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Special report by the Bureau of education. Educational exhibits and conventions at the World's industrial and cotton centennial exposition, New Orleans, 1884-'85 .. online

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Online LibraryUnited States. Office of Education.om old cataSpecial report by the Bureau of education. Educational exhibits and conventions at the World's industrial and cotton centennial exposition, New Orleans, 1884-'85 .. → online text (page 63 of 129)
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making a total of $100,000.

461



224 EDUCATIONAL CONVENTIONS AT NEW ORLEANS EXPOSITION.

Tlic liist few sessions of the uoriual school vveie held in Government
House, but owing to the destruction by tire of the Parliament build-
ings in Montreal, in 1849, the seat of Government was transferred to
Toronto. This rendered a removal necessary. Temperance Hall was
secured as a temi)orary home, but owing to the very inadequate accom-
modation it provided, the masters were hampered in their work, and
permanent buildings were rendered a necessity. With a zeal and per-
severance that cannot be too highly commended the Chief Superin-
tendent of Education and the normal-school masters persisted in main-
taining the efficiency of this school, in spite of the adverse circum-
stances by which they were surrounded. In 38515 the handsome and
commodious buildings now occupied by the Education Department
were completed, and the normal school was accordingly removed to
that i)lace. From this time forward its use(uii)ess was an acknowledged
fact, and its influence was felt even in the most remote districts of our
Province. In pursuance of the plan of having an educational museum
and a school of art and design in connection with the normal school, it
became necessary to provide accommodation specially adapted for nor-
mal school purposes. A suitable building was erected in the rear of
the Departmental buildings, and the normal school was transferred
thereto in 1858, where it has since remained.

Prior to the opening of the normal school, the Chief Superintendent
of Education, assisted by the Council of Public Instruction, prepared
a programme of studies for the guidance of the masters and students.
At the close of each session the head master certified to the attendance
and conduct of each student, but these certificates possessed no legal
value. Before these normal school students could become legally qual-
ified teachers, it was necessary for them to pass an examination before
one of the local county boards of esaminors. In 1853 certificates of the
first and second classes were granted, for the first time, by the Chief
Sui)erintendeut upon the recommendation of the normal-school masters.
In 1855, each of these classes of certificates was further sub divided into
three grades. A, B, and C, A being the highest. These certificates
were valid during the good behavior of the holder, and in every munici-
pality in the Province. The rapid increase in the number of elementary
schools and the growing demand for a better class of teachers led to
the revision and enlargement of the programme of studies. This was
done in 1858, and is substantially the same as the one adopted by the
Central Committee of Examiners in 1871, when the privilege of obtaining
a ijroviiicial certificate was extended to all teachers, whether they had
attended the normal school or not. After one or two of these uniform
examinations had been held, it was found that many of the teachers
throughout the Province were considerably below the standard. This
led to a demand for more normal school accommodation. In response
to this demand, a normal school was built in the city of Ottawa, and
opened for the reception of students in 1875. These two schools were
soon filled with students, and it became necessary to devise some fur-
ther means whereby candidates for third class certificates should re-
ceive some preliminary training in methods of teaching, and school or-
ganization and discipline. This led to the establisliment of our system
of county model schools, one of which is to be found in every county
in the Province.

In connection with, and as appendages to, each of these normal schools
are two model schools, one for boys and the other for girls. In each of
these schools ibur teachers are employed, who are under the direct super-
vision of the head masters of the normal schools. The design of these
46^



INTERNATIONAL CONORESS OF EDUCATORS PAPERS. 225

scliools is, (1) to afford the student-teachers practice in the art of teach-
ing; [2) to exemplify the best methods of organizing a school and classi-
fying the pupils; (3) to illustrate the most approved methods of instruc-
tion^ and (4) to show how proper order and discipline are to be main-
tained.

