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wall are well whitewashed (by the local board). Often they are the only whitewashed
things in the village, unless there be a police house or a cattle pound. To-day an
arch of leaves spans the garden gate, fringing a golden "Welcome" on red cloth. A
row of flags and flowery festoons lead thence to the veranda, where more gold let-
tering calls down blessings on the visitors, the spelling of whose names and titles,
even when in English, is quite curiously correct.

Organization of the school. — Let us pass under the triumphal arch, between these
simple, well-meant tributes and the little groups of expectant villagers, into the build-
ing itself and see what it contains.

A rural school in these provinces contains five classes: (1) The infant class; (2) the
first class, diA'ided into two sections; (.3) the second class; (4) the third class, and (5)
the fourth class, which ends the primary course with the so-called primary examina-
tions. In a school thus divided a certified master is supposed to be able to teach
and manage 40 boys; a monitor half that number. We were told by the committee
that some 50 boys read in this school, hence we expect and find both a master and
a monitor. The former has studied either in a normal school or in one of the local
training classes, hence his general educational qualifications rise a standard or two
al)ove the fourth class, and he has imbibed some knowledge of school method and
management. The monitor is a lad of the village who has passed his primary exam-
ination and shows a bent for teaching. He takes the little boys, and at the end of
this year will V)e sent for a couple of years' training at the normal school, whence he
will emerge a full-blown teacher. The minimum pay of a master begins at 8 rupees
per month. He may rise to 15 rupees or even 20 rupees in a rural school, but he is often
a pluralist — village postmaster, pound keeper, vendor of stamps and quinine — and these
s\ibsidiary posts may swell his pay to over 20 rupees. Such appointments, together with
the head masterships of vernacular middle schools, are the plums of the rural teacher's
service and are kept as prizes for the most deserving. The monitor draws from 2 to
4 rupees per month. The duties to be performed are not arduous, for rural schools
are j)rimarily intended for "half-timers," i. e., the sons of farmers or laborers whose
parents would object to their attending school all day. For, in the first place, they
are required to help in light labor in the fields; and, in the second, if they do not
early grow acciistomtHl to exposure, they will, so it is believed, be unable to face the
midday sun in later life. Hence the half-time system has been devised, giving sucli
lioys three hours of instruction in the morning (7 to 10 o'clock), the course compris-
ing the "three Il's" and a minimum of geograi)liy, with such purely utilitarian sul)-
jects as accounts and palwaris' paj)ers. Any nu'al school nuiy, however, contain
full-timers as well (lliough they are few) — the sons of the v)alguzar, the bania, the
■patirari, and the schoolmaster himself — who require a little mor(^ than the minimum
knowledge, and can afford the time to return after breakfast for two hours' further
instructiijn in agriculture and more advanced geograjjhy and arithmetic. (Pp. 3-6.)



PUBLIC EDUCATION IN BRITISH INDIA. 137

In closing his account of the schools, which were examined by him with the closest
attention to every detail, Mr. Sharp submits the following considerations:

In this connection it is first necessary to consider the limitations under which the
department labors. These spring from various causes — the financial position, the
conditions of an agricultural people, the pedagogic material at hand, and, lastly, the
mental habits of the pupil.

(o) Financial. — We have seen that the interests of primary education are safeguarded
and that its reciuirements are met in a liberal spirit. But liberality is limited by a
narrow exchequer and the needs of the province in other directions. The present
estimated annual expenditure on district council schools alone (exclusive of inspec-
tion, training, etc.) is 3,76,055 rupees. In 1901-2 the expenditure on primary boys'
schools in British territory amounted to 3,52,159 rupees, the cost of each primary
school to 191 rupees per annum, and the cost of educating each primary pupil to
3-5-0 rupees. Or, including girls' schools and schools in feudatory States, we find the
expenditure on primary institutions (urban and rural) amounted in that year to
4.70,321 rupees, and the total expenditure upon public instruction of all sorts to
11,10,972 rupees among a popidation of 11,873,029. If children of a school-going age
b(> reckoned as 15 per cent of the population, this gives a total annual expenditure
of just below 10 annas per child. If the sums spent on high and university education
be deducted, the expenditine per h-ead will be lessened. (Were we to take 15 per
cent of the population of England and Wales and that sum only which is expended
on elementary education and training colleges, exclusive of administration, we should
arrive at an expenditure of not less than £2 7s. j^er child. But such a comparison is
hardly fruitful. ) Later figures are not available. When they are published they will
show an improvement. This paucity of funds reacts in various ways upon rural
education. It limits the spread of schools, since the people will not indulge their
children to any large extent in education unless it is paid for out of public money.
It limits the pay of schoolmasters and renders the service less attractive than it other-
wise might be. It places modifications iipon the amount and efficiency of the special
training which can be given.

