to F. rubra arenaria forma arctica Hack. Mon. Fest. 140. Specimens
from Port Clarence, Alaska, Doctor Yemans, August, 1884, are identical. Specimens
collected on Unimak Island, Alaska, by Maooun (22801) are taller and agree with
the oidinary European plant

Digitized by



14. Vestuca occidentalis Hook.

Festucaoccidentalis Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 249. 1840. "Plains and elevated grounds
of the Colambia near the sea. Dr. Scouler. Douglas." Authentic specimens from
Hooker are in the Gray Herbarium.

Fegtuca ovina pclyphyUa Vasey; Beal, Grasses N. A. 2: 697. 1896. Type specimen
in herbarium Michigan Agricultural College, collected in the Cascade Mountains,
Oregon, by Howell, in 1885.


Densely tufted and perfectly glabrous up to the inflorescence; culms slender, shin-
ing, 50 to 80 cm. high, 2-jointed; leaf blades filiform-involute, numerous, bright green,
soft, becoming longitudinally sulcate when dry, 5 to 20 cm. long, acute at the very
apex; ligule very small, truncate; sheaths smooth, very long, but shorter than the
intemodes, in young plants often wholly concealing the stem; panicle loose, subse-
cund, flexuous, 8 to 20 cm. long, often somewhat drooping above; rays scabrous on
the sharp angles, solitary or the lowest paired and very unequal; spikelets green,
oblong, loosely 3 to 5-flowered, 6 to 10 ram. long, mostly on slender stalks, pale
green, or rarely purplish; glumes unetjual, variable, even on the same plant, usually
sharply acute or acuminate, sometimes obtuse or obtusish, the lower 1-nerved,
2 to 2.5 mm. long, the upper 3-nerved, about one-half longer, both usually puberu-
lent near the apex and margins; lemma oblong- lanceolate, rather thin in texture, 5
to 6.5 mm. long, scaberulous toward the apex, attenuate into a slender awn about
as long; palea linear-lanceolate, acutish, scabrous on the nerves, the inflexed sides
meeting in the middle when flattened; ovary hispidulous at apex. Plate VIII.

This species has been generally misunderstood, principally owing to the character
assigned to the glumes of being short, obtuse, and ciliate. The Gray Herbarium
specimens agree perfectly with Hooker's characterization in this respect, as do some
recent specimens, for example, E. C. Smith's 936, Seattle, Washington; Macoun's 85,
Burrard Inlet, British Columbia, and Heller's 3932, Montesano, Washington. This
character is, however, unreliable, most specimens having longer and usually acute
glumes. It is a very different plant from the Japanese Feduca paivciflora Thunb. to
which it was referred by Thurber. Thurber's description in the Botany of Cali-
fornia applies not to Hooker's species, but to Festaca suhulaia Trin. (F. jonesii

Festu^^a occidentalis is an abundant species in open woods from British Columbia to
middle California, and eastward to Montana, Wyoming, and the Great Lakes. It is
always densely tufted, never showing any trace of rootstocks.

In Beal's Grasses of North America the specimens referred to Festuca rubra fietero-
phyUa (Lam.) Hack., and to F. rubra longi^eta (Hegetschw.) Hack, are all F, occi-
dentalis Hook.
The following are representative specimens:
British Columbia:

Chilliwack Valley, Macoun 26115, 26112.

Victoria, Macoun 171.

Comox, Macoun 173.

Yale, Macoun 88.

Blue Mountains, Horr^er 561.

Cascade Mountains, Vasey in 1889.

Olympia, Henderson 2198, 2177.

Seattle, Piper 834.

Mount Rainier, Piper 850.

Nisqually Valley, Allen 50.

Grays Harbor, Lamb 1128,

Digitized "by LjOOQ IC

Contr. Nat. Herb , Vol. X.

Plate VIM.

Festuca occidentalis Hook.

Digitized by LjOOQIC

Digitized by LjOOQIC


Washi NGTON — Continued.

Rock Creek, Spokane County, Suksilorf 1141.

Olympic Mountains, Elmer 1917.

Montesano, Heller 3932.

Without locality, HaU 641.

