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Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Volume 10 online

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Some of the figures of this diatom, notably those by Ktitzing, Pritchard, and WoUe,
(those of the last copied from Van Heurck),** are so imlike this form as to be utterly
misleading.

Found at stations 2680H, 2807, 2835, off central California to Galapagos Islands.

Biddidphia aurita (Lyng.) Breb. & God. Consid. Diat. 12. 183S. W. Smith, Synop.
Brit. Diat. 1: 49. pi 4S.f. 319. 1853. Jan. Abh. Schles. Ges. Vaterl. Cult. 1862^:
16. pi lA.f. 9. 1862. Rabh. Fl. Eur. Alg. 1: 311. 1864. O'Meara, Proc. Roy.
Irisn Acad. M. 2: 274. pi 27. f. 8. 1875. Griff. <fe Henf. Micr. Diet. ed. 3. pi
19. f. 9. 1875. Schmidt, Atlas pi 122. f. 6. 1888. Van Heur. Synop. 205. pi
98. f. 4-1^. 1881-5. Wolle, Diat. N. A. pi 96. f. 9-11. 1890.

Diatoma auritum Lyng. Hydro, Dan. 182. pi 62. f. D. 1819.

OdanteUa aurita C. Ag. Consp. Diat. 56. 1830-32. KOtz. Bacill. 137. pi 29. f. 88.
1844. De Toni, Syl. Alg. 2: 862. 1894.

Dentxcella aunta Ehrenb. Mikrog. pi 35 A. XXTII. /. 7. 1854. Bail. Am, Joum.
Sci. U. 22: X.pl l.f. 26-28. 1856.



• Van Heur. Synop. 207. 1885.

6C. Ag. Syst. Alg. 7. 1824.

cC. Ag/ Consp. Crit. Diat. 55. 1830-1832.

^Van Heur. Synop. pi 103, f, c, 1881.



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300 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM.

Deniicella gracilis Ehrenb. Ber. Akad. Wise. Berl. 1840: 204. 1841.

Biddulphia sarmbanca Schmidt, Atlas pi. iif^./. 10-12. 1888.

Denticella zanzibarica De Toni, S>11. Alg. 2: 886. 1894.

This well-known and variable species is met with in lai^ quantities at some of the
stations, especially at stations 2844 and 3361H. At station 3569H it is present, but
very rare. A minute and 8tix)ngly divergent variety occurs at station 4029H, which
is the same as that figurtHl in Schmidt's Atlas, plate 122, figures 10 to 12, and named
B. sansibarica Schmidt. There can be no reasonable doubt of this being B. aurita if
a careful examination is made of its many varieties, or even if, taking Schmidt's owii
figures, we compare figure 2 and figure 7 with figure 12, and also figure 8 with figures
10 and 11 in plate 122. De Toni not only accepts them as specifically distinct, but
assigns them to separate genera. (See the citations above.)

Found at sUtions 2287H, 2690H, 2844, 2848, 2859, 2882, 2920H, 3361H, 3569H,
3635H, 3671H, 3688H, 3691H, 3692H, 3694H, 3704H, 3912H, 4013H, 4014H, 4029H,
off central California to Bering Sea and south to Honshu and Hawaiian islands.

Biddulphia biquadrata (Jan.) Boyer, Proc. Acad. Phila. 1900: 717. 1901.

Tnceratium biquadratum Jan.; Schmidt, Atlas pi. 98. f. 4-6, pi. 99. f. 25-26. 1886.
Jan. Gaz. Exped. pi. 11. f. 1, 4-6.

I include figures 25 and 26 in Schmidt's Atlas, plate 99, as they are certainly the
same species as that figured in plate 98. Both come from the Gazelle Ex[>edition.
Triceratium junctum Schmidt « is very close to the above.

Found at station 2807, Galapagos Islands.

Biddulphia consimilia (Grun.) Boyer, Proc. Acad. Phila. 1900: 709. 1901.

Triceratium consiviile Grun.; Van Heur. Synop. pi. 108. /. i. 1881. Schmidt,
Atlas pi. 84. f. lS-14. 1885.