(b) Dae to agricultiirul conditions. — Ample allusion has already been made to the
desirability of shortening, as far as possible, the daily hours of instruction for the children
of the agricultural and laboring classes. The half-time system may be regarded as
an established and wholesome principle; but it necessitates a curtailment of the cur-
riculum and the sacrifice of the literary to the utilitarian element. The omission (in
almost all cases) of grammar fnnn the half-time course is perhaps not to be regretted;
but the amount of poetry learned is not by any means sufficient to cultivate a taste for
the national literature; the long series of useful lessons in the readers render the
volumes a trifle dull ; and the onl j' accomplishment attempted is the rather unattract-
ive form of kindergarten drawing practiced in the lower classes. * * *

Effects of rural education. — The aim of our rural education has now been discussed;
it remains to consider its actual effects. In 1901, out of a popidation of nearly twelve
millions, 327,486 persons were returned as literate. The standard taken was a some-
what high one. Most of these had been educated in our primary schools. Two
questions arise: What are the abilities of a half-time pui:)il at the moment when he
leaves school? What are his ahilities, say, ten or fifteen years later?

Preliminary consider atio7i. — The former of these ciuestions would best be answered
by way of comparison with some known standard, such as that of an English board
schoolboy. The answer, however, is complicated by two matters which deserve
preliminary consideration. In the fiist place, the Hindu lad, up to the age of 17,
is singularly precocious. He is quick at grasping a question and at thinking out the
reply. He is not loutish like the lower-class English boy, but quiet, self-respecting,
deferential, and well-mannered. He is endowed with much (rather superficial)
common sense, aploml), and self-possession. In the second place, he is singularly
unfortunate in opportunities for what might be termed unconscious education, and
hence singularly lacking in width of view. * * *

Condition of the pupil on leaving the school. — The rural scholar passes the primary
examination and leaves school at an age between 10 and 14 years, or a little later.
In handwriting and orthography he is probably, in arithmetical tallies and the
deciphering of letters and other manuscript certainly, superior to the English (perhaps
to any) boy of a similar age. He can read simple narrative correctly, but often with
monotony and apparent want of understanding. Nevertheless, he does comprehend
and can remember the meaning of lessons which have once been taken and explained
in class. If he is given time he will probably explain an unseen lesson of equal
difficulty; but this is not always so, and if he is hurried he will understand nothing.
He is lamentaldy ignorant of history and of the conditions of India. If the teacher has



138 EDUCATION REPORT, 1906.

taken a little pains, he sings charmingly with zest and feeling; and he understands
the difficult subject-matter of the songs. He can express the simplest ideas with great
propriety on paper, but his ignorance of grammar prevents much progress. In work-
ing out sums he is careful and hardly ever makes a blunder, but he is exceedingly slow,
can work only by the precise rule shown him, and knows, of course, far less than his
Euroi^ean equivalent. At mental problems he is quick within certain limits, but take
him off the beaten track and he collapses. His attainments in geography are utterly
inferior. His knowledge of common objects is far narrower, but probably more certain
and detailed, than that of the average English boy. His acquamtance with the prin-
ciples of land record and accounts are a thing apart. Of other knowledge he possesses
none.