Portland, Homll 15.

Wallowa Mountains, Cusick 2211.

Blue Mountains, Shear 1682, 1809, 1676.

Mendocino County, Dary 6607.

Mount Shasta, Broim 373.

Marin County, Palmer 2044.

Long Valley, Kellogg d: Harford 1116.

Without locality, Bolander 6704.

El Volcan, Brandegee 104.

Coeur d'Alene Lake, Sandberg, Heller ^ dc MacDougnl 544.

Cedar Mountain, Latah County, Piper 3930, 1917.

Cedar Mountain, Latah County, Henderson 2835.

Summit, Griffiths tt Ixinge 209, 192.

Nez Perees Creek, Nehon 6216.

Yellowstone Park, Bolley 1898.

Keweenaw County, Fartvell 531.

Thunder Bay, Wheeler, July 18, 1895.

Explanation or PLATK.-.Drawn from 4908 Piper, Vancouver, Washington. Plant one-half natural
■lie; ovary and stigmas enlarged ten tiraen, other detailM Ave times.

15. Festuca ovina L.

Fetiucaovina L. Sp. PI. 1: 73. 1753. '* Habitat in Europae collibus apricis aridis
FettucaomnavtUgarijt Koch, Syn. 2: 812. 1837.


Densely tufted; culms erect, 3-iointed, mostly 15 to 60 cm. high, smooth or some-
what scabrous near the panicle; sheaths smooth, shorter than the internodes; ligule
very short, 1 mm. or less; blades pale green, strongly involute, firm, narrow, cylin-
dric, scabrous on the margins, the basal ones 5 to 12 cm. long, those of the culm
often very short; panicle contracted after blooming, commonly 5 to 10 cm. long;
rays ascending, scabrous on the angles; spikelets ovate or oblong, usually 5 to 7.5 mm.
long, 3 to 6 or rarely 9-flowered, pale green, or sometimes purplish tinged; florets
mther close; joints of the rachilla smooth; glumes unequal, linear-lanceolate, acute,
the lower 1-nerved, about 2 mm. long, the upj)er 3-nerved, about 2.5 mm. long;
lemma lanceolate, thick and firm, convex, obscurely 5-nerved, smooth or more or
le88 ecabrous, 3 to 3.5 mm. long, attenuate in a scabrous awn 1 mm. long or more.

This species in its typical form occurs native in North America in the Rocky
Mcmntains from Alberta to New Mexico, in the Black Hills, and about the Great
I^kee. Through cultivation it is more or less commonly introduced in many locali-
*i«fl. The specimen referred by Beal, Grasses N. Am. 2: 600, to F, hystrir Boiss. is

Digitized by



Perhaps no other species jof Kra^^s is so polymorphous as Festuca ovina, the Old
World forms of which have been classified into numerous categories. The North
American forms are far less numerous, and may be distinguished by the following key :


Leaf blades firm, cylindric or terete even when dried.
Lemmas awned.

Leaf blades capillary .3 to .6 mm. broad.

Plants 20 to 60 cm. high; panicle 2 to 12 cm. long.

Lemmas usually scabrous or pubescent orina.

Lemmas hispidulous ovina sciaphUa,

Lemmas foliaceous, the spikelets proliferous onna nvipara.

Plants 12 to 30 cm. high; panicle 2 to 4 cm. long oiina gupvia.

Leaf blades broader 0.7 to I mm. broad, 7 nerved ovina duriiiscula.

Lemmas awnless omna capUlata,

Leaf blades smooth, green, soft, becoming longitudinally sulcate in drying.

Culms 20 to 45 cm. high ; sheaths closed only at base orina pseudovina.

Culms 5 to 10 cm. high; sheaths closed their whole length or nearly.

orina hrachyphyUa.
Leaf blades pale or glaucescent, firm, usually harshly scabrous.

Sheaths long-persistent on the innovations, becoming brown and papery.

ovina caUigera.
Sheaths not becoming brown and papery.

Awns long, nearly equaling the lemma; sheaths not becoming explanate at

base ovina ingrata.

