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At the opening of the university session, September, 1870, classes
were organized in the science of agriculture; they were taken to the field
to perform operations illustrating principles which they had learued in
the lecture room, and a labor system was organized.

For the ordinary branches, as the English language, book-keeping,
algebra, geometry, surveying, chemistry, &c., provision was made for
them in classes already existing in the university.

The number in this department was, the first year, 26. In the second
year the number was 58, and in the next year 138. Besides, the effect
has been most excellent upon the whole body of students in diffusing
-agricultural knowledge and cultivating rural tastes.

Herein, indeed, is the great advantage of an aggregation of different
schools or colleges in one university. Each separate school has its in-
fluence upon all the associated schools. There is created an emporium
of learning, where students, by their very association, by the atmos.
phere created around them, participate in the benefits of even the de-
partments to which they do not belong, and thus become broader and
better and more knowing men — men better fitted for the world as it now
exists.

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30 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES.

The next step of progress made was the erection of

THE SCIENTIFIC BUILDING.

The cornerstone of this building was laid on the 28th of June, 1871,
and it was in part ready for occupation and use at the opening of the
next session, September 16, 1872.

One of the first wants of an agricultural college, manifestly, is a lab-
oratory for chemical analysis. Chemistry is the very grammar of the
natural sciences. The scientific agriculturist mast understand the soil
he is to deal with and the fertilizers he is to use. The very idea of prac-
tical scientific education is that the student is himself to go into the
laboratory and do the work of chemical analysis. He is both to know
and to do. This is, in fact, the only way to assure his knowledge and
make it a permanent and useful profession. He is to do field work and
laboratory work. He is to understand apparatus and reagents, instru-
ments, and machinery by their use, not merely in the hands of his pro-
fessor, but in his own hands. He is to have the means and opportunity
of making experiments for himself. Hence the practical scientific insti-
tutions are more expensive in their equipments than the old fashioned
college.

The erection of the scientific building could not be deferred. It was
the first step. The plan of the building will, it is believed, prove most
satisfactory, both in its architectural style and in its general accommo-
dation. It contains the chemical laboratory, both general and analytic,
the lecture room, and other necessary appurtenances on the ground
floor. There is a basement for furnaces and other uses of the laboratory.
On the second floor is the lecture room of the professor of agriculture,
with space for the botanical and geological collections. In the third
story of the main building there are rooms for the professor of natural
philosophy, including those needed for his various kinds of apparatus.
The hall projecting from the main building in the third story is required
for collections in natural history.

The cost of this building is, with its furniture and necessary equip-
ments, over $60,000.

There is no expense of mere architectural display. Its space is all for
useful and necessary purposes, and it has been said that there is not the
loss of a square foot of room in the building.

It is the design of this school to give an education that will fit the
pupil for intellectual and manual labors to make him a man in body and
mind, that he may enjoy the mens sana in corpore sano. Our graduates
must be the peers of scholars in mental culture and the equals of labor-
ers in manual skill and physical development, that they may be pre-
pared to honor labor and utilize and dignify learning. To do this, one
must have a thorough knowledge of his profession and be able to do his
work with skill and care.

The first and highest employment of man is to cultivate the soil : to
feed and clothe the world. To do this well has been the ambition of the
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UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI. 31

great and good of every land. The increajse of population and the mul-
tiplied demands for the products of the soil must render this department
of human industry more and more prominent, lucrative, and honorable*
It is therefore eminently appropriate for this college, located in the
midst of the best agricultural region of the continent, in which the pop.
ulations of the earth are concentrating with unprecedented rapidity, to
invite our youths to such a collegiate course of study and labor as will
best fit them to develop the agricultural and mechanical resources of
the State, and meet the coming demands upon their capacities. For
such an education the people must learn two things :

1. What to do and how it should be done.

2. To acquire the manual skill to do it and do it well.

To know what and how, is the science. To have the manual skill, is
the art. To get the science, the pupil must study. To get the art, he
must work. Our industrial college, then, must be a school of labor as
well as study. But how much study and hoy much labor are questions
not definitely settled, but only capable of being stated in general terms*

The pupil must study until he knows what should be done, why it
should be done, and how. When this is done, the intellectual division
of an industrial education is finished.

The pupil must labor until he can do all farm work with skill ; and
when this is accomplished the manual division of an industrial educa-
tion is finished.

Whatever is more than this has no more place in an industrial school
than in any other. It is not the idea of our school to furnish a place
for pupils to* work, but a place where they may learn to work as well
as learn to think.

But what shall the pupil dof Everything that is done on the farm^
in the garden, orchard, and nursery.

