United States. Office of Indian Affairs.

Annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs online

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immediately at theschool. The street-car line of Tacoma has been recently extended
and now comes within about one-half mile of the school buildings.

The agency covers the Puyallup, Nisqualli, Skokomish, Squaxon Island, Chehalis.
Quinaielt, and Greorgetown reservations, also the Indian villages at Port Gamble ana
near Dungeness, Wash.
The population by tribes, as shown by the census returns herewith, is as follows:

Puyallup 633

Skokomish 178

Chehalis 149

Port Gamble 84

JamestOMm 221

Nisqualli 153

Squaxon 85

Quinaielt 137

Quaiteo 60

Georgetown 115

Humptulip 19

Total 1,734

As has been previously reported, however, there is a large number of Indians, per-
haps 1,000, in southwestern portions of Washington who are not enumerated on the
census returns of this or any other agency for the reason tbat they are not classified;
that they exercise the rights of citizens and are no longer wards of the Government
in the proper sense of that term.

I am glad to be able to report that the Indians of these parts are making slow but
sure progress in the direction of civilization. Compared with the Indians in the
central portions of the United States they have already reached a high degree of
civilization, but as compared with white citizens they have much to learn They
all dress practicallv as white citizens, there being no blanket Indians and no Indians
with long hair and painted faces under this agency. For the most part, also, they
speak and understand English about well enough for ordinary business transactions.



The men, however, have much to learn vet in the way of industrial habits, as
here is not that energy and thrift exercised by them in the tilling of their lands or
in other lines of work as I would like to see, though there are among them some



very good farmers. The women, also, are for the most part far from bein^ good
housekeepers, though I am glad to notice that there is improvement from time to
time in that line also.

The Indians* besetting sins are gambling and liquor drinking. The Indian is a
natural gambler and it seems almost impossible to break him of that habit, for every
fail and winter they have their quiet assemblings on various reservations for the pur-
pose of trying their luck with their own peculiar gambling devices. ^^^ t

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366



REPORTS CONCERNING INDIANS IN WASHINGTON.



There is a great deal of dnmkeimefls among them, it being safe to say that fully
three-fourths of them use liauor at times to excess, and there have been during the
past few years a number of aeaths due to this cause. I am of the opinion that the
Indians will have to learn as white i)eoi)le the evil effects resulting from the use of
intoxicationg liquors, and from this in time learn to govern themselves. The Gov-
ernment can not always interfere to keep liquor away from them, and they will
sooner or later have to learn to manage this matter for themselves. I believe that a
number of them are gradually learning the lesson, and I look to see before long a
return to better habits.

There are under this agency one boarding school and five day schools. The
boarding school is located at the Puyallup Agency headquarters ana is now re^rded
as a reservation school for all Indians under this agency. Until one year ago it had
reached the proportions of a nonreservation training school, but owing to a ruling of
the Secretary of the Interior in June, 1901, all Indian pupils not belonging on reser-
vations under this agency were refused admission to the school. The result has been
considerable decrease in the attendance at the schooL Our highest enrollment at
any time last year was 149, and the average attendance was practically 125, though
the average, counting in the vacations, figures but 114. The work of the school was
quite satisfactory for those who attended, and we graduated t^o pupils at the close
of the school from the regular course.

The day school at the Jamestown village, near Dun^ness, was conducted during
the past year by Mr. John H. Wilson, a new appointee, in a very satisfactory manner,
and accomplished good work.

The Port Gamble day school, which is situated in the village on the sandspit across
the little toy from the PortG^amble sawmills, is still in charge of Mr. Albert Clawson,
who has been there for a number of years and has made the usual good progress.

The Skokomish day school, located on the Skokomish Reservation, has been in a
very unsettled condition for some time owing to the efforts that have been made to
change the school site. The old boarding-school site is on one corner of the reserva-
tion and situated on an island, the condition of the roads being such as to make the
school at times inaccessible to the greater number of the children of school age; also
the distance from some of their homes is very great We therefore secured the use
of the Indian Shaker church for a time and conducted the school in this building;
later it was moved to an old house on the Sore-eyed Bill land, a tract recently
acquired for the school use, and there finished the year. The conditions and facilities
were very poor, though by having the school in this more accessible location a lai^r
attendance was secured, Mr. Youngblood working with his usual enei^y to secure
attendance and advance the pupils.