We have thus far briefly sketched, imperfectly it may be, the rise and
progress of these institutions, and the growth and development of a
public sentiment that now sustains them and adds to their influence.
Our work will not be complete nor their value properly appreciated
until we have examined somewhat minutely the work they are now
doing. Before taking up this part of our subject, it may be as well to
glance briefly at the design and functions of these schools. They were
originally established as professional schools, and designed to train
public-school teachers for the more efficient discharge of their duties, bj^
giving them, firstly, instruction in the science of education, and, sec-
ondly, practice in the art of teaching. Until quite recently it was
found necessary to combine instruction in all the elementary branches
with professional training. This arose from the fact that the majority —
fully nine-tenths, it is said — of applicants for admission to the normal
school were so deficient in scholastic acquirements as to need special
instruction. Since 1871, owing to the indefatigable exertions of the
high school inspectors, a very great impulse has been given to the cause
of secondary education, and now all candidates for public-school teachers'
certificates receive their literary training in the high schools and colle-
giate institutes. The normal-school masters, who are thus relieved from
teaching the non professional subjects, are left free to devote all their
energies to their legitimate work, the professional training of teachers,
and we have abundant reasons for believing that this work is done in
a most satisfactory manner.

There are two sessions of these normal schools in each year, the first
opening on the third Tuesday in January and closing on the third Fri-
day in June, the second opening on the third Tuesday in August and
closing not later than the twenty-second of December. The hours of
daily work are from 9 A. m. to 13 m., and from 1.30 p. M. to 4 p. m. These
schools are opened and closed by reading a portion of Scripture, accom-
panied with a suitable prayer. The head master is held responsible for
the order, discipline, and general progress of the students in all the
classes, and is required to arrange the division of work among the mas-
ters, subject, however, to the approval of the Minister of Education. He
is also required to visit, from time to time, the classes under the different
masters; to satisfy himself as to their progress; to hold, or cause to be
held, such oral or written examinations during the course of the session
as may be necessary to test the work done by the students; and to keep
a record of the results of such examinations. The assistant masters are
directly responsible to the head master, and are required to report
monthly to him the standing and progress of each student in the sub-
jects of their departments.

Candidates for admission are required to comply with the following
conditions, viz: To be native born or naturalized subjects of Her Maj-
esty; to have passed the prescribed examination for second-class non-
professional certificates; to hold a third-class professional certificate or
its equivalent; to have taught successfully for at least one year, as cer-
tified by the public-school inspector in whose inspectorate the teaching
was done; to give satisfactory evidence of good moral character at the
time of making application ; and, if females, to be not less than eighteen
years of age, and, if males, nineteen. The necessary blank forms are
7950 COT, pt. 2 15 463



226 EDUCATIONAL CONVENTIONS AX NEW ORLEANS EXPOSITION.

furnished by the Education Department, which, when properly filled
out, are examined by an officer appointed lor that purpose, and if found
satisfactory, certificates of admission are issued. At the opening- of
each session these certificates are presented to the head master by the
candidates, tbeir names are registered, and they are henceforth ame-
nable to the rules in force in these schools. These rules are designed to
impress upon the minds of the students the special purpose for which
the normal schools were established, viz, to fit them for the proper dis-
charge of their duties as public school teachers, so that, by examj^le
and professional ability, they may make their influence for good felt in
their respective schools and the community at large. The following
brief summary will show the scope of these rules: Students are required
to be regular and punctual in their attendance at the several classes;
to give due attention and respect to the masters; to act with becoming
courtesy towards each other; to lodge and board at such houses only as
are approved by the head master; and not to be absent from such board-
ing houses later than 9.30 p. m. without special permission. Ladies and
gentlemen are not allowed to board at the same houses, and communi-
cations of any and every kind between the sexes are strictly prohibited.
Classes for religious instruction are to be regarded as regular classes
in the school.

