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Annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs online

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of 249 square miles inclosing Crater Lake and its environs and constituting one of the
most remarkable and picturesque portions of a range of mountains which is well
known for its scenic attractions. Since the establishment of this park will advertise
to the world an area which for natural wonders can not be surpassed, the tide of
summer travelers will no doubt be greatly increaseil and the mountains and Indian
reservation will be swarming with tourists, and increased vigilance will be net*et«ary
to guard the fine timber of this country from the carelessness of the camper and tres-
passes of the vandal, but I trust that tne Government will see the need of increasing
largely the force which is maintained in the forest for its protection.

Conolusion.— June 30, 1902, my four years* term as United States Indian agent at the
Klamath Agency terminated. I may say that I have endeavored faithfully to per-
form a difficult auty in managing the manifold affairs of this agencv. This I have
done with a careful regard to the interests of these people, who are f)eing trained for
useful lives as citizens of our great country. It would onlv be fair to say that in this
work I have had the assistance of a corps of employees, botfi in and out of the 8<'hool8,
who have generally been prompt, faithful, and competent. To your office for a
generous forbearance and many lavors I am grateful. While I continue in the place
awaiting such action as may l)e taken as to the succession, I shall, of course, continue
to render as capable service as possible in the light of the experience of many years
in the management and instruction of the Indian people.

Very respectfully, O. C. Applegate,

Uniled Stales Indian Agent.

The Commissioner op Indian Affairs.


Klamath Agency, Oreg., Septembers, 1902.

Dear Sir : I have the honor to submit my annual report for the Klamath School for the year oiid-
inff June 30, 1902.

Attendance. — School closed on the 30th of Jane with an enrollment of 109 pupils; one lesR than the
cajmcity limit calls for.

Health.— The Klamaths asa people seem to be at the present time undergoing? a period of decima-
tion. The fact that there have been more deaths than births on the reservaticm this past year goes
to prove this. And this school, being situated on the portion of the reserve where Klamaths only
live, IS made to feel this state of affairs, and the attendance is thereby very naturally affecte<1. TnlcKs
Indians living off the reservation who hold allotments on it are persuaded to send their children to
school, it will not be an easy matter, for some time to come at lca.st, to maintain the average attend-
ance required at present.

There is a school population of about 150 children on this end of the reservation, but at least 30 of
this number are, because of disease, unfit to attend school.

The general health of the pupils this past vear has been good. There has been very little sickness
and no epidemics. Four pupils were withdrawn who were afflicted with tubercular trrmble, and
these have since died.

Progrefts m ttudles.— The class-room work, under the efficient direction of Mr. Shirley R. Cragg,
principal teacher, has been most satisfactory. The school is now graded as it has never been before.
The lack of ambition and interest which was such a discouraging feature of the literary work of this
school has entirely disappeared, and in its stead has sprung up a desire to attend class-room exercises
regularly and to advance that is surprising The discipline in the class rooms is excellent.

Systematic calisthenic drills, with dumb bells, from the Swedish system, were given the pupils ih
all the grades by the intermediate teacher, Mrs. Emma H. Foster. So expert did the children become
in these drills that a public out-door exhibition, in which every pupil in the school took part, was
given on the occasion of the school's closing exercLses. Our visitors on that occasion were both sur-
prised and delighted with the perfect manner in which the children acquitted themselves of this
feature of the day s entertainment. And so pleased especially were our Indian visitors that a com-
mittee was sent to request that the drill be repeated at the Fourth of July celebration at old Fort
Klamath. This request was agreed to. and the children a second time acquitted themselves with

The teachers have most conscientiously endeavored to put themselves into the spirit of the official
course of study. The pupils in the primary and intermediate departments had tnelr little gardens
In which they sedulously labored whenever the weather permitted, but alas, owing to the lateness


of oar sprtng, school closed before the buried intereets had hardly gotten above ground. But kind
hands watered and weeded during the vacation months, so that the little ones' eves might be glad-
dened with the sight of a promising harvest^the result of their little efforts— on their return to school.