On the whole this lad of 14 years strikes us as possessed of a coolness and an acute-
ness equal to those of an English youth of 22, working upon an experience narrower
than that of a child of 7. Hence there is a brilliancy but at the same time an
artificial tone about his attainments. He is wanting in breadth of view, in versatility,
in solidity. * * *

Conditions in later life. — What is the mental condition of the cultivator some ten
years after leaving school? Here we must draw a distinct line between the full-timer
and the half-timer. Even if the former does not pursue his studies beyond the pri-
mary stage, he probably enters a walk of life in which his knowledge will stand him
in good stead and will be preserved by use. The half-timer passes from the school-
room to the plow; his attainments, as we have just seen, are likely to be of a destructible
character, and it is to be feared he too often "reels back into the beast." * * *

The majority never, indeed, open a book, but I have found some whom their early
education led to borrow or purchase, and seriously to study, the Ramayan. It must
be remembered that the present generation of adults was educated under the old
curriculum, which, being disconnected with their experience and studied through the
medium of an almost extinct species of Hindi, was only too likely to produce a shallow
veneer. The rural curriculum has based the pupil's studies on the objects which
surround him. Hence his knowledge has a firmer basis in experience and a better
chance of survival through the processes of association. It is too early to judge of the
results. There is at least good reason to expect they will be satisfactory. A hopeful
sign is the disapproval evinced by most patwaris and some landlords of the teachings
of patwaris' papers. * * *

The school has taken root as a popular institution in the better villages. The zones
of opposition are contracting. Still, it is as yet an up-hill struggle; let us hope it is
toward a proper goal. (Pp. 128-140.)

The appendix to this report presents a plan for rural school premises, a model course
of study, and a course for normal schools, including a course for the agricultural class
in a normal school. «

STATE TECHNICAL SCHOLARSHIPS FOR NATIVES OF INDIA.

With a view to provide for natives of India the higher technical education which
may qualify them to assist in promoting the improvement of existing native industries
and the development of new industries wherever this may be possible, the govern-
ment of India is ready as an experimental measure to give a small number of technical
scholarships if promising candidates well qualified in some particular branch of
industry present themselves. The outlines of the scheme are sketched out below.'!'

Value of the scholarships. — The value of the scholarships has been fixed at £150 a
year in addition to fees payable to the institutions where the scholars will study and
traveling expenses, but the government will consider proposals for increasing it in
special cases.

Places and periods of tenure. — Each scholarship is tenable for an average period of
two years, which may be increased or reduced in special cases.

The scholarships may l)e held in Great Britain, on the continent of Europe, or in
America, and are payable from the date of the scholar's arrival in the country which he
may select for study.

a Rural Schools in the Central Provinces, by H. Sharp, M. A., inspector of schools, pp. 141-184.
b Resolution of the government of India on industrial schools in India, cited from the Educa-
tional Review (Madras), Feb., 1904, p. 115.



PUBLIC EDUCATION IN BRITISH INDIA. 139

Subjects of study . — Law, medicine, forestry, veterinary science, agriculture, and
engineering have been excluded from the scope of the present proposal. The scholar-
ship's are in the first instance proposed to be used for the encouragement of the mining
industry in Bengal, but any other branch of industry can similarly be helped and
fostered. Industries in which native capital and enterprise are engaged, or likely to
be engaged, and in which the trained scholar might on return to his country find scope
for his skill and ability, will be particularly appropriate for selection.

Conditions of award. — The scholarships are tenable by persons who are natives of
India within the meaning of section 6 of the Statute 33 Vic, Cap. 3. A competent
knowledge of English, or the language of any other country in which the candidate
proposes to work and study, is essential to enable him to take full advantage of the
course of study.

In the matter of selection of scholars, government will be guided by considerations
of the candidate's capacity, intelligence, particular interests in and connection with
the industry selected, and the assurance that he will continue to devote himself to
the subject on his return to India, These being matters which can not be decided
by the holding of degrees obtained, by examination, or by competition, no special
examination is considered necessary and none will be held. But a scholar before
nomination should have received the best technical education available in the prov-
ince, in the particular industry which he has to study, and no candidate will be con-
sidered qualified unless he has displayed an aptitude for technical study.

No age limit has been fixed, but it may be fixed by government in certain cases.

The candidates for scholarships will be called upon to submit certificates attesting
(a) their moral character, (h) the knowledge of the language of the country in which
they elect to study, and (c) physical capacity from recognized persons who may be
considered fit to certify to these facts.