I am sorry to note that we snail now lose the services of the teacher, Mr. J. K
Youngblood, who has been there for a number of years and has been a very useful
man in charge of that reservation and school. He resigns this year to return to his
farm on Ho<xls Canal and devote his time to private interests.

The Chehalis Indian day school, on the reservation of that name, has had an
unusually prosflerous year. It has been in charge of Mr. Chalfant L. Swaim, a new
appointee, who has proven himself to be an excellent teacher, with enthusiasm in
the work. The attendance has been the best that the day school there has ever
secured, and the results have been quite satisfactory.

The Quinaielt day school, at the village of Granville, which is the subagency for
the Quinaielt Reservation, was conducted for a while by Mrs. Maud B. Cox, the wife
of Dr. Horace W. Cox, the physician in charge of that subagency. She was suc-
ceeded later by Miss Ida Boyd, a new appointee, and the work of the school in both
cases was very good.

Puyallup includes Nisqually and Squaxin Island reservations, which have no
schools, but the pupils are allowed to attend the Puyallup boarding school.

The school population is shown by the following table :



Puyallup....
Skokomish .

Chehalis

Port Gamble
Jamestown . .
Quinaielt....



Males.


Females.


116


125


24


27


24


14


10


9


37


S4


42


36



Total.



241
51
S8

19
71

78



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REP0RT8 OONCEBNING INDIANS IN WASHINGTON. 367

The reports show the following number enrolled at the schools during the year:



Payallup boarding acbool

Cbehalis day school

Jame^ttown day school . . .
Port Gamble day school..
Skokomish day school . . .
Quinaielt day school



Males. Females.



Total.



168
25
24
28
40
29



Average.



114

22j



221
15l
11*
18+
15



There has been durinc the past year unusual activity on the Quinaielt Reservation.
The Northern Pacifid Railway Company, with the consent of the Secretary of the
Interior, has been surveying a route for a branch line across said reservation and is
now engaged in trading and laying track up to the south line of the reservation.
Added to this, Mr. George R. Campbell, under cjontract with the Land Department,
is now engaged in running the interior lines of the reservation, dividing same into
proper townships, sections, and quarter sections. This will enable the Indians to
go rorward with their scheme of allotting lands among themselves. As has been
previously rej)orted to you, the Indians have for a number of years been selecting
lands, but in the absence of a pro^r survey were unable to ascertain where the 8ul>
divisional lines would fall, and this fact has greatly retasded their work of making
improvements. As soon as the survey now in progress is completed they will be
a^Ie to ascertain where their lines are, and I am sure it will greatly stimulate them
in their work of building houses, clearing land, and makinghom^ for themselves.

I have recently forwarded to your office a letter from Dr. Horace W. C/Ox, the
physician in chai^ at Quinaielt subagency, submitting an estimate for $2,500 for the
purchase of a sawmill for the use of these Indians. Tney have upon their reserva-
tion as fine a body of timber as there is in the world, but no means of converting
same into lumber, and in order to build their houses they must either pick up lum-
ber wherever they can find it along the beach or split out shakes or haul it 40
miles from the nearest sawmill. To haul lumber in there is like ** carrying coals to
Newcastle." With a little mill they will be able to provide themselves with all the
lumber they will need in the erection of their houses and other buildings. I trust
that the appropriation asked for by Dr. Cox can be granted.
I am, sir, your obedient servant,

Frank Terry, Superintendent, etc.

The Commissioner op Indian Affairs.



REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT IN CHARGE OF YAKIMA AGENCY.

Yakima Indian Agency,
Fort Simcoe, Wash., August SO, 1902.

Sir: I have the honor to submit the annual report of the condition of affairs on
this reservation and at this school for the fiscal year 1902.