The above figures need to be taken together. Schmidt's representation of the
general form is excellent, but his figure and description of the secondary markings
are wrong. Grunow's own figure cited above shows that these are not a central nodule
surrounded by a faint circle, but a central nodule and a row of bright bead-like
puncta close to and parallel to the walls of the hexagons. The nodule and the
puncta are in two planes of focus, so that when the nodule is distinct the row of
puncta assumes the appearance of a ring. Hence Schmidt's mistake.

Found at station 2807, Galapagos Islands.

Biddulphia culciteUa Mann, sp. nov. Plate XLVI, figure 3.

Valve rectangular, the four sides sharply concave; the four horns or processes
narrow and slightly prt)longed beyond the border line; markings of beading, evenly
and finely distributed over the entire valve in rows radial from the center, where six
or eight beads are loasely grouped to form an indistinct rosette; valve surface very
slightly convex until close to the margin, where it curves rapidly downward to the
ribbed Iwrder; all specimens are marked with two sets of strong hyaline ridg(»s, one
forming a circle about the center with a diameter of one-half that of the valve, the
other set consisting of two parallel rulgos proceeding backward from the base of each
of the four processes for a short distance, al>out one-eighth the diameter of the valve,
where they separate at right angles and end at the margin.

Diameter of valve (between two apices), 0.081 mm.

Type in the U. S. National Museum, No. 590136 from station 2807, Galapagos
Islands, April 4, 1888; 812 fathoms, bottom of Globigerina ooze and coral mud.

This form is of the "Amphitetras]" type, and would be classed by some authors in
that genus (hero united with Biddulphia) and by others in Triceratium, from which
these Biddulphia forms are here removed.



a Schmidt, Atlas pi. 98. f. 1-3, 19. 1886.

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MANN — DIATOMS OF THE ALBATROSS VOYAGES. 301

Biddulphia dubia (Bright.) Cleve, in Nordensk. Vega Exped. 3: 508. 1883. Boyer,
Proc. Acad. Phila. 1000: 707. 1901.

Odontidium punctatum Roper ?, Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci. 7: 180. pi. 9. f. 9. 1869.
Moeb. Diat.-taf. pi 23. f. 9. 1890.o

Triceratium hullosvm Witt, Journ. Mus. Godef. 1: 67. pi. 8.f. 4. 1873.

Triceratium duhium Bright. Trans. *Micr. Soc. I^nd. n. s. 7: 180. pi. 9.f. IS. 1869.
Schmidt, Atlas pi. 78. f. iO-.so. 1882.

THceratium (or Biddulphia) bicome Cleve, Bih. Sv.Vet. Akad. Ilandl. 5^: 17. pL6,
/. 30. 1878.

Amphitetras bicomis De Toni, Syll. Alg. 2: 902. 1894.

Though this species has sometimes a rather close resemblance to minute specimens of
B. reticulata Roper, and this led me for a time to make it a variety of the latter, a careful
examination of many specimens of both forms, abundantly supplied in some of the
dredgings, shows them to be essentially distinct. B. dubia is always small, its reticula-
tions irregular and of unequal size, their dividing walls thick and crinkled, the border
massive, and the valve outline rhombic. In B. reticulata, on the other hand, a larger
diatom, the reticulations are quite regular, generally hexagonal, with thin dividing
walls showing ** knots''' at their points of juncture, the border is not so massive, and the
valve outline is either elliptical or with convex sides approaching that figure. Both
species have secondary dotted markings within the reticulations, but those of B. reticu-
lata are smaller and more distinct. The general similarity of these two species has, I
think, led to the naming of Schmidt's figures & ''B. reticulata Roper, var.?" whereas
they are certainly closer to B. dubia. The union of Triceratium bicome Cleve, and
Trxceratium bulloswni Witt, which i^ recognized by De Tonic and by Boyer ,<* is rather
difficult to admit, in view of Witt's carefully drawn figure and his plain description.
Yet the close similarity of Witt's form to Triceratium dubium Bright, is undeniable, as
is also the specific identity of T. dubium and T. bicome. In fact, we have here an
illustration of how misty and indefinable our specific boundaries really are, and how
subsequently discovered specimens may bridge over the wide gap that separates
apparently quite unlike species. Thissame condition has been previously referred to
under Aidiseus punctatus and A. pruinosus Bail.