Oenand diacipUne.— The conduct of the pupils this past year has been exceptionally good. Two
boys were expelled for being incorrigible, but neither was overweighted with brain power.

A new feature, that is bound Mrith time to prove quite an attracuon, in the shape of a set of band
instruments, has, thanks to the urgent recommendation of the supervisor of the district, Mr. Holland,
been introduced into the school. The boys are showing wondenul proficiencv in performing on the
▼arioufl instruments, and the band is already a source of pleasure to the school. A piano, a long-felt
want, has been kindly supplied us this past year, also through the efforts of the supervisor.

Advancement in the trades and domettio duties.— When it is understood that all the improvements in
the stiape of new buildings and the improvement of the old ones, repairs, etc., have been made by
the pupils, under the direction of the school carpenter, one can appreciate that carpentering is taught
Tery practically here.

The boys detailed to the shoe and harness Khop have made good progress, and it is much to be
regretted that this department has been done away with at this Hchoo).

Honaekeepinff.— The girls, imder the direction of efficient heads, have done remarkably well in the

Honaekeepinff.— The girls, under the direct
kitchen, laundry, and sewing room.
Farming and gardening.— No new ground i

„ ^ ^ _ I was broken on the school farm this year, and only one

kind of grain was sown— rye — which promises to give a good yield at thrashing time. The school
garden has never given promise of a better harvest than is looked for this year. There will be an
abundant supply of all the hardier vegetables for winter use for the children as well as for feed for
the cattle.

Stock raising and dairying .— The pupils are well drilled in this feature of the school's industry. We
have a fine herd, and milk throughout the year from 20 to 30 cows. These give an abundance of
milk for the use of the school, and we also make all the butter we can use.

Poultry. — Besides a chicken ranch that supplies all the eggs required for the school's use, we have
recently started to raise turkeys. Our first year's experience has not been very successful, but we
look forward to more success another year.

From our herd of swine the pupils during the winter months have several meals of fresh pork, sau-
sage, etc., and from 200 to 300 pounds of hams and bacon are cured annually.

^Future improvements.- With the completion of the buildings in course of erection at present and a
few repairs to fences, this may be considered a very complete and well-equipped plant. It Is our
intention now to turn our energies to the development of the school farm. As stock raising is about
the one and only industry of the country, I think it would be advisable to make stock raising and
dairying a main feature of industry in this school. And at any rate, if water can be brought on to
the west end of the school farm according to the plans that you have already imder consideration,
several hundred acres of fine land can be Drought imder cultivation, either as hay land or for gen-

_ I every direction. Difficulties that seemed impossible 1

looking at them for the first time three years ago have vanished into thin air, and it is a dream that
they ever existed. A lot of pupils with an extended reputation for general depravity and meanness
have settled down to be a law-abiding, peaceful set of everyday school children. Old dilapidated
buildings have taken on an appearance of respectability, while the new ones erected will compare
favorably in architecture and workmanship with any in the service. But on further reflection it is
borne in upon me how little of all this could have ever been accomplishwi had I not been blessed
with the hearty cooperation of such a man as yourself, one who is always for progress, always for
peace. The results are all due to you.

Thanking you for much personal consideration and unfailing courtesy and kindness, and with a
grateful acknowledgment to the faithful corps of workers who have been so enthusiastic in their
efforts to advance the work here,

I remain, respectfully, Anna C. Egan, SuperirUendcnL


United Statas Indian Agent.


Yainax Boarding School,
Yainax, Oreg., August 15, 190S,

Sib: I submit herewith the annual report for the Yainax Boarding School for the fiscal year ended
June 30, 1902.

Four tribes of Indians are represented in the school— Klamath, Modoc, Paiute, and Pitt River. The
average attendance for the year was 96.7.