In every scholastic institution a carefully prepared course of study is
an essential requisite. This is particularly the case with those designed
for the professional training of teachers, since in such institutions every
lesson taught should be a practical illustration of the best methods
of instruction, as well as a means of imparting valuable information.
From what has already been said, it will be observed that none but
advanced students are admitted into the normal schools. These having
had, in addition to their literary culture, some preliminary training in
the science of education and the art of teaching, at our county model
schools, are prepared to take up a more comprehensive course of study.
Such a course of study has been prepared, and is now used in our nor-
mal schools. Minute details of the subjects to be taught, together with
specific instructions as to the number of lectures required in each sub-
ject, or division of a subject, are given, of which the following is a brief
synopsis :

I. Education. — In this subject a course of eighty lectures is given, em-
bracing the history of education, the science of education, the prin-
ciples and practice of teaching, school organization, and school man-
agement.

II. English Language and Literature. — The study of these subjects con-
sists in the critical reading of one of the plays of Shakespeare or the
work of some other standard author, together with a course of twenty
lectures upon words and their uses, the proper construction of sentences,
the use of correct language, and the beauties and defects of style as
found in the writings of standard authors.

III. Hygiene. — In this subject a course of twenty lectures is given on
the preservation of health, the air we breathe, the food we eat, the cloth-
ing we wear, the fluids we drink, and the physical and mental exercise
necessary for the highest development of man.

IV. Chemistry.— In this subject a course of thirty lectures on elemen-
tary chemistry is given, illustrated by a series of experiments made
in the simplest manner possible. The objects aimed at are, (1) to make
the experiments understood, (2) to have them explained by the students,
(3) to accustom the students to render an account to themselves of natural j
phenomena, and (4) to enable the future teachers to repeat these experi-

464



INTEKNATIONAL CONGRESS OF EDUCATORS PAPERS. 227

ments with very little cost. In order to accomplish these purposes,
opportuuities are afforded for practical work ia the laboratory, under
the supervision of the science master.

Y. Botany. — This subject' is made as practical as possible by the ex-
amination of specimens collected from time to time, and consists of a
course of twenty lectures, embracing the chemistry and the histology of
plant life, the structure of flowering plants, and the general classifica-
tion of plants.

VI. Zoology. — A general outline of this subject is given in a course of
twenty lectures.

VII. Physics. — The course in this subject consists of a series of thirty
lectures upon heat, light, and electricity. In this, as in chemistry, great
importance is attached to the explanation of the physical phenomena
of daily life.

VIII. Draicing. — This subject is taught by a specialist, who gives a
course of forty lessons, in which designing, model drawing, free hand,
pers|)ective, constructive drawing, scientific perspective, and practical
geometry ar6 taught.

IX. Music. — This subject is also taught by a specialist, and consists of
a course of forty lesbons, in which the scales and their various trans
positions are taught, combined with the singing of songs in two, three,
and four parts.

X. Calisthenics. — The course in this subject consists of a series of
calisthenic exercises, under the direct supervision of a competent drill
master.

XI. Military drill. — The exercises in this subject are taught similarly
to those in calisthenics and by the same person.

XII. — Methods of instruction. — This course consists of a series of one
hundred and fifteen lectures, in which the following subjects are reviewed
with the object of illustrating the best methods of teaching them, viz :
Language lessons, grammar, composition, spelling, reading, writing,
arithmetic, algebra, Euclid and mensuration, history, geography, and
object lessons.

XIII. Practical teaching. — During the early part of each session the
students, accompanied by the normal-school masters, are required to
visit the model school and observe the methods of teaching the differ
ent subjects, as practically illustrated by the teachers in the model
school. They are also required to observe the methods adopted for
securing attention and interesting the pupils in their work. Alter sufiB
cient opportunities have been given to the students of witnessing the
manner in which the different subjects are taught in the model school,
they are called upon to teach betpre each other in the normal school,
under the guidance and supervision of the masters, and to criticise each
other's teaching in a friendly way.

XIV. School law. — Under this head is given a knowledge of the el
ementary principles of law, and of their application under the statute
to trustees, teachers, inspectors, etc.

Finally, they are required to take charge of classes in the model
school, under the supervision of the teachers, and are expected to teach
at least three times in each department of the model school.