Found at station 2885, off Oregon.

Biddulphia edwardsii Febiger; H. L. Smith, Sp. Diat. Typ. no. 623. 1874. Boyer,
Proc. Acad. Phila. 1900: 701. 1901.

Odontella edwardsii Grun. ; Van Heur. Synop. pi. 100. f. 9-10. 1881. Grun. Denkschr.
Akad. Wien 48^: 57. pi. ^./. 20. 1884. De Toni, Syll. Alg. 2: 865. 1894.

Biddulphia obtusa Ralfs, err. det. in Van Heur. Synop. pi. 100. f. 11-14. 1881.

Biddulphia polycanthos Brun. Mem. Soc. Phys. et Hist. Nat. Geneva 31*: 12. pi. IS.
f. 8a-b. 1891.

Od<mUlla ? polycanthos De Toni, Syll. Alg. 2: 865. 1894.

I find two well-marked varieties of the above polymorphic diatom . One corresponds
closely to what Brun (loc. cit.) has called B. polycanthos, and that, too, in the forms
both with and without the large spines. Brun therefore erroneously makes these
spines a mark of specific distinction for his form. Nor can the difference of B. edwardsii,
having diagonal and B. polycanthos vertical lines of beading on the girdle, be admitted.
For in most gatherings of B. edwardsiiy where there is considerable diversity in size,
both patterns of marking can be seen in abundance. Such, for example, is the case in
the H. L. Smith type-slide no. 623 in possession of the U. S. National Museum. This



« Cf. De Toni, Syll. Alg. 2: 641. 1892.
ft Schmidt, Atlas pi. 78. f. 2t~2S,
cDe Toni, Syll. Alg. 2: 973. 1894.
d Proc. Acad. Phila. 1900: 707. 1901.



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302 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM.

species of Brun must, therefore, be ranked as a variety of the above. The second
variety, found at station 2807, is the form called OdonUlla obiusa (Ktitz.) Ralf8.<>
It is clearly a small variety of this species, exact examples being easily found
in most large gatherings, as in the above-mentioned type-slide of H. L. Smith. But
it is doubtful if this is the genuine Odontella o6tM«a»KQtz., which seems to have
a much closer resemblance to B. roperiana Grev.^ Thus Kiitzing« figures it as
a smoother diatom than B. edwardsii^ as does also Ralfs,^ and under its synony-
mous name of 0. biddulphiaides \Vigand« it also differs greatly. I therefore have
not included this in the above synonymy. B. primordialis Brun/ is also omitted
as a synonym. The figures of the two species are often quite close. But typical
specimens of B. primordialis are frequent in gatherings made at stations 2844 and 3263H
and when these are compare<l with examples of B. edwardsii the difference is seen to
be far too wide to admit of their union. It is perhaps a comparison of the figures of
these two diatoms, rather than the specimens themselves, that has led Grove to unite
them.^ De Toni * notes the similarity of the two, but gives Brun's form separate rank.
I can not agree with H. L. Smith* in considering this species as **a hirsute variety of
B. roperiana Grev."

The specimens found by me were mostly large forms, ranging from 0.095 mm. in
station 3604 (Bering Sea) to 0.14 mm. in station 2848, south of Alaska peninsula.

Found at stations 2287H, 2807, 2848, 3604, 3693H, 4013H, off Alaska peninsula, to
Bering Sea and south to Honshu Island, Japan.

Biddulphia eztensa Mann. sp. nov. Plate XLVII, figures I, 2.