Who shall direct the labors of the pupils ? He who says what is to
be done, why it should be done, and how, is the one to see that it is
done and well done. Then the teaching and the practice will agree ;
science and art go hand in hand. This will prevent the introductioD of
many useless and impracticable theories. When one teaches merely,
he can advance many beautiful theories for others to practise; but
when he is expected to carr>' out his own suggestions, he will be more
cautions, take more care that his instructions will bear the test of
actual experiment.

HORTICULTURAL DEPARTMENT.

As the ladies of Missouri have done so much to create a ta«te for the
culture of fruits and flowers and ornamental grounds, it is but just the
Commonwealth should provide a school where their daughters as well
as their sons may perfect themselves in these delightful pursuits. All
necessary fixtures will be provided to make this department of the in-
dustrial college most useful and instructive.

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52 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES.

The ladies are therefore invited to partake of the benefits of this hor-
ticultural course, where everything will be so managed as to awaken
and cultivate the most refined and exalted tastes.

The first class in this department was formed during the past year. It
consisted of 19 young ladies and 5 young gentlemen, besides a large
number of the agricultural students; 24 completed the course and re-
ceived diplomas.

THE SCHOOL OF MINES.

It is to be borne in mind that the School of Mines, though forming an
integral part of the university organization and to be under the same
control, b}^ the act of the legislature disposing of the congressional land
grant for an agricultural and mechanical college, was to be located,
binder certain conditions, in the mineral district of Southeast Missouri
which should give the greatest available amount of money and land for
the purposes of the proposed school.

The only counties • which made bids under the law in order to secure
the location of the school were Iron and Phelps.

The committee of curators appointed to locate the school reported
the total value of the bid of Iron County at $113,500 and that of Phelps
at $130,545, making a difference in favor of Phelps County of $17,045 ;
and, being limited by the terms of the law, they accordingly located the
School of Mines and Metallurgy at Bella, in the county of Phelps.

The board of curators acted in reference to this school with the same
promptness and energy that they had done in putting into operation the
Agricultural College. More difficulties were to be encountered, as in
this case everything was to be done. There were neither professors in
general science, nor books, nor apparatus, nor buildings.

The first thing to be done was to select a director of the school. The
president of the university and a committee of the board were ap-
pointed to make the selection. After the most careful inquiry and per-
sonal consultations with some of the first scientific men of the country,
Prof. Charles P. Williams, then a professor in Delaware College and
State geologist, and having a veiy large experience in practical chem-
istry, in mining, and metallurgy, was chosen.

The institution was formally opened IN'ovember 23,1871; the first
class of three members graduated in June of 1874, having completed
the full course.

The design of the School of Mines and Metallurgy, in connection with
the Agricultural College, is to carry out to its amplest extent the inten-
tion of the act of Congress providing for education in the industrial
arts. This has been kept prominently in view in arranging the curricu-
lum of the school, in the selection of its apparatus, in providing its
equipments, and in the organization of its faculty. It is a school of
technology, with civil and mining engineering and metallurgy as special-
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UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI. 33

ties. The curriculum of studies is as ample as that of the best schools
of this class in the country.

The school is well furnished with apparatus, instruments, and other
appliances for practical instruction and demonstration. It has a full
supply of excellent surveying and engineering instruments and physi-
cal apparatus, embodying the newest forms for illustration and research,
together with diagrams and models for the illustration of metallurgy,
and for engineering, topographical, and ornamental drawing. The geo-
logical, mineralogical, and technical collections are all rapidly increas-
ing and are already Tich in specimens and products illustrative of the
mineral industries of Missouri. The laboratories for analysis and as-
saying have been increased in working capacity, and are amply fur-
nished with apparatus and reagents neces^ry for practical instruction
and for any line of chemical or metallurgical research. The library has
been selected with special reference to supplementing the labors of the
class and lecture rooms, and consists, therefore, largely of standard ref-
erence works on the physical sciences, mathematics, and technology.
A good selection of technical periodicals is supplied to the reading room,
and strong efforts will be made to keep the collection of these and of the
books up to the progress of the several departments. The same may be
safely promised for the apparatus, collections, models, and other ad-
juncts to the proper working of a school of this character.

The class and other rooms of the building^ are comfortably furnished,
well lighted, and well ventilated, and are heated by hot-air flues from
furnaces in the basement. The first floor is occupied by the analytical
laboratory, the chemical lecture room, and the room of the professor of
geology. On the second floor are the public hall, the of&ce, library,
reading and the mathematical rooms, and in the third story are the
engineering rooms, those of the professors of applied mathematics and
English, and a large drawing room. The basement contains the assay
furnaces and other appliances for metallurgical work.

The professional degrees awarded are civil engineer (c. e.), mining
engineer (M. E.), and bachelor of philosophy (ph. b.). Students not can-
didates for degrees or special students are admitted at any time and
are allowed the fullest liberty in the selection of their studies, provided
always that such shall have the equivalent of at least sixteen recitations
weekly. To these classes of students certificates of proficiency are
granted on satisfactory examination being passed. These certificates
or the diplomas are issued only at the public commencements.