The schoolroom work was carefully graded, and the results for the year were satisfactory, the
children in the primary department having made especially good progress. The Course of Study
received last fall was of great assistance to all the employees in their work.

The girls were instructed in cooking, butter making, sewing, rug making, laundering, and the
usual household duties. Several hundred pounds of butter were put up for winter use.

The boys have had especially good instruction in gardening, and a very promising garden is the
result. There will probably be more cabbages, rutabagas, turnips, parsnips, and beets than the school
can use during the winter and spring. The surplus will be fed to the stock or given to Indians.
There have been heavy frosts during July and August, and consequently our attempts to raise beaiLs
and potatoes have been unsuccessful. About 15 acres of ground were seeded down with rye for Imy
this sprinff, which is now being harvested. Besides this hay, which will amount to about 20 tons, i;^
tons of wild hay were harvested.

The school herd now consists of 123 head of cattle, of which number about 50 head should be sold
this fall. Forty-two young turkeys have been raised this summer at the school. The chickens are
very inferior, and an effort is being made to get a better flock for the coming year.

Some of the buildings are much in need of repairs and painting, but from lack of lumber, shingles,
nails, and paint very Tittle could be done. It is hoped that the new sawmill will be able to manu-
facture some lumber soon.

The general health of the children and employees was good.

Very respectfully, Frkdbric Snyder,


O. C. Applbgate,

Vniled States Indian Agent

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SiLETz Training School,

SUetz, Oreg.y August 4y 190fe.
Sir: I have the honor to submit the first annual report of the Siletz A^ncv and
the Siletz Training School under the changed management from the United Statee
Indian Agent to that of school superintendent

I relieved Mr. T. Jay Buford, ex-agent, July 1, 1901, upon which date I assoined
chaise of the Government affairs at this place.


ConditioiL of the i^lant — No additional buildings of any importance were required,
but considerable improvement was found necessary in the nature of repairs and
remodeling of buildings to fit them for use during the year. The following is a sum-
mary of what has been accomplished in improvements: The main dormitor}% painted
outside, and inside first story; same repaired and remodeled; schoolhouse, painted
outside and inside and refloored; a covered passage, with belfry, built between
main dormitory and dining hall; new wood house, 24 by 60 feet, erected; 600 yards
of 4-foot walk Duilt; chicken house moved and fence built to confine poultry; a new
ferryboat built, and other miscellaneous improvements. A few minor improve-
ments are still necessary, and will be made the subject of special communications.

School farnifhings. — Sitting rooms for girls', boys', and employees' use have been
provided and suitably furnished with furniture, rugs, pictures, lace curtains, etc.
A piano has been provided for the school, a cream separator for the dairy, and
other misi^ellaneous articles.

Stock. — The dairy herd, consisting of 19 cows, is fairly creditable, and has been
well cared for during the year. The pupils have been liberally supplied with milk
and butter. The training received by tne boys in taking care of this herd has been
of much practical value. Three good horses have been lx)ught during the year, and '
2 unserviceable animals have been sold. A large number of pigs have been »old
at public auction.

Industrial departments. — The garden last year was fairly good in the variety and
quantity of articles raised, and aided very materially in furnishing subsistence for
the school. The farm crop consisted of 40 acres of meadow, which produced an
abundance of hay for the school and agency stock; also 20 acres of oats of a very
good quality and a fair yield per acre, being sufficient for the school and agency
teams. Twenty acres of oats were sown during the fall and are now ready to har-
vest, giving promise of an excellent yield per acre. An unusually cold, wet spring
interfered seriously with planting and growth this year. A large amount of garden
seeds were planted, and notwithstanding the difficulties encountered it mav be safely
estimated that a large quantity and variety of garden vegetables will be produced dur-
ing the present year.

A great deal has been done in the way of removing rubbish, tearing down and
removing old worthless buildings, sidewalks, and fences, and in building new walks
and fences.