Valve an elongated and perfectly symmetrical ellipse, about four and one-half tim»
as long as wide, elegantly beaded with fine, round, closely set beads, radiating from a
small circular hyaline central area, the lines so arranged as to form concentric ellipses
on either half of the valve, these extending from the circular central area to the bases
of the long vertical horns arising near the apices of the valve; of the lines radiating
from the cent(»r only the two coinciding with the median transverse axis straight, the
others curving in conformity with the two ellipses; two stout, straight, and long spines
Hct on opposite sides of the central area, half way between the valve's longitudinal and
transverse axes, and spread upward and outward; in zonal view the valve showing the
two horns to be long, tapering, and vertical, and broadened into a fiat-topped apex, thisa
little higher than the much elevated central area; the base of the valve joined to the
girdle by a curved line; approximate valves of adjoining frustules united by the
tips of the horns and further connected by a pellucid filip-like silicious membrane
at the center, parting and narrowing toward the apices; the two central areas almost
touching, and the four long spines arising from these interlocked, the two from each
valve being on opposite sides of the other valve.

In the single dredging in which this species was found it is abundant; but I have not
been able to find any certain remains of the connecting girdle.

Length of valve, 0.130 mm; width of valve, 0.028 mm.

Type inU. S. National Museum, No. 590137, from station 4505 H, Santa Cruz light-
house, Monterey Bay, Cal.; 10 fathoms.



« Van Heur. Synop. pi 100. f. 11-14. 1881.

«> Quart. Joum. Micr. Sci. 7: pi. 8./. 11-13. 1859.

<• Kutz. Bacill. 137. pi. IS. Vlll./. 1-S, 6-8. 1844.

d Pritch. Hist. Infus. ed. 4. 848. pi. IS.f. S0-S2A. 1861.

rllodw. 2: 45. pi. l.J. 21. 1860.

/Mem. Soc. Phys. et Hist. Nat. Geneva 31': 12. pi. 13. f. 9, pi. U.f. 9. 1891.

(7 Schmidt, Atlas pi. 172./. -j.

fcDe Toni, Syll. Alg. 2: 864, 1894.

< Am. Journ. Micr. 4: 101. 1879.



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MANN — DIATOMS OF THE ALBATROSS VOYAGES. 303

Biddulphia favus (Ehrenb.) Van Heur. Synop. 208. 1885. Boyer, Proc. Acad. Phila.

1900: 706. 1901.
Triceratium favus Ehrenb. Phye. Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berl. 1830: 159. pi. -#./. 10.

1841; Mikrog. pi, 19. f. 17. 1854; Phys. Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berl. 1841: 323,

443. pi. S. VII. f. 10. 1843. Ktttz. Bacill. 139. pi. IS. f. 11. 1844. W. Smith, Synop.

Brit. Diat. 1: 26. pi. 5.f. 44, pi- SO.f. 44. 1853. Pritoh. Hist. Infus. ed. 4. 855.

pi. 11. f. .4S-44. 1861. Schmidt, Atlas pi. 82. f. 1, S, 4. 1885. Jan. Abh. Schles.

Gea. Vaterl. Cult. 1862^: 15. pi. IB. /. 9. 1862. Wolle, Diat. N. A. pi. 99. f. /, ^.

1890. Van Heur. Synop. pi. 107. f.1-4. 1881. H. L. Smith, Sp. Diat. Typ. no. 598.

1874. O^Meara, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. II. 2: 277. 1875. Rabh. Fl. Eur. Alg. 1:

315. /. 57. 1864. Ehrenb. Phys. Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berl. 1839: 159. pi. 4.f.lOa-b.

1841. Griff. A Henf. Micr. Diet. ed. 3. pi. 13./. 29. 1875. Grun. in Fenzl, Reise

Novara Bot. 1: 24. 1870. Grun. Schmidt, Atlas pi. 126. f. 6-7. 1888. Carp.

Micro, ed. 8. 613./. 442. 1901. Leud.-Fort. Mem. Soc. Emul. St. Brieuc 60. 1879.

Kain, Bull. Torr. Club 14: 29. 1887. Truan & Witt, Diat. Hayti 21. pi. 6.

