United States. Office of Indian Affairs.

Annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs online

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week. The post-office and telegmph address is Rosebud Agency, S. Dak. A tele-
phone line connects the agency with Valentine, Nebr.

The supplies for the Ponca Creek issue station are received at Stuart, Nebr., on the
Fremont, Elkhom and Missouri Valley Railroad, and the supplies for the Big White
River issue station are received ftt Chamberlain, S. Dak., on the Chicago, Milwaukee
and St. Paul Railroad.

For administrative purposes the reserve is divided into seven districts, with a farmer
in charge of each, who resides at the issue station and has general supervision over
the Indians living in the district assigned him. Except as above stated, the supplies
for the several issue stations are transported by Indian freighters direct from Valen-
tine to the station.

The main industry of the Rosebud Sioux is stock raising. There are 24,130 head
of cattle and 10,689 horses now owned by people living on the reserve. The lai^r
proportion, however, of this stock is owned by white men married to Indian women
ana mixed bloods. Some of these Indians take good care of their stock, but a lara;e
number pay little attention to them, many appealing to be discouraged by the yearly
inundation of cattle from the north, which^ working back in the spring to their home
ranges, carry numbers of Indian cattle with them, and by the amount of rustling
going on, and by the losses due to severe storms in the late winter and earlv spring
months. The past season has been no exception, and these people lost rally 400
head of cattle and more than this number of horses in the storms.

Each year larce numbers of cattle from the ranges to the north either drift on this
reserve or are driven on it to the great detriment of these Indians. During the past
winter a greater number than ever before so came on the reserve. What is believed
to be a conservative estimate placed the number at 60,000 head. Large numbers of
these cattle worked north to their ranges before the spring round-up, which took
place from May 25 to June 21, 1902, when over 30,000 head of cattle were removed
from the resen^e. The cattle round-up of 1902 on the Rosebud Reserve was the
largest ever seen here. About 225 riders with over 2,000 saddle horses took part in
the round-up and removal of the outside cattle.

Th6 Rosebud Reserve contains about 3,250,000 acres of land, situated in the State
of South Dakota. Parts of the reserve are fairly well adapted to agricultural pur-
poses; wheat, oats, com, potatoes, onions, and other small vegetables being more or
less successfully raised, but the most of it is used for grazing cattle or horses. Much
of the land is allotted, and the available tribal land is utilized for the pasturage of
cattle under grazing permit system and yields a considerable revenue, which might
be increased if the Indians would consent to the leasing of tribal land.

On August 28, 1901, United States Indian Inspector James McLaughlin arrived at
the ^ency and entered into negotiations with the Rosebud Sioux for the cession to
the United States of that portion of Gregory County, S. Dak., lying within the
boundaries of the Rosebud Reserve, which negotiations were succeifully completed
October 5 following, by an agreement dated September 14, 1902, whereby these
Indians cede about 416,000 acres of land in consideration of the sum of $1,040,000,
of which $250,000 is to be expended in the purchase of stock cattle and the balance
in five yearly per capita payments. This agreement has not yet been ratified by the
Congress of the United States.

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344 REPORTS CONCERNING INDIANS IN SOUTH DAKOTA.

On December 30 laat the Indian Office issued instructions looking to the witfa.—
drawal of the gratuitous issue of rations to the able-bodied Indians of this reserve,
and providing work for them at a rate of $1.25 per day for each man, and $2.50 a dsLy
for a man and team, in lieu of all such issues, or else the able-bodied men eoul.ci.
provide the subsistence for themselves and families.

This wise policy was inaugurated at this agency May 1, 1902, when, with very fe^^w
exceptions, the aole-bodied males began work building dams and reservoirs, makiEks-
and repairing roads, building bridges, fences, etc. No supplies whatever were issued
to the able-bodied Indians or their families. Some of the Indians sought employ-
ment off the reserve, where better wages could be obtained, but by far the greater
number remained on the reserve engaged in the work stated, and nave performedL
all the work given them to do to the heat of their ability, and, I may say, consider-
ing the fact that it has never heretofore been necessary for these people to earn theij^
own subsistence, they have done well.