The fu^ency and the school are situated in the foothills of the Cascade Mountains,
about 30 miles from the railroad. The fort was established as a military post in
1856, and was known as Fort Simcoe.

The reservation contains about 800,000 acres, of which about 300,000 acres have
been allotted.

All of the land that there was anv practical way of irrigating was allotted to the
Indians some time ago, when the last allotting agent was here, consequently the
remaining portion of the reservation is very poor land and is practically worthless
for farming purposes and remains tribal lands, where water can not be secured for
irri^tion. A great portion of the unallotted lands are in the mountains, part of
which is timbered. I estimate that there are about 75,000 acres of good pine timber
land distant about 40 to 60 miles from the railroad, and inaccessible at present.
These tribal lands afford or produce only a small amount of vegetation during a short
part of the early summer, and, on account of the lack of rains, dry up and supply but
a very limited grazing for stock.

The most of the allotted lands is very good soil, located in the lower valleys, and
can be irrigated from the small mountain streams flowing through the reservation or
along its Orders, at a reasonable expense. Nearly all of the slotted lands on the
reservation could be irrigated at an expense of about $100,000. A large i)art of these
lands are now worthless without water. When it is remembered that irrigated lands
adjoining the reservation and of the same quality are selling at from $75 to $300 per
acre, it seems that something should be done in the line of jsu^pl^ing^ ^^^ t^



368 REPORTS CONCERNING INDIANS IN WASHINGTON.

these lands, and thus place these people where reasonable 8elf-Bnpp6rt is a poseibilitv.
A small amount of money has been expended with good results. I have recently
submitted plans for a proposed canal from the Yakima River that would irrigate
about 50,000 acres of allotted lands near the railroad. I trust that some way can be
provided to construct this canal at an early date. The 50,000 acres this canal would
water, probably the finest body in the State, is now a barren, worthless sagebrush

Elain, but when irrigated would produce nearly all kinds of fruits and v^etables,
ops or graiuj and would be ver^ valuable.

It is my opmion that this imeation canal should be constructed at Government
expense, and owned and controlled by the Government Such allotments as coold
not be improved and put under cultivation by the Indians should be rented to the
whites. A certain portion of the rent money should be set aside and not paid^ to
the Indians, but held by the Government as a reimbursement for the construction
of the canal, and pay for maintaining the same. As the agent or superintendent
collects all of the rents from the lessees it seems that it would be a feasible plan and
have it so stipulated in the lease thajt, say, one-half or one-third of the rental shoold
be retained by the Government Every acre of the land that could be watered
would be immediately put under cultivation, either by the Indians themselves or by
white renters. If rented the Indian would have a well improved farm at the end
of the term of the lease and without any expense to himself, and the Government
be repaid for building the canal. •

Leaiing Indian allotment^ — ^At the present date there are 145 approved leasee, for
three to five years. By act of Congress, Indians of the reservation mav lease unim-
proved lands for a term of ten years, but so far no leases have been made for a longer
term than five years. All leases provide for permanent improvements of some kind.
The average cost of clearing the lands of sagebrush, leveling, fencing, and putting
water on the land is about $10 per acre, and the renter has to expend about this
amount per acre before he is able to get any returns whatever. No leases have as
yet been made on any but unimproved lands. Alfalfa, hay, potatoes, onions, and
melons are the principal products raised by the renters. Indians who are Uving on
their own lands produce mostly hay and wheat. Nearly all cultivate small gardens.

Civilisation. — About half of the Indians on this reservation are industrious and
progressive, and the other half are not, but are inclined to adhere to their old Indian
customs and inclined to take to the vices of the whites, i. e., use of intoxicants, which
they seem to have no difficulty in obtaining in the towns near the reservation and
from tramps along the line of the railroad.

School. — We have a very respectable school plant at this aj?ency that can accommo-
date 150 pupils. The largest enrollment during the past year was 151, and the
average attendance was 104, which is the smallest for several years. One of the
reasons for this decrease is nearly all of the Indians leave the reservation during
hop-picking season, taking their children with them, and do not return until late in
the fall. Another reason was the prevalence of measles and whooping cough, mak-
ing many of the parents keep their children out of school to avoid the sickness.
Those who were in school were very discontented and frequently ran away. The
superintendent and some of the employees were more interested in trying to set traps
for the agent than they were in the school work, and the agent being sick for nearly
three months was unable to look after matters as he otherwise would have done. I
am hoping to increase the attendance to the full capacity of the school and to make
it more popular with the Indians.