The school has made a most favorable impression on the public for
the extent and excellence of its instructional work, both theoretic and

* The mining school building was erected by the town of Rolla as its public school
building, and was purchased at a large sacrifice upon the original cost from the town
by the curators of the university for the use of the mining school. The building is
new, of exceUent architectural taste, substantial, and of such internal arrangements
M to be readily adapted to the purposes of the school.

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34 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES.

practical^ and only experienced teachers have been selected as profess-
ors and teachers.

It is a matter of extreme regret that the cash subscription of Phelps
County, consisting of $75,000 (10 per cent, bonds of the county), has not
been paid, a decision of the supreme court of the Stat« having been ob-
tained against the validity of the issue of these bonds. It was a great
misfortune to the mining school that Phelps County failed to make good
these bonds. All other counties in the State making similar subscrip-
tions having met their obligations, it is to be apprehended that until
the consideration which procured the location of the school shall be
met the legislature may not extend the aid required for its proper sup-
port.

To meet the exigency of the decision of the court and the consequent
non-payment of the bond, t^e legislature of 1875 granted an appropria-
tion of $5,000 to the school, and required the board of curators of the
university to elect a professor of geology in the school, who should also
be the State geologist. The school also, under the authority of law,
receives an additional $5,000 from the geological board in aid of the
geological survey, making a State appropriation of $10,uOO.

LAV\r COLLEGE.

The long contemplated law college was formally opened for instruction
on the first Monday of October, 1872, under Judge Bliss, late of the su-
preme court of the State, as its dean or head. The inaugural occasion
was celebrated by the attendance of a large ecclesiastical body then in
session and of a numerous audience of citizens, with addresses by Presi-
dent Bead, Judge Bliss, Hon. Boyle Gordon, and Hon. James S. EoUins.

The instructions of the session were given by Judge Bliss, Professor
Gordon, Dr. Bead, and by a series of lectures by Judge Kelly.

The moot court has been regularly held on each Saturday, and a law
society was organized, and each week has had its meetings for the dis-
cussion of legal questions.

The college is on a firm basis and may be commended to the students
of law as one of the best institutions of the country.

The law term commences on the first Monday of October and ends the
last week in March. The full course is two years and embraces the vari-
ous branches of thecommon law and of equity, commercial, international,
and American and English constitutional law, criminal and Federal ju-
risprudence.

The mode of instruction is by daily examinations upon the text books,
by daily lectures upon special titles, and by the exercises of a moot
court.

The text books upon constitutional law for both junior and senior years
are Creasy's English Constitution and Kent's Constitution of the United
States (Com., vol. 1), with constant reference to Hallam and May and
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JuDUE Buss, Deax of the Law College.



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UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI. 35

other authors upon that of England, and to Story and others, as well as
judicial decisions, upon that of the United States. The text book upon
international law which the student is required to study is Kent's Com-
mentaries, vol. 1, but constant reference is had to Wheaton, Halleck,
and others, and to questions that have recently arisen in our diplomatic
relations. Upon these subjects instruction is given both by examinations
and lectures.

The text books upon municipal law used in class examinations are
Blackstone's Commentaries, Kent's Commentaries, Smith on Contracts,
Parsons on Contracts, Addison on Torts, Greenleafs Evidence (vols. 1
and 2), Stephen on Pleading, Bispham's Equity, and Parsons on Bills
and Kotes.

Immediately after the senior class has concluded Stephen on Plead-
ing, Judge Bliss delivers a course of lectures upon code pleading, fol-
lowing somewhat the method of Stephen and showing the changes that
have been made in the different States adopting the new system. He
also lectures upon legal ethics, upon extraordinary remedies, and other
subjects.

MEDICAL COLLEGE.

This college was formally opened on the 15th day of February, 1873,
with addresses by Dr. Bead in purely inaugural statements ; by Dr.
William H. Duncan (see Appendix, note 21, p. 65)^ on the sphere and
progress of medical science; and by Dr. Arnold, on the plan of the
school and the proposed methods of instruction.

A science so extensive and requiring such thoughtful attention, it is
believed, it is impossible to acquire by short courses of lectures during
a few months of the year and at the rate of half a dozen lectures or
more a day, affording little or no time for reading up subjects or for
deliberate thought.

It is designed to remedy this capital defect in medical education and
to afford opportunity and encouragement for earnest and protracted
study and examinations.

Dr. Norwood's lectures embrace more fully than is usual in such a
course the subjects of anatomy and physiology, and, like all the other
lectures, are given to both the classes, so that each student, so far as
lectures are concerned, attends substantially the same course each year.
The necessary models and preparations are provided and the course is
unusually thorough.