The final examinations, which are held during the last week in each
session, are conducted by examiners appointed for that purpose by the
Minister of Education. These examiners are not connected with the
teaching staff of either of those schools. Questions are prepared on each
subject in the course of study, and the candidates are required to sub

465



228 EDUCATIONAL CONVENTIOXS AT NEW ORLEANS EXPOSITION.

mit their auswers in writing. In addition to these written examina-
tions, each candidate is required to teach some specified subject to a
class in the presence of one of these examiners. The results of these ex-
aminations and of those held during the session, together with the
reports of the masters of the normal school and of the teachers in the
model school, determine the final standing of each student. On the
recommendation of the masters of the normal school, students holding
second class, grade B, may be awarded grade A, and those holding
grade A may be " honorably mentioned." The student who obtains
the highest standing, as determined at the close of each session, shall
be awarded the Prince of Wales gold medal.

There yet remains another point to which reference should be made,
and that is, the influence these schools have exerted in advancing the
cause of popular education. This reference must of necessity be brief.
Facts and figures show a very marked increase in the number of chil-
dren attending our public schools, but this increase alone does not
give an accurate idea of what has been done, nor does it reveal to us
the sources from whence this growth and development have arisen.
These sources lie deeper, and are to be found in the lives and work of
those trained teachers who from time to time have graduated from our
normal schools, and have gone forth laboring diligently in their chosen
avocation. In the profession, we find that the great majority of our
public school inspectors and masters of our county model schools, as
well as many of our leading high-school masters, are graduates of these
institutions. These, laboring as they are in every part of the Province
and from motives higher than the mere acquisition of wealth or fame,
are introducing better methods of teaching and inspiring those with
whom they come in contact with a real love for learning. Outside of
the profession, again, are those who have attended these normal schools,
but are now in many cases prominent members of other professions or
leading business men. These, in their sphere, contribute largely toward
building up a public sentiment in favor of our system. The united in-
fluence of these two classes of graduates, now working harmoniously
together, leads us to look hopefully at the future. What that future
may be none can tell, but we fondly hope that our brightest dreams may
be more than realized. Our task is now done, and we feel justified in
repeating what we said in a former part of this paper, that these in-
stitutions have done more tban any others to awaken an interest in
popular education, and difiluse among the people more correct ideas
concerning the objects aimed at in the education of the masses.

The writer cannot permit the present opportunity to pass without
paying a tribute to the memory of two men who were mainly instru-
mental in laying the foundation of our present system of elementary
instruction, and who devoted their time and talents to the cause of edu-
cation. The one, by a careful study of the various rational systems of
education in the Old and Kew Worlds, selected their most desirable
features, combined these into one harmonious whole, and bequeathed to
us a system that stands almost unrivaled for its many excellencies;
The other, by his untiring devotion to the profession of teaching, his
knowledge of the'art of teaching, and his zeal in the cause of educa-
tion, did a grand and noble work in training teachers for the proper
discharge of their duties, and in sending them forth to take charge of
our leading public schools. These men are the Eev. Dr. Ryerson, for
many years Chief Superintendent of Education, and T. J. Robertson,
M. A., the first head master of the Toronto Normal School. To them

466



INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF EDUCATORS PAPERS. 229

we maj' justly apply the following tribute, paid to two of America's
most illustrious statesmen by one of her most eloquent orators: "Al-
though no sculptured marble should rise to their memory, nor engraved
stone bear record to their deeds, yet will their remembrance be as last-
ing as the land they honored. Marble columns may indeed moulder
into dust, time may erase all impress from the crumbling stone, but
their fame remains. < Their bodies are buried in peace, *but their name
liveth forevermore.' "

467



BEREA COLLEGE, KENTUCKY.
By Eev. E. H. Fairchild, D. D., President.



All who know of Berea College are aware that co-educatiou of the
sexes and the races prevails here iu theory and practice.

The founders of the school were anti-slavery men, and, of course,
were regarded with susjiicion from the beginning. Yet, in the midst of
slavery and in a sparsely-settled district, it attained a popularity which
brought to it o hundred students, many of them sous and daughters of
slave-holders.