/. S, pi. 7./. 8. 1888. Moeb. Diat.-taf. pi. l.f. 6. 1890. Named varieties: Schmidt,

Atlas pi. 82. / 2, 11, pi. 84- f. 4. 1885; pi. 93. f. 4. 1886. Bright. Quart. Joum.

Micr. Sci. 4: 274. pi. 17. f. 7. 1856. Moeb. Diat.-taf. pi. 9. f. 7. H. L. Smith,

Sp. Diat. Typ. no. 599. 1874. Grun.; Van Heur. Synop. pi. 107. f. 5. 1881. Kiitz.

Sp. Alg. 140. 1849. Castr. Rep. Voy. Chall. Bot. 2: 109. pi. 6.f.l, pi. 9. /. J. 1886.

Kitt. Mo. Micr. Journ. 12: 219. pi. 82. f. 7-8. 1874.
Triceratium comptum Ehrenb. Ber. Akad. Wiss. Berl. 1843: 166. 1844. Bright.

Quart. Joum. Micr. Sci. 1: 249. pi 4./. 4- 1853. Pritch. Hist. Infus. ed. 4. 857.

1861.
Triceratium m^^cw/omum Bright, err. det. Quart. Joum. Micr. Sci. 1: 248. pi. -f./. 7.

1853. Moeb. Diat.-taf. pi. l.f. 7. 1890 (not Ehrenb. Mikrog. pi. S5A XVII. f. 14.

1854. nor Pritch. Hist. Infus. ed. 4. 855. 1861).

Triceratium muricatum Bright. Quart. Joum. Micr. Sci. 1: 249. pi. 4./. S. 1853.
Moeb. Diat.-taf. pi. l.f. 5. 1890. Pritch. Hist. Infus. ed. 4. 856. 1861. Schmidt,
Atlas pi. 83. f. 8-10. 1885. De Toni, Syll. Alg. 2: 923. 1894.
Triceratium scitulum Bright. Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci. 1: 250. pi. 4- /. 9. 1853.
Moeb. Diat.-taf. pi. l.f. 9. 1890. Schmidt, Atlaa pi 83./. 11-16. 1885. Grun. in
Fenzl, Reise Novara Bot. 1: 24. 1870. DeToni, Syll. Alg. 2: 922. 1894. Pritch.
Hist. Infus. ed. 4. 857. 1861.
Triceratium grande Bright. Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci. 1: 249. pi 4-f. 8. 1853. Moeb.
Diat.-taf. pi l.f. 8. 1890. Schmidt, Atlas pi 82./. 5. 1885. De Toni, Notar. 3:
626. 1888. Pant. Beitr. Bacill. Ung. 1: 54. pi 4. f. 33. 1886. Pritch. Hist.
Infus. ed. 4. 856. 1861. Tman <fe Witt, Diat. Hayti 21. pi 6. /. 10, pi 7./. 7.
1888. Wolle, Diat. N. A. pi 104. f. 1. 1890.
Triceratium fimhriatumV^ fiWicYi, Quart. Joum. Micr. Sci. 6: 247. pi 12./. 4-9. 1858.

Schmidt, Atlas pi 82./ 6-7. 1885.
Biddulphia grandis Boyer, Proc. Acad. Phila. 1900: 706. 1901.
The necessity of classing this as a Biddulphia becomes evident as soon as we dis-
regard the unimportant fact that it is often found in triangular form. So far as my
experience goes, it is quite as abundant in sea dredgings in the quadrate form. It is
the dominant species of stations 2915H to 2921H, 3008H, 3010n, 3013H, 4430H, 4502H,
and 4571H, where it occurs in immense quantities and without any of the triangular
varieties present. H. L. Smith's type 599 is a similar case. He marks it **Tuscarora
soundings S. of Sandwich Isl. 1468 fms.," the locality, therefore, corresponding almost
exactly with station 3008H. Five to 8-angled forms are frequent in all large gather-
ings. But whether of triangular form or not, this species, seen from the valval side,
but especially from the zonal side, with its horn-like processes at the angles and its
peculiar set of the valves on the girdle, is shown to be an almost typical example of
Biddulphia. Like all the other members of this genus, it is either marine or fossil.