Awns short, one-fifth to one-third as long as the lemma; sheaths becoming
explanate at base otina arizonica,

I5a. Festuca ovina sciaphila (Schur) Asch. & Graebn.

Festuca sciaphila Schur, Enum. PI. Transs. 787. 1866. "In Laubwaldem bei Her-

mannstadt. Schuler, Piatra-mare bei Kronstadt. 3,000''. Kalk.'*
Festuca omna sciaphila Asch: & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2: 468. 1900; op. cit.

Index 41. 1903.
Festuca ovina hispidula Hack. Mon. Fest. 87. 1882. **Trans8ylvania (Kronstadt),

Silesia (Breslau), Austria inf. (St Polten)."
The following specimens have been examined:
New York:

Ithaca, Coville, June 12, 1886.

Gait, Herriott, no. 21144.
British Columbia:

Esquimau, Macoun 29732.
The last two are in the Herbarium of the Geological and Natural History Survey
of Canada.

15b. Festuca ovina vivipara L.

Festuca ovina nvipara L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 1: 108. 1762. "Habitat in Alpibus Lap-
poniae, Helvetiae, Scotiae."

Feduca vidpara Smith, Fl. Brit. 1: 114. 1800. This occurs in North America from
Greenland and Iceland to Labrador and Newfoundland. The plant of the White
Mountains heretofore referred here is F, rubra prolifera.

Digitized by



15c. Festuca ovina supina (Scbur) Hack. .-

Fe$tuca supina Schur, Enum. PI. TranaB. 784. 1866. " Auf Felsen und Gerblle der
HochaJpen: Fogaraser-Arpaser-Kerzeaorer-Rodnaer Alpen, Gliminerechif fer; Kron-
8tadter Alpen: Butoets, Runigstein, Kalk, Hunyader Alpen, Retyesat. 6000 ''-7000''.''

Festuca ovina supina Hack. Bot. Central b. 8: 405. 1881.

This subepecies ranges from Greenland southward to the Whit© Mountains, and
in the west occurs from British Columbia and Alberta south in the Cascatles and
Sierras to California, and in the Rockies to Arizona. Apparently it doen not occur
in Alaska.

This plant has been generally confused by American botanists with F. oriiia
brachyphylla, from which it is often separable with difficulty.

15d. Festuca ovina duxiutcula (L.) Ko<*h.

FeMuca duriuscula L. Sp. PI. 1: 74. 1753. *' Habitat in Europae pratis siccis."
Festnca ovina duriuscula Koch, Syn. 812. 1857.

Judging from herbarium material this subspecies is but sparingly introduced in
America. Most specimens so named aie F. rubra.

15e. Festuca ovina capillata (I^m.) Hack.

Festuca capillata Lam. Fl. Fr. 3: 597. 1778. Type locality, France.
Festuca tenuifolia Sibth. Fl. Oxon. 44. 1794. Type locality, Oxford, England.
Festuca orina capillata Hack. Bot. Centralb. 8: 405. 1881.

This very distinct-appearing subspecies is introduced in many places in the eastern
United States.

15f. Festuca ovina pseudovina Hack.

Ffsttica ovina pseudorina Hack. Bot. Centralb. 8 : 405. 1881. Hackel's name is
proposed for the Austrian grass mistaken for true F. onna L, by Host, (iram. Austr.
2: pi. 86.

This sutepecies occurs native in North America in the Rocky Mountains of Wyom-
ing, Colorado, and Utah. Specimens from Clarke, Indiana, collec»ted by Umbach,
are probably introduced.

15g. Festuca ovina brachyphylla (Schultes).

Festuca brevifolia R. Br. App. Parry's Voy. Suppl. 289. 1824. Type from Melville
Island. A duplicate in the Gray Herbarium.

FestxuxL brachyphylla Schultes, Mant. 3: 646. 1827. Proposes new name on account
of the older F. brevifolia Muhl. 1817.

Festuca oiina brevifolia Hack. Bot. Centralb. 8: 406. 1881.

This subspecies ranges in North America from the Arctic regions southward to
Labrador, and in the Rocky Mountains to Arizona, and recurs in the Sierras of Cali-
fornia; apparently absent in the Cascades, but present in the Blue Mountains of

15h. Festuca ovina calligera nom. nov.