The old, sick, infirm, and helpless Indians with their families, numbering over
eleven hundred persons, receive periodically the rations allowed by existing instruc-
tions. The able-bodied Rosebud Indians now much prefer to work at remunerative
pay than to receive rations, but in this climate during the late fall, the winter, ancl
early spring moAths it will not be practicable to provide them with work here, an<l
I suppose it will consequently be necessary to issue rations to all during these montlis
for some time to come.

In the interval between the date of the instructions of the Indian Office and the
time the instructions were to take effect, the exact nature of the instructions were
several times explained to these Indians, and the benefit that would surely accrue to
them by the change was pointed out Many persons in this section of country ajid
some elsewhere confidently predicted serious trouble when the rations were taken
away from the able-bodied and they were thus obliged to work for what they
received, but no trouble was anticipated by me in carry mg out the new policy of the
Indian Office. Owing to the timely notice given of the proposed change, friction
was reduced to the minimum and was soon entirely over, and the Indians settled
down to the new conditions in a remarkably short time and became satisfied, con-
tented, and much pleased with the new order of things, so that now about the only
complainte come from the old and disabled that they are not allowed to work at day
wages.

There are two growing evils on this reserve: One is the large quantity of liquor
used by the Indians, principally by the younger persons, the bad effects of which
have been frequently pointed out to these people, but without satisfactory resulto.
I presume these Indians will now have to pass through this stage in their hiBtor}^,
and it will simply be a case of the survival of the fittest with them. The other evil
is the amount of stock rustling constantly ^oing on, in spite of our best efforts to put
a stop to it. Occasionally the guilty parties are brougnt to justice, but by far the
greater number escape punishment by not being apprehended, by defects in the laws
or miscarriage of justice due to other causes. Attention has been invited to this
matter in previous reports, and it was expected that a bill introduced at the last
' session of Congress would remedy to a great extent this growing evil here, but the
measure failed of passage, to the great regret of all law-abiding people here.

A census of these Indians, taken at the close of June, gives the following results:

Males .• 2,369

Females 2, 554

Males over 18 years of age 1, 337

Females over 14 years of age 1, 526

Males 6 to 18 years of age 641

Females 6 to 18 years of age 692

Children 6 to 16 years of age 1,239

The census of this agency is taken over the entire reserve in one day by dividing
the districts and employing in the work all the farmers, police, and teachers, and
such persons as can be spared from the office force, and the result has been entirely
satisfactory.

The missionaries engaged in the work on this reserve represent the Protestant
Episcopal, Roman Catholic, and Congregational Churches, and they have labored
faithfully, imder many difficulties, for the good of these people. It is to be regretted
that the labor of the missionaries is not rewarded with greater success, but many of
these Indians will not yet heed the words and advice given them. The reports of
the missionaries are herewith transmitted and referred to for further information.

One boarding school and 21 day schools have been maintained by the Government,
and the two mission boarding schools (St. Francis, Catholic, and St. Mary*s, Episcopal)
have been in successful operation during the entire school year. ^



BEPOBTS OONOEBNING INDIANS IN SOUTH DAKOTA.



845



The reports of the superintendent of the Rosebud Boarding School and the day-
school inspector are forwarded herewith and referred to for the details of the school
work of the year.

Daring the year, we have sent to nonreservation schools 27 children, while 14
others have been attending public and private schools at the expense of parents. It
is believed that the class for nonreservation schools will be much lai^ger than ever
before; still a large number of the Rosebud Sioux are not inclined to send their
children off the reserve to be educated.

Dr. L. M. Hardin, agency physician, submits the following report:

Complying with your request, I submit herewith my annual report of the sanitary condition of this
fluency for tue fiscal year ending June 30, 1902.

The health of the Indians oi this reserve, together with that of the whites, has been somewhat
better than for the average year. During the past year there have been treated some 919 cases, of
which 511 were males and 408 were females. Births reported, males, 87; females, 102; total, 189.
Deaths reported, males, 70; females, 81; total, 161. This leaves a net increase of 38 births over deaths
among the Indians for the year, which Is better than for a number of years past.

There was one murder during the year and two accidental and violent deaths.