GENERAL PLAN OF INSTRUCTION.

The plan of instruction is designed to be the same as that pursued
in the University of Virginia. The length of the sessions (nine months)
renders it practicable to distribute the branches taught among a limited
number of teachers, and enables them at the same time to present the
various subjects in their natural order and succession. For example,
the elementary branches, anatomy, physiology materia medica, and

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36 HISTOBICAL SKETCHES OF UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEaES.

general therapeutics are taught for the first half session ; after which,
if the student is found prepared for it, he is allowed to pass to other
and higher branches, which are taught during the last half term.
Chemistry is taught throughout the college year.

The student is thoroughly drilled each day by examinations upon the
lectures of the previous day and by recitations from the text books.
By this method of teaching it is claimed that we avoid the process
of cramming, a deleterious practice too prevalent in the general system
of medical education. We believe that the proposed method of teach-
ing will do more to elevate the standard of medical education and exalt
the dignity of the profession than any other measure that could be
adopted.

Besides the ordinary instruction in chemistry a special course will be
given to advanced students in pharmacy and toxicology, the material
and appliances for teaching which are not excelled by those of any in-
stitution in the United States.

The student will also be taught the use of the microscope, especially
in relation to pathological studies.

Other features are the course of instruction in botany and the at-
tention given to comparative anatomy and comparative physiology,
branches of knowledge essential to every accomplished physician.

A full course of lectures is given on medical jurisprudence to the
classes in law and medicine. When necessary for the more complete
understanding of the subject the lectures are illustrated by the use of
accurate anatomical models.

This department is now splendidly equipped with models in clastic
and papier m^ch6, plastei* casts, drawings, and other appliances for the
illustration of the lectures on anatomy, surgery, and physiology.

Among the many valuable preparations for demonstrating anatomy
and surgery received recently is Dr. Auzoux's clastic man, a complete
and accurate model of the male human body. The figure is five feet
ten inches in height and is composed of ninety-two separate parts,
which may be detached from one another. It exhibits over two thou-
sand details of the viscera, muscles, nerves, blood vessels, &c. 5 in short,
all that is usually embraced in a complete treatise on anatomy.

A model to which we deem it proper to call especial attention is Dr.
Anzoux's synthetic preparation of the brain, which exhibits the texture
of that organ upon an immensely magnified scale. Designed in con-
formity with the new anatomical indications furnished by Dr. Luys,
this model presents a r^sum^ of all the researches of ancient and
modern anatomists. It enables the student to follow the nerve fibres
throughout the nerve mass, and thus to comprehend the mechanism by
which external impressions arrive at any given point in the brain and
also by which volition transmits its influence to the various parts of the
body. This entirely new method of studying the brain opens an im-
mense field for the researches of physicians and philosophers.

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UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI. 37

The models of the eye and ear are greatly enlarged and very acca-
rate, showing the complete structures of these organs as described by
modern anatomists.

The preparation of the head is most admirably executed. The bones
are disarticulated and mounted according to the method of Beanchini.

Besides these invaluable models and preparations, we have a com-
plete set of the German anatomical models in plastic made at Leipzig,

Every facility is aftbrded the student for the study of practical anat-
omy. Adequate provision is made for a supply of subjects sufficient
for any number of students. The dissecting rooms are open during the
whole winter season, where, ufider the guidance of the demonstrator,
the student may by dissection acquire a practical knowledge of the
structure of the human body in all its parts.

The degree of doctor of medicine is conferred upon such students as
prove their fitness to receive it by rigid and searching examinations,
conducted by a committee of three physicians, to be appointed for that
purpose by the district medical society and independent of the faculty
of the school.

Candidates for graduation must have a standing of 85 per cent, in
anatomy and physiology, of 60 in botany, chemistry, toxicology, and
pharmacy, and of 75 per cent, in all other studies.

It is the policy of this department to make its honors testimonials of
merit and not mere certificates of an attendance on a prescribed course
of instruction.

DEPARTMENT OF ANALYTICAL AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY.

This department was opened in 1873 in charge of Prof. Paul Schweit-
zer, who has had the instruction and experience of the best laborato-
ries of Europe and America. The laboratory hall is one of the best
equipped and most complete in the country and is adequate to the
nicest and most delicate analytical operations. Students preparing to
become druggists and professional chemists are received and afforded
every advantage of scientific instruction and laboratory practice.

It is intended that this laboratory shall be eminently a State institu-
tion, affording the means and equipments for the analysis, both quali-
tative and quantitative, of waters, minerals, clays, ores, and soils of this
great mineral and agricultural State, and that no student shall be
obliged to leave the State to secure the best facilities both of knowing


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