Festuca ameihystina asperrima Hack.; Beal, Grasses N. Am. 2: 601. 1896, not F.
asperrima Link, Enum. 2: 270. 1822. Type in the National Herbarium, collected in
Aiizona by Rusby (no. 901).

Plants densely tufted, pale green, 15 to 50 cm. high; stems covered at Imse by the
brown scarious persistent sheaths; leaf-b'ades filifonn, longitudinally sulcate, cabrous,
5 to 15 cm. long, each bearing at its jimction with the sheath a small callus on each
Bide; lemma awned; palea bidentate.

12364—06 3

Digitized by



The following specimens belong here:

Aquarius Plateau, /.. F. Ward 502, altitude 3,500 m.

Brigham Peak, Jones 5955, altitude 3,700 m.

Mount Agassiz, Ijemmon, September, 1884.

White Mountains, (rriffitha 5:^38, 5243.

Hart's Little Spring, Tourney, July 13, 1892.

San Francisco Peaks, Leihtrg 5957, altitude 2,800 m.

Without locality, JhiAhy 901.

Plumas County, I^mmon 4653.

15i. Festuca ovina ingrata Hack.

Festuca onimhigrataWdn^V.', Heal, Grasses N. Am. 2: 598.1896. Tyi)e specimen in
the National Herlmrium, collected by Howell in Oregon.

Festuca orhia columbiana Beal, op. cit. 599. Type in Herbarium Michigan Agri-
cultural College, published a.s from Pullman, Washington, but really collected in the
Blue Mountains of Columbia County, Washington, by I^ke and Hull.

Festuru ovinn ore(]ona Hack.; Beal, op. cit. 599, not Festuca oregotiaXsniey. Tyi>e
in the National Herbarium, collected by Cusick in Orejjon (no. 753).

Festuca idahoensis Elmer, Bot. Gaz. 36: 53. 1903. TyjH* specimens from Smiths
Valley, Shoshone County, Idaho, collected by Abrams. We have examined a dupli-
cate in Elmer's herbarium. The leaves of this specimen are unusually smooth.

This is the *'blue bunch graas" of stockmen, and is an important range graas. It
occurs from British Columbia and Alberta south to California and Colorado.

It is the Ameritran analogue of the Old World Festuca ovma ralesiaca (Schleich. )
Ko(*h, and has sometimes been referred to the European F. ociua sulcata Hack.
The following are representative collet'tions:

Pullman, Elmer 299, 826.
Falcon Valley, Suksdorf \U2.
Clark Springs, Kreager 41, 68.
Mount Carlton, Kreager 241.

Grizzly Butte, J^iherg 276.
Without locality, Cusick 2507.

Plumas O^unty, Ijemmon 4653.
Highland Springs, l)avg 6647.
Alberta :

Sheep Mountains, Macoun 13148.
British Columbia:

Deer Park, Macoun 52.

Spanish Basin, Rydherg <1* Bessey 3676.
Lima, Rydberg 2070; Shear 320.

Beaver Canyon, i?i/d6er/7 2061 ; Shear 30b.

Little Potlatch River, Sandherg, Heller^ <fc MacDougal 451.

Viola, Sandbergy Heller j <t* MacDougal 504.

Lake Waha, HeUer 3318, 3288.

Digitized by




Nash Fork, Nelson 7746.

Crazy Womane Creek, U'i7//rtw« 2751.

Chicken Creek, TVar//, >Jar/, t(- Baker 344.

R4>utt County, CramhtU 5:W.

Veta Pass, Shear 824.

South Park, UW/295a.

Summit Lake, (iriffiths it* Morri» 303.

Pine Forest Mountains, (irifiUhs d* Morrix 215.

15j. Festuca ovina arizonica ( Va.M^\v ) Hack.

Festuea « rtson/oa Vasey, Contr. Nat. Herb. 1: 277. 1893. Tyi)e 8|)eciinen in the
National Herbarium, collected by S. M. Tracy near Fla#?staff, Arizona (no. 118).