The scholars in England or elsewhere, as the case may be, will be under the control
and supervision of the secretary of state. The conditions under which they will
hold the scholarships will be similar to those laid down for the government of India
scholarships, and power will be retained to cancel a scholarship and to send the
scholar back to India, if his progress and conduct be not satisfactory.

Returned scholars. — No scholar will be Iwund on his return to India by any engage-
ment to serve government or a private firm, and the choice of his career will be in
the first instance determined, on his return from Europe, by his own inclination.
Should any occasion arise, government will be glad to turn his ability and increased
knowledge to account as teacher in an industrial school or in other capacities con-
nected with the improvement of local industries.

Applications for one or more of such scholarships, for the development of the mining
industry in the first instance, should be made direct to the director of public instruc-
tion. Full particulars should be furnished as to the past educational experience,
training, and future requirements of each applicant for a scholarship. Applicants
should also indicate, if possible, what they wish to work at in their future careers on
return to India. The scholarships will be awarded by the government of India on
the recommendation of the local government.

SCHOOLS OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY.

In view of the great importance of agricultural education in a country where two-
thirds of the population depend for their livelihood on the product of the soil, the
government of India announced in the resolution of March, 1904, the intention of
establishing an "Imperial agricultural college," in connection with an experimental
farm and research laboratory, to be carried on under the direction of the inspector-
general of agriculture. In addition to shorter courses for students intended for the
lower grade of official positions, the scheme for the college included courses of instruc-



140 EDUCATION EEPORT, 1906.

lion extending through live years, and intended to qualify men to fill posts in the
department of agriculture itself, such as those of assistant directors, research experts,
superintendents of farms, professors, teachers, and managers of court of wards and
encumbered estates. This college would serve as a higher institution in which stu-
dents who had finished the somewhat meager courses in agriculture in the provincial
colleges, might complete their special studies; through this relation the Imperial Col-
lege might be expected to gradually raise the standard of efiiciency in the lower grade
colleges.

It is interesting to note in this connection the measures already adopted by the
government for the preservation and care of the Indian forests. The State forests
which are under the control of the forest department extended in the year 1901-2
over about 217,500 square miles; out of this total over 89,000 square miles were "re-
served " and open to systematic conservancy. The reserved area was greatest in the
Central Provinces, Burma, Madras, and Bombay, in the order named. The forest
schools have been established and are maintained mainly for the training of officers
and subordinates of the forest department of the State.

The Imperial Forest School at Dehra Dun was founded in the year 1878. The
school has six lecture rooms, a library, a museum, a herbarium, a laboratory, a resin
distillery, an apparatus for the extraction of tannin, a carpenter's workshop, quarters
for 80 students, a hospital, a fruit garden, a tree park, and a nursery and plantation.
The school is under the administrative control of the inspector-general of forests, who
is assisted by a board of control of forest and educational officers. The superior staff
of the school consists of a director, a deputy director, two instructors, a vernacular
instructor, and an assistant instructor. They are all members of the forest depart-
ment, and they are assisted by forest officers of the local circle and others. The con-
servator of the circle is ordinarily the director of the school.

The school is divided into two classes. The upper class reads in English for the
higher standard or ranger's certificate, and the lower class reads in Hindustani for the
lower standard or forester's certificate. The maximum annual number of admissions
is usually 40 in the upper and 10 in the lower class. There are three categories of
.students in each class: (a) Private students, (b) students in government service, and
(c) students deputed by native states. Private students must be between the ages of
18 and 25 at the time of admission; those for the upper class must pass an entrance
examination in English and elementary mathematics; and those for the lower class
must have passed the middle school examination, and must also possess a competent
knowledge of Hindustani.

The course of instruction in each class extends over two years, and the subjects are
as follows:

1. Forestry.

2. Mathematics.

3. Physical science.

4. Botany.

5. Zoology.

6. Drawing, surveying, and estimating, as required for forest officers.

7. Forest engineering, theoretical and practical.

8. Forest law, the elements of criminal law, and departmental organization.

9. Forest accounts and procedure.

Practical training is given both at the college and in the forest, and a considerable
part of each year is spent in camp.



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