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304 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM.

I am at present unable to include in this species some forms so classed by other
writers. Thus Trieeratium orientale Bail. & Harv.** is hardly close enough to T. grande
Bright. , which it most resembles, to make me certain that it can be rightly identified
with that form. It is, however, so disposed of by Habirshaw,* and is classed by him as
a synonym of Biddulphia grandis (Bright.) Boyer, which is in this paper united with
B.favus. The same is true of Trieeratium cuspidatum Jan., which Boyer unite^^ with
this species, and De Toni is disposed to class with his emended genus Amphitetraa. It
is figured by Schmidt and also by Janisch. c A question might also be raised as to the
rather divergent varieties above united with this species, yiz, Trieeratium m^tricatum
Bright, and T. scitulum Bright. But Schmidt says,** **0b T. mnricatum und scitulum
mehr sind als kleine Formen von T. favus ist noch genauer zu untersuchen/* and
Ralfs'' says of T. scitulum, "Except in its smaller size, we see not how this species
differs from T. favus.'' The T. scitulum variety is abundant at station 3604, which
also contains fine examples of sexangular and octangular specimens of T. grande.

Found at stations 2807, 2808, 2915H, 2916H, 2917H, 2918H, 2919H, 2920H, 2921H,
3008H, 3010H, 3013H, 3604, 4430H, 4571H, Galapagos Islands to Bering Sea and
Hawaiian Islands.

Biddulphia gladionun Mann, sp. nov. Plate XLVII, figure 4.

Valve elongated-oval, flat to nearly the full outline of the frustule, then bending
I>erpendicularly downward in a broad band to the line of suture with the girdle; top
and vertical sides of the valve delicately beaded with Pleurosigma-like markings; the
two terminal processes, corresponding to horns in similar species, here scarcely raised
above the surface of the valve, appearing as small obliquely inclined rings; five stout
setae, tapering to an acut« point, and occasionally imi>erfectly forked, set cloee to the
margin of the flat portion of the valve, their bases broadened and extending into a low
delicate hyaline comb or ridge, thus forming a connecting line between the setae; a
thread-like hollow central line within the setae extending to near the tip; two of the
setae next to and interior to the two processes.

L1.

Odontellaf reticulata DeToni, Syll. Alg. 2: 868. 1894.

Typical examples of this diatom are plentiful in the dredging to be cited. For a dis-
cussion of the confusion between quadrate specimens of this species and B, dyina
(Bright.) Cleve, see under that species.

Found at station 3696, off Honshu Island, Japan.
Biddulphia robertslana (Grev.) Boyer, Proc. Acad. Phila. 1900: 707. 1901.

Triceratium robertsianum Grev. Quart. Joum. Micr. Sci. n. s. 3: 231. pi. 9./. 9. 1863;
6: pi. 2./. 2. 1886. Moeb. Diat.-taf. pi. 47. f. 9, pi. 71. f. 22. 1890. Schmidt,
Atlas pi. 83. f. 3-7 (var.), pi. 82./. 14-15. 1885.

This diatom is rather close to the Triceratium grande form of Biddulphia fai-us
(Ehrenb.) Van Heurck, both in its general shape and in the fine radiating secondary
markings. Still, the fact that the processes are very obtuse and separated by a hyaline
area from the reticulation and that the angles are not at all prominent, together with
the general presence of large spines on the sides, give it an aspect that wannants its
separate name. It is quite possible that the first of the Greville figures cited above is
of " Triceratium grande" and his second figure that of the true type. They are very
dissimilar. The second is at any rate more like the forms classified by me in the
present species and agrees better with the description given by Greville, except in
the matter of spines, all ray specimens having two stout spines near the margin of
each of the three sides. It is spoken of by Greville, Schmidt, and Boyer as very rare.
In the single gathering where I found it it is fairly abundant. Boyer says: ** Pacific
soundings 20° 10' K., 158° 14' W., 2,507 fathoms." My specimens came from Pacific
soundings 21° 21' N., 157° 09' W., and though the depth is only 570 fathoms, the loca-
tion is right on the edge of a deep plain averaging 2,500 fathoms; this particular
sounding being just close enough inshore to get the rise of the land from the true sea
bottom. This is another one of many instances described in this work where a single
species is very significant of locality on the sea bottom.