Fe»tnca oHna arizonica Hack.; Beal, (brasses N. Am. 2: 598. 1896. Re<luces the
above to sul)si)ecific rank.

Festnca raset/ana Ha<-k.; Beal, op. cit. 601. Ty{)e colle<'te<l at Veta Paj^s, Colorado,
by Dr. Geon?e Vaeey in 1884.

Fextura itcahrefla vaseyana Hack.; Beal, op. cit. 605. Tyi)e from ** Colorado (Veta
Pass), Vafey, at an altitude of 9,300 feet."

The type specimens^ of the last two were in Professor Scribner's herbarium, acct)nl-
ing to Dix'tor Beal. The National Herbarium s|)ei'imens nhow that DiK'tor Vasey col-
lected both arizonica and ingrata at Veta Pass, but DcH'tor Beal's descriptions were
certainly based on the ariz<mica specimens in the case of FeMura Hcahrelln va^eyana an<l
probably so in the cas^ of Festnca rnseyana.

Festnnt orhia arizonira occurs in Southern Colora<lo, Arizona, and New Mexico. A
specimen from Oregon, Hoover Creek, (iilliam County {I^ihery 137), seems aL«o refer-
able here.

16. Festuca rigrescens (Presl) Kunth.

Diplachne rUjesceiw Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 : 260. 1830. " Hab. in montanis Peruviae
huanoccensibus." Type probably in Presl's herbarium in the University of l*rague;
a duplicate in Bernhardi's herbarium, now in the possession of the Missouri Botan-
ical Gardens.

Feslxioi rigesretis ls.\3ini\v, Enum. PI. 1: 403. 1833. Transfers the above to Fc^stuca.
The only North American specimen we have seen was collected by S. M. Tracy "in
open pine woods, 4 miles northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona, June, 1887."


Densely tufted, smooth and glabrous up to the inflorescence; culms 2-jointed, hard
and polished, rigid, 30 to 50 cm. high; sheaths smooth, shorter than the internodes,
the basal ones much broadened and somewhat explanate; ligule nearly obsolete,
ciliate; blades involute, cylindric, rigid, erect, smooth, pungent at the apex, 8 to 12
cm. long, 1 to 2 mm. in diameter; panicle narrow, erect, 5 to 10 cm. long; rays few,
solitary, erect, sparingly branched, angled, nearly smooth; spikelets rather closely
3-flt>wered, 6 to 7 mm. long; joints of the rachilla cylindric, smooth; glumes thick
' and firm, the lower l-nerved, acute, 2 mm. long, the upper 3-nerveclt a little longer,

hoth scabrous toward the tips; lemma ovate, thick, convex, somewhat carinate toward

the acuminate apex, awnless or very short-awned, scabrous near the tip, 4 to 4.5 mm.

long, 5-nerved, the lateral nerves disappearing above the middle; palea as long as

the lemma, obtuse, the nerves htspidulous.

Digitized by



This plant ia easily distinguishable from any of the North American forms of
F. ovina. Some European subspecies, however, as F, ovina vaginata and F. oi^ina
psammophilaj have, like the American plant, the combination of rigid leaves and
awnless lemmas. It may therefore be necessary to reduce our plant to subspecific

17 Festuca viridula Vasey.

Festuca viridula Vasey, 111. N. A. Grasses 2: 93. 1893. Type in the National Her-
barium, collected in California by Bolander.

In the original description Doctor Vasey gives * 'California" as the locality for the
species. At that time he had before him, from Californin, two specimens from Bolan-
der and one from Lemmon, all of which he labelled Festuca viridula in his own hand-
writing, adding in the case of one Bolander specimen a mark of doubt. Inasmuch
as part at least of the accompanying illustration is drawn from a Bolander specimen,
the one po marked without mark of doubt is selected as type. This specimen was
received from the Thurber herbarium, labelled Festuca graciUirna Hook., and is doubt-
less the basis of Doctor Vasey's statement to the effect that Thurber was in error in
identifying the species in the Botany of California as Festuca graciUiina Hook.

Online LibraryUnited States National Museum United States. Division of BotanyContributions from the United States National Herbarium, Volume 10 → online text (page 4 of 65)