Congress did not make any appropriation for the pay of an agent at this a^ncy and
the position was abolished, and 1 was appointed supenntendent of the trainmg school
estaDlished and have charge of the agency and school, and assumed my duties as such
on the 1 st of July, having served altc^ther nearly eight years as agent. I have many
times had to assume the direction and management of the school, and if I can have
a good principal teacher to attend to the details of the school I feel confident we can
have a nrst-cla^ school.

There are so many white people renting land on the reservation, and while the res-
ervation has never been thrown open to settlement and is still Indian country, ijt was
found necessary to have schools for white people renting Indian lances. Two district
public schools have been established on tne reservation, supported by public county
and State school fund. These schools employ three teachers, who are under the super-
vision of the county school superintendent. Forty Indian children attended these
schools last year with the white children, and it is my opinion that most all of the
Indian children of this reservation will be attending the public schools as soon as pro-
vision is made in the way of buildings and teachers. Indian children progress much
faster when thus thrown in contact with white children than they do when they are
all kept toother with whites excluded. The public schools have, in my opinion,
been established on the reservation without authority of law or of the Department,



BEPOBTS CONCEENING UTOIANS IN WISOONSDT.



869



bat the conditions force many things, and public schools and progress can not stop
and nmst go on even on an Indian reservation.

The census of Indians and the records of marriages, births, and deaths are the
most difficult of the oflSce work. Many of the Indians allotted here were and are
scattered over the State. Many came here for allotments, expecting the Govern-
ment would build them irrigation canals, houses, etc., which was not done, and they
could not make a living upon the land allotted to them without water to irrigate,
and they have been compelled to go where they could live. The most of them went
along the Columbia River, where they could fish for their own subsistence and for
the markets, and it is impossible to obtain an accurate census of these. There are
no rations issued here, nor any annuities paid, consequently there are no inducements
for them to rei)ort births or deaths to the office.

The reservation is too laige for a person to be acouainted with all details, unless it
is his especial duty to travel over the reservation for the purpose of gatheriiur and
recording these facts concerning the population. My employee force is too small and
there are no funds at my dis(>osal for this purpose, consequently the records on this
particular point are not alt<^ther accurate, but are as much so as it is possible to
nave them under the conditions.

The census transmitted under separate cover shows a population of —

Males 1,082

Females 1,229

Total 2,311

Males over 18 654

Females over 14 892

Between 6 and 16:

Males ...t 313

Females 320

There are only about 1,600 Indians on the reservation or that make any pretense
of living here, and many of these are absent much of the time. Only about 1.300
actually reside here all of the time. They are all managing in some way to make a
living and do not cost the Government anything^ except the school.

The record of families has not been made and it is not possible to have it correctly
done under the present conditions. I estimate that it will require the entire atten-
tion of one competent for that purpose for about one year, assisted by a good inter-
preter well acquainted with the population of the reservation.
Very respectfully.

Jay Lynch, Superintendent,

REPORTS CONCERNING INDIANS IN WISCONSIN.

REPORT OF AGENT FOR GREEN BAY AGENCY.

Gbeen Bay Indian Agbncy,

Keshena, Wi8., July ^9, 190S.
Sib: Pursuant to your instructions I have the honor to present this my fifth annual
report relative to the affairs of this agency for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1902.
The Green Bay Agency is located at the village of Keshena, "Wis., on the Menomi-
nee Reservation, 8 miles from Shawano, the nearest railroad and telegraph station.
The Menominee and Stockbridge reservations are under the jurisdiction of this
agency.
The census taken June 30, 1902, shows a population of 1,837, divided as follows:



Menomi-
nee.



Stock-
bridge.