The raid of John Brown in Virginia excited the suspicions and fears
of the people to such an extent that there was no allaying them. A
large county convention appointed a committee of sixty-five men, among
whom were many wealthy and honorable citizens, to remove the school
from the State. This they accomplished with as much dignity and de-
corum as is consistent with such an enterprise.

At the close of the war the school was revived. It had got M^ell under
way and gave fair promise of success, when a new class of citizens
began to realize the need of preparation for their new life.

Two colored youths asked admission to the school. A consultation
was held 5 the whole school and community were agitated; and when
the youths were admitted the next morning, half the students left. This
was not unexpected ; it was even a better result than was anticipated.

At this point it seems appropriate to give the reasons for an act so
rash and ill-considered as, to many, this seemed to be.

The first and most obvious reason was that the colored people needed
education more than the white. Thej' had now their own business to
manage, their own bills to settle, their own bargains to make, and could
neither read, write, nor reckon ; and they had not a school or a teacher
in the whole State of Kentucky. If iu such an emergency their best
friends should reject them, what hope remained? If the prospect had
been that every white student would leave and a colored school would
fill the vacancy, the path of duty was plain.

In three years the school wag more than twice as large as ever before.
Those that left had returned, and the colored outnumbered the white.
From that time to the present it has been the largest school in the State
of its grade, and always more than one-third, sometimes one-half, have
been white.

We are often told that if we would separate the races, and instruct
them in separate rooms and at different hours, we could have all the
money we need, and as many students as we could accommodate.

This leads to the second reason tor pursuing our present course, even
at the sacrifice of so great promises. The negroes are citizens, and are
to remain so; and if they are to be a useful, happy, contented, peaceful
class of citizens, they must enjoy all the rights, privileges and respon-
sibilities enjoyed by other men. But their drill of two centuries in

468



INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF EDUCATORS PAPERS. 231

servitude aud for servitude, and an equal diill of tbe white race in
masterhood, have but poorly adapted them for co-operation in the variuus
functions of government. They are ill at ease sitting upon the same
jury, sharing in the county offices, acting as directors of the same bank, .
trustees of the same asylums, members of the same school board and
town council, pleading at the same bar, sharing in the same recep-
tions, celebrations, and festivals, and a hundred other interests directly
or indirectly connected with government. This antipathy, whether
natural or acquired, must gradually pass away, or another trouble will
be brewing, which may cost a future generation as much blood and
treasure as slavery itself. If it is right and wise to ])erpetuate and in-
tensify this antipathy, the most legitimate and effective way to do it is
to teach our children and youth, in all onr grades of schools, from five
years of age to twenty-five, that it is utterly unsuitable and abominable
to unite white and colored in the same school.

A\'ifh the hope of aiding to mitigate and remove this general rei)ug-
uauce between the races, we bring them together in the same school.
They room in the same buildiugs, board at the same tables, recite in the
same classes, sit promiscuously in all assemblies, work at the same
wood ])iles or in the same dining-hall, play on the same grounds at the
same games. ISTo distinction whatever is made on account of color. And
we have found, or think we have, that the natural, constitutional antip-
athy of race, which, as we are told, will make it necessary to remove our
colored population to Africa or to some other out-of the-way place, is
not natural at all, but unnatural, unconstitutional, and senseless. Little
children know nothing of it till it is drilled into them. They love a
black playmate as well as a black kitten, or a black mammy as well as
a white mamma. All southern people know this. It requires constant
vigilance and eflbrt to keep the white and colored children apart.

Twenty-five years of mixed schools would hardly leave a vestige of
this "constitutional, ineradicable antipathy." It is a relic of slavery,



Online LibraryUnited States. Office of Education.om old cataSpecial report by the Bureau of education. Educational exhibits and conventions at the World's industrial and cotton centennial exposition, New Orleans, 1884-'85 .. → online text (page 63 of 129)