In the domestic departments of the school special attention has been given to keep-
ing the household matters in a clean and orderly condition, the dress and personal
habits of the pupils receiving a great deal of a ention. The industrial work of the
girls has mostly consisted in performing the necensary work of the institution, such as
the care of rooms, manufacture of garments, laundrying, and cooking. In all of the
foregoing branches of school work the larger girls have attained considerable skill,
and, as a rule, with slight supervision, are capable of doing creditable work in any

Literary department — At the beginning of the year Mr. Omar Bates was promoted
from the position of industrial teacher to that of teacher, and his wife, Gertrude E.
Bates, from seamstress to assistant teacher, each having passed successfully the
teacher's examination. To their united, painstaking efforts is largely due the interest
taken by the pupils in their studies throughout the year. Five pupils were trans-
ferred to Chemawa soon after school opened in October, and a class of ten have been
preimred during the year for transfer next September. The lower grades have made
satisfactory progress.

Language. — H language could be taken as a proper standard of judgment, the Siletz
people would be classed high in the scale of civilization. The English language is

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spoken by the young entirely. For this reason this does not seem like an Indian
school to persons accustomed to work among real Indians. Not having to learn our
language gives the children here a great advantage over the pupils of many Indian

Attendance. — It was evident that the custom of allowing pupils to make frequent
visits to their homes was interfering seriously with the work of the school and retard-
ing the progress of the pupils. Infrequent visits of the children to their homes and
regularity of attendance was insisted upon with very beneficent results.

Health. — Diseases of a hereditary nature are very prevalent among the children
at this agency. Many are afflicted with tuberculosis. It was thought to be for the
good of all concerned to dismiss all of the worst cases. Aside from colds, there has
been no sickness of an epidemic nature during the year.

Yaeation. — ^The time for the summer vacation has been changed from the months
of August and September to the months of July and August. This change makes
the vacation at this school correspond to the time of vacation in the majority of
schools, and will be much better for pupils, their parents, and the employees.

OAeial yisitors. — Inspector Armstrong visited tne agency and the school a few
days after my arrival, and his representation of conditions and needs have been
very helpful. Special Agent D. W. Manchester remained here during the first part
of the year and took much interest in the welfare of the institution.


Payment of the Sileti general fund. — For several years these Indians had been agi-
tating the payment of the Siletz general fund, and for nearly a year before the pay-
ment took place they seemed to be doing little else than visiting the agency to
inquire when the payment would be made. It was not until November that the
anxiously anticipated time arrived. During the months of November and Decem-
ber the superintendent assisted Mr. Manchester in making the payment of the
greater part of the fund of $100,000. The distribution of so large an amount of
money, with the correspondence connected therewith, has made a great deal of
extra office work. The effect of the distribution of this fund on the Indians will
eventually be very beneficial, in that when the money has been all spent they will
resume industrial work.

Betrogreuion. — It is a fact that for several years past the Indians have not been so
prosperous, because they have not been as industrious as in former years. The
beginning of this retrogression is traceable to the sale of the surplus lands whereby
a triijal rand was created, from which payments began to be made as provided for
by treaty, filling the minds with visions of stored-up wealth which would relieve
future necessity for toil. The death of some of the older leaders in industrial enter-
prise has undoubtedly had something to do with the lack of attention given of late
years to agriculture. The young men who have been most favored by educational
training seem to be but little disposed to use the ax, the spade, the hoe, the plow,
and other implements of toil. Another attributable cause for the unfortunate
change is that when the Government turned over the thrashing machines to indi-
vidual Indians they were soon allowed to get out of repair, making it impossible to
get grain thrashed. The foregoing and other minor causes have reduced the agri-
cultural products at this agency to their present low condition.