Males:

OrerlSyearsofa^

Under 18 yean 01 age

Females:

Over 14 years of age

Under 14 yeaxB of age

Total

Females between 6 and 16 years of age
Males between 6 and 16 years of age. .



436
248



227



1,299



•168
166



151
121



165
101



76
84



9674—02 24



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370



BEPOBTS CONCEBNING INDIANS IN WISCONSIN.



Menominee. — The Menominee Reeervation contains ten Goverament townshipB of-
land, or about 230,400 acres, of which amount 161,280 acres are located in Shawano
County and 69,120 acres are located in Oconto County.

Logging.— Lc^nff has been carried on on the Menominee Reservation for nearly
25 years. Prio; to the act of Congress passed June 12, 1890, lomng was confined to
dead and down timber, but this act authorizes the Menominee Indians to enter into
contract with the (jovemment to cut and bank pine timber from their reservation.
Since the passage of said act 204,099,560 feet of pine have been cut on the reserva-
tion, for which the sum of $2,473,729.76 has been realized. Of the above amonnt
15,000,000 feet were banked during the past winter. The price paid for banking'
averages about $4.75 per thousand feet. The lo^ cut during the season of 1901—2,
after being duly advertised, were sold at Washmgton, D. C, to T. R. Moi^gan, of
Oshkosh, Wis., on a bid of $17.27 per thousand feet, aggregating the sum of $259,050.
After deducting $4.75 per thousand feet for banking, the logs brought a stumpage
value of $12.52 per thousand feet.

There is still considerable timber on the reservation, consisting of pine, hemlock,
oak, elm, basswood, birch, maple, and tamarack.

Indnstriet. — The principal industries of the Indians at this agency are farming for
the Stockbridges and farming and lumbering for the Menominee.

Fanning. — AH possible inducements are held out to the Indians to persuade them
to cultivate their farms. They are encouraged by the issue of agricultural imple-
ments, etc. There are two farmers employed at this agency and the Indians are
assisted in their thrashing, etc., and are given such instructions as they require.

It is noted with pleasure that the present tendency of the Government schooLs is
to educate the Indians in industrial pursuits and to ^ive less time to literary ooorses.
It is hoped that if this practice is continued the Indian children who return to their
homes after completing the courses at the various Indian schools will take to farm-
ing and continue the work commenced at the schools.

The estimated harvest of crops grown by the Menominee and Stockbridge Indians
this season is as follows:





Menomi-
nee.


Stock-
bridge
andMun-
see.


WheAt


bushels..


1,500

14.000

600

8,000

6,000

1,400

750

500

1.500

1,600


600


Oats


do....


2,600


Barley and rye


do....




Com


do....


8,000


Potatoes


do....


2,000


Tumipe


do....


100


OnioDB


do....


45


Beans


do ..


40


Other vegetables


do....


40


Hay


tnna


160







Stockbridge Beter^ation. — Phis reservation is situated in Shawano Ck)unty and con-
sists of 11,520 acres of land, a small portion of which is covered with merchantable
timber. Most of the land is good fanning soil. Farming is the principal occupation
of these Indians.

A bill is now before CJongress which provides for a distribution of the tribal prop-
erty of this tribe and for a complete winding up of their tribal affairs. The plan of
settlement upon which this bill is based was signed by more than a majority of tlie
male adult members of the tribe. The minority party, consisting principally of the
* * Miller faction, ' ' are, however, bitterly opposing the passage of this Dili. The Stock-
bridge Indians are an intelligent and industrious tribe, and the Department has long
since been satisfied that they have reached the stage where they should pass out ot
existence as a tribe and become citizens. However, the tribe consists of numerous
factions, each one of which wants the whole of the tribal property, so that up to the
present time it has been impossible to effect any settlement with them. The bill
above referred to provides for an equitable division of the tribal property, and it
remains to be seen ^^ t!.. '»^ority faction can frustrate the will of the majority.

Ednoation. — There are two boarding schools located on the Menominee Reservation,
the Menominee boarding school, a Government school, in chaige of Superintendent
Charles H. Koonz, wi^'*'*" -^'^city of 140 pupils, and the St Joseph's industrial
school