There has been no epidemic of any kind prevalent to any extent during the year. No further
appearance of smallpox was to be found on the reserve, though the disease lingered on our outekirts
and prevailed on adjoining reservations during the period, thus attesting the efficiency of our rigid
quarantine and the precautionary measures of thorough vaccination and fumigation in our fight
with the disease the year before. Otherwise, these people continue to suffer and die from the com-
mon diseases as menUoned in former reports, and more especially tuberculosis in the lymphatic and
pulmonary forms. The people seem to realize that with the treatment we can furnish them in these
cases, little can be accomplished in the hope of a full recovery, so by far the greater number do not
receive treatment at all until nearly ready to die.

This Is not only true, but the same may be said of other diseases that fall into the hands of the
native ''medicine man" and remain under his infiuence and treatment until hopeless so far as
recovery is concerned. This condition of affairs is greatly to be deplored, yet goes along without
any signs of abatement Until the medicine man is punished as any other malefactor, his evil infiu-
ence and lasting hold on his people will remain. On all these large reservations this evil is hard to
estimate and to the uninitiated or unconcerned is not always discoverable.

To fight and overcome it requires a liberal, or rather profuse supply of medicines, adequate med-
ical attendance, and other resources not always found in this worx. The medical work can never
expand and keep pace with the other educational work when so hindered, and it has been my
endeavor always to stress these points in my former reports and I now refer to them in stronger terms
than ever, inasmuch as notice has been received of a 60 per cent reduction in our medical supplies
for the ensuing vear; an economy which can not but result seriously to both physician and patient
before the year has passed.

The police force, consisting of 3 officers and 50 privates, has been faithful in the
performance of duty. No class of employees is as poorly paid for the service ren-
dered as is this force, and a substantial increase in pay should be given them.

Special Allotting Agent William A. Winder and his assistants have been engaged
in lUlotting the Rosebud Sioux during a considerable portion of the year. The nimi-
ber of allotments made to June 30, 1901, was 4,508 and 188 have been made since,
making in all 4,696.

I desire to express my thanks for the support and assistance of the Indian Office in
all measures undertaken for the welfare of these people.
The statistical report is herewith respectfully transmitted.
Very respectfully,

Chas. E. McChesney,

United Staffs Indian Agent,
The Commissioner op Indian Affairs.



REPORT OF DAY SCHOOL INSPECTOR. ROSEBUD RESERVATION.

Rosebud Agbncy, S. Dak., Aug%ul 11, 190t.

Sib: In compliance with your request I have the honor to submit my first annual report on the
schools of the Rosebud Reservation for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1902:

I assumed charge of the duties of day school inspector on December 1, 1901, and have endeavored
to have the best possible work done in the schools, and thereby keep them up to the high standard
which they attained under the supervision of my predecessor.

The enrollment and average attendance for the year was as follows:



Average
attend-
ance.



21 Ooyemment day schools. .
Government boarding school
St. Francis Mission School. . .
St. Mary's Mission School . . .

Nonreservation schools

Private schools

Total



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846 BEPOBTS OONCEBKING INDIANS IN SOUTH DAKOTA.

This is but a slight increase over the enrollment of the fiscal vear 1901, but we hope for a more
marked increase the next year, as a number of new pupils are to bo added in September.

About 50 pupils were excused from school by the physician during the past year on account of
physical disability.

Of the 21 day scnools on this reserre, nineteen consist, each, of a schoolroom, sewing room, and
employees' quarters, all under the same roof; and two that were recently built consist, each, of a
teacher's cottajgre and a school building. The latter building contains a schoolroom, sewing room,
storeroom, andcloakroom.

At each of the day schools except two there is a carpenter and blacksmith shop in which the bors
are taught the use of tools, and when material can be furnished they manufacture tables cupboards,
etc., to be used in their homes.

Harmony prevails in all the schools, and a great deal of intereat is being manifested by both
employees and pupils.

The influence ofthe day schools is plainly visible in the homofl of the Indians, and the interest
shown by the parents in the school work is very gratifying. I consider the day schools a great factor
in the progress of civilization. They are doing a work for the Indian that can not be done by any
other scnool. Notwithstanding the fact that the influence of the home life upon the children Is not
always to be commended, yet it is reasonable to believe that the children exeit an influence for good
over their parents, as many valuable things that are taught in the day schools are put into practice
in the homes.