Litigation and citisenship. — During the year prior to the last the well-known case
from this agency of the United States v. larkey L. Logan, in which Logan was tried
before Judge Bellinger in Portland, Greg., on the charge of assault with intent to
kill, resulted in the expression of the opinion that the allotment of lands to the
defendant did not '*take the case out of the jurisdiction of the United States court;
that the Indians affected by these allotments are still dependent communities. The
lands allotted to them continue to be held by the United States, in trust, for their
benefit. The allotments are still subject to the regulation provided for the govern-
ment of Indian reservations. Notwithstanding the mandate of the act of Congress
declaring them to be citizens they are still minors in the eyes of the law, incapable
of disposing of the lands held by them, or even of leasing without the consent of
the reservation agent; and their dependence is still so complete that it is a crime to
sell or give them whisky or other intoxicants."

In view of the foregoing the local courts of the State began at once to decline
taking action in cases brought to their attention from the Siletz Agency. About
this time the Department maintained, as hereafter stated, that as the Siletz Indians
were citizens the court of Indian offenses had no authority in law for its existence.

For a short time the situation was anomalous, if not serious. I consulted United

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States District Attorney John H. Hall, Portland, Oreg., in r^rd to the matter and
obtained his opinion, in which Hon. C. B. Bellinger, United States district judge,
concurred, to the effect that —

the only crimes that the United States courtB have Jurliidiction over upon Indian reservations are as
follows: Murder, manHlaughter. rape, assault with intent to kill, arson, burgrlary, and larceny, and
all crimes committed on an Indian reservation not included within the above category, are within
the jurisdiction of the State in which the reservation is situated.

With the foregoing explanation accepted by the State court* it has been possible
to obtain litigation for the ijrosecution of Indians in the State courts for crimes not
coming under the exclusive jurisdiction of the United States courts.

Court of Indian offenBos. — Notwithstanding the fact that the Siletz Indians received
their allotments in 1894, and that the surplus lands were sold and thrown open for
settlement, the court of Indian offenses was still maintained, and Indians were
arrested and tried in the same manner as they had been theretofore.

I am reliably informed that this was due to the desire of the Indians that they
have an easily accessible tribunal for their own protection. The court of Indian
offenses was aiscontinued by the abolishment of the judges' positions at the close of
the fiscal year.

Marriage and divorce. — It has been the custom at this agency for several years
among these Indians to marry and obtain divorce in accordance with the laws of the
State. In a few instances, where the laws had been ignored, the parties from fear
of prosecution have, during the past year obtained divorces, and have married in
accordance with law, leaving the docket at present pretty clear.

BmnkenneBs and gambling. — The Indians seem to have but little difficulty in
securing all the liquor they desire, and it appears to be very difficult to secure evi-
dence which can be used m prosecuting those who furnish the Indians with liauor.
Four cases have been trie<i during the past year where the evidence was abunadnt^
positive, and uncontradicted, but notwithstanding this the accused were acquitted.
A fifth case is still pending.

The extra amount of money haa contributed not only to the purchase of liquor
but to the attraction of the gambling table. Both of the above evils seem to thrive
with much greater impunity where the Indians have the rights of citizens and are
amenable to the laws of the State than where Indians are governed in accordance
with the regulations of the Indian Office.

Land. — The practice of leasing Indian allotments without proper authority, i>rior to
this year, seems to have gradually assumed considerable proportions. The attention
of illegal lessees was called to the requirements of the law early in the vear, an<l, in
most cases, a disposition to execute leases in due form was manifest. 6oth Indians
and whites seem to desire to avail themselves of the protection of the law. This
occasioned more office work in this particular line than in former years.

Much inquiry is being made at present relative to the sale of inherited Indian

Climate. — ^The absence of excessive heat and extreme cold makes this climate ideal
in regard to temperature. The excessive and continuous rainfall for about nine
months of the year makes exceedingly bad roads, interferes with outside industrial
work, and retards the development of the country. The remaining three months
are usually extremely dry.

Indnstries. — The cascara sagrada industry had to be discontinued as the market
became overstocked with this commodity. Fishing for home consumption and for

Online LibraryUnited States. Office of Indian AffairsAnnual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs → online text (page 53 of 117)