Found at station 2920H, Hawaiian Islands.
Biddulphia roperiana Grev. Trans. Micr. Soc. Lond. n. s. 7: 163. pi. 8.f. 11-lS. 1859.
Van Heur. Synop. pi. 99. f. 4-6. 1881. Schmidt, Atlas pi. 120. f. 20-24- 1^8-
H. L. Smith, Diat. Sp. Typ. no. 625. 1874. Boyer, Proc. Acad. Phila. 1900: 700.
1901. Castr. Rep. Voy. Chall. Bot. 2: 106. pi. 26. f. 4. 1886.

Plate XLVI, figure 2.

Odontella roperiana De Toni, Syll. Alg. 2: 868. 1894.

It is also possible, as suggested by Boyer,o that Biddulphia (Odontella) disdgera Gnm.
and Triceratium {Odontella discigera var.?) califomicum Grun.6 might be classed as
synonymous with the above; but without more light than these two figtu^s afford I am
unwilling to agree to the suggestion. As has been stated under Biddulphia edtcardtii
Febiger, I find that B. obtusa (Ktitz.) Ralfs, ajs figured in Van Heurck<* agrees better
with that species than with this one, though De Toni ^ favors the idea of this species
being a large form of Kiitzing's species. As to that matter I have much doubt about
there being any close similarity between these species independent of the relation of
Van Heurck's figures. De Toni follows the reference to Van Heurck's figure with the
remark, '^Odontella roperiana (Grev.) videtur forma major hujus speciei," but he gives

a Proc. Acad. Phila. 1900: 700. 1901.
h Van Heur. Synop. pi. 108. f. 9, 11. 1881.
c Op. cit. 100./. 11-14. 1881.
d De Toni, Syll. Alg. 2: 863. 1894.



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MANN — DIATOMS OF THE ALBATROSS VOYAGES. 309

separate rank to Ktitzing's and Greville's species. Gnmow« says, under B.ohtusa
(Klitz.) Gnin.: "Hierher scheint mir als groese Form Bidd. roperiana Grev. zu ge-
hdren." Grunow here incorrectly credits the inclusion of Ktitzing's species in
Biddulphia to himself, an error repeated by Schmidt. & It was previously so classed
by Half 8. « I think it is on the whole best to do as Van Heurck and De Toni have done,
notice the resemblance between Ktttzing's and Greville's species, but keep them
separate. The same will be true of the synonym of Kiitzing's species, Odontella bid-
diUpkioides Wigand.d A new variety is here figured.
Found at stations 3604, 3688H, 3712H, Bering and Okhotsk seas.

Biddulphia Bcutellum Mann sp. no v. Plate XL VII, figure 3.

Valve an elongated oval, the surface evenly convex except for a circular central
area as wide as the valve, this flat (not concave); markings of the central area,
fine beading in radiating rows from two approximate foci; of the rest of the valve, of
similar beading in rows running chiefly parallel with the long axis of the valve; in
addition to this beading, minute pointed processes scattered evenly over the entire
valve, as in valves of B. edwardm Febiger; the two processes, short, broad, and circu-
lar, close to the ends of the valve.

Length of valve, 0.152 mm.; width of valve, 0.058 mm.

Type in the U. S. National Museum, No. 590139, from station 2844, off Aleutian
Islands, July 28, 1888; 54 fathoms, bottom of gray sand.

The nearest species to this one is Biddulphia ohtusa (Kiitz.) Ralfs, in the doubtful
figure of it given in Van Heurck, « which, as before stated, is somewhat nearer to B,
edwardsii Febiger. This fact, taken in connection with the presence of fine spines



Online LibraryUnited States National Museum United States. Division of BotanyContributions from the United States National Herbarium, Volume 10 → online text (page 41 of 65)