The housekeepers deserve great credit for the good work they are doing with so little at their com-
mand with which to work.

Many of the pupils attending these day schools have to go from three to five miles, and have but
very little to eat, except that which they get at the schools, which is but a trifle. I would therefore
recommend that provisions be furnished to the day schools for a suitable noon-day meal, to be pre-
pared by the girls under the instructions of the housekeeper, thereby furnishing a means by which
the girls may receive instructions in the art of cookiug.

In conclusion I wish to say that I believe that the good that is being accomplished in the day
schools for advancement of the Indians makes them second to no other school in the service.

Thanking my superior officials for their kind consideration and siipport given me at all times, and
the efficient corps of teachers and housekeepers for the efforts put forth to make the day schools of
the Bosebud Reservation succesful, I am
Most respectfully,

Arthur E. McFatridqb,

Day School Inspector.

Dr. Charles £. McChesnet,

United States Indian Agent.



REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF ROSEBUD SCHOOL.

RoesBUD Boarding School,
Itosebud Agency, S. Dak., August 1, 190S.

Sir: I have the honor to submit my third annual report of the Rosebud Agency Boarding School
for the year ending June 30, 1902.

The enrollment for the past year has been 283, with an average attendance of 199M|. I have trans-
ferred five pupils to nonrc8er\'ation schools. I have encountered the same trouble in transferring
pupils as heretofore, namely, the parent's consent. We have a class now of 12 or 15 that shonld be
transferred, but I do not expect to be able to gain the consent of the parents to transfer more than a
small number of them.

Literary work.— This department was under Mattie L. Adams during the first four months, and the
next six months under John S. R. Hammitt, both of whom were assisted in the work by a very able
corps of teachers. The work has been quite satisfactory.

Industries.— Shoe and harness shop: Since my last report this department has been restored to its

{>roper place and new tools added, but we still lack a few necessary ones, which I hope will be added
n tne near future. The stock and tools arrived too late to do much work this year. The boys have
made a few shoes and one set of harness, which, with the repair work, has kept tnem quite busy. This
department has been under William Walker.

Woodwork.— The first nine months this department was in charge of James Williamson, the next
three months in charge of George E. Turner. The boys have made good progress.

Ironwork.— This department has been under Orin £. Ramsdill, who has shown an aptitude to teach
boys in his line.

Engine room.— The work here has been quite satisfactory. During the year we have put in a damper
regulator, which is effectual in saving coal. We have been allowed an electric pump, which we will
put in position in July or August. With this we expect to make a t«till larger saving of coal. Lloyd E.
Carmthers is in char^.

Sewing room.— Ourglrls have done well here. Making clothing for the girls and some for the small
boys and doing the mending for the entire school is no small matter. Mary Zielan is in charge.

Cook.— The girls in this department have done well. They have learned to cook and serve Tege-
tables. meats, and pies very nicely, also to dry sweet com for winter use. They cured eight bushels
after it was dr>-. This com has been used by the pupils through the winter and spring. Tina
Armstrong has charge of this department.

Bakery.— Our work in this department has been broken into by sickness, the baker having been
absent mxty days. We have established cooking classes, but have not accomplished as much as I
desired. Will try to do better another year. Ella E. Branchaud is baker.

Laundry.— The work here has been broken into during the year. Rose E. Floyd was in charge the
first five months, Cora V. Carmthers about one and one-half months, and Maggie A. Young the bal-
ance of the year. The work has been generally satisfactory.

Farm and dairy.— This department I consider one of the most important to the Indian youth in this
school, being here in the midst of the Indian people; our land the same as theirs, our cows the same
as they have. The dairy I consider very poorly managed. This school feels the need of a man
who is not only a farmer, but a dairyman. We have milked 23 cows out of a dairy herd of 27 and
made only 1,430 pounds of butter or very nearly that much. Our cows are Jerseys and grades. We
have Just put in a Reid hand separator and expect to do much better. The butter waa made by the
cook and kitchen girls, and used by the pupils on their tables and added much to the menu.

Farm.— We did not grow as much last year as we should, although we raised all the potatoes and
small vegetables that we used. Our crops look fine now, in fact, never looked as well before. Pota-



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REP0BT8 CONOBRNIKG INDIANS IN SOUTH DAKOTA. 347

toes, pamiipfl, carrota, cabbage, sweet com, broom corn, sorghum, rye, tomatoes, and peas all 'bid
fair to make a good crop, althoogh we suffered quite a bit from the frost of June 2L This department
has been under Theodore Branchaud, except during April and May.

Garden.~The garden which has just been described is under Edwin A. Grove, who came to us
April 2. He seems to take an interest in his work, which we must do if we make our work a success.

jTew enterprise.— The past year we have made a few brooms. This year we not only expect to
make all we use in the school, but some for others. It is my desire to make all the sorghum molasses
that we shall use from the cane which we now have growing.

WoA eampleted.— This year we have completed the dam that was washed out; also completed our
ditches and are using the water en the crops. Our plant is second to none.

V«w boildian. — In the last three months the carpenter, with his detail of boys, has completed one
wagon shed 16 by 40, with 12-foot posts, having a loft with a floor to store worn-out articles; one
hard-coal shed, 16 by 20, with 10-foot posts; one soft-coal shed, 20 by 40, with 10-foot basement and
10-foot posts. These sheds were a long- felt want.

Oiria'^bome.— The girls have been well cared for, and taught to care for their clothing, beds, and
rooms. Emelina H. Tripp and her able assistant, Julia De Cora, have given them a mother's care.

Boys' home.— This department has been under the care of Stella S. Bullard, who has been a true
friend to the little ones. The work has been quite satisfactory.

Biseipliiie.- The boys have been under the charge of William H. Ross, who has shown tact in deal-
ing' with them. Mr. Ross has introduced football, hurdle races, and baseball, which give the bo3rs
plenty of exercise.

Health. — The health of the school has been excellent the past vear. Very few cases of sickness.
The health of the school has been looked after by Dr. W. Q. Tucker and Louise H. Klein, trained
nnrse.

Hew hoildiiigs needed.— We still need a larger dining hall; the capacity of the present one is 168,
while the average attendance for the past three years has been 199.

I am well pleased with the emplovees as a whole, and wish to thank them for their prompt per-
formance of duty and for courtesy shown me.

I thank you and the employees in your office for courtesies extended to me in my work.
Very respectfully,

John B. Tripp,
SuperijUendenL

Chables £. McChiskey,

United Statea Jruiian Agrnt.



REPORT OP MISSIONARY, ROSEBUD RESERVATION.

St. Fkancis Mission,
RoBdmd Agency, S. Dak., Augutt 1, 1909.

Dbab Sir: Our missionary work of the past year I may compare to a race with obstacles put in the
road. All the missionary can do is to comply with the command of his Divine Master: "Qoand
teach them all that I have told vou." This command contains the boundaries of both his duty and
his power. If he meet with such that prefer darkness to the light, the missionary can do nothing
but put him off to the final end, which is sure to come, even for the willfully blinded.

Once an Indian agent told me: "Father, carnal weapons will not do with these people; spiritual
ones are needed." This was true. As true, however, it is that man does not consist of the spirit onlv,
but has a bodv, which is the natural and sometimes only bridge to reach the soul. Now, if the mis-
sionary preaches honesty, truthfulness, and purity of life, and in the courts notorious thieves and
liars who have "a strong pull " and "can afford the money " are acquitted; if divorces are granted to
the guilty against the innocent, the missionary's efforts are baffled; if an attorney can offer, as it has
been dbne, one who had pleaded guilty to get nim free if he paid 950, the missionary may preach the
Ten Commandments of God and he will be laughed at by a certain class of Indians.

We have been preaching to these Indians for over sixteen years the first law of God, given on the very
threshold of the lost parskdise, "Thou shalt eat thy bread in the sweat of thy face," but all our teach-
ing, by word and example, had not the desired effect until the Government withdrew the rations
from the able-bodied and save them work and wages, giving them a chance and obliging them effi-
ciently to comply with the law of God. When I asked one who returned from work, " Did nobody die



Online LibraryUnited States. Office of Indian AffairsAnnual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs → online text (page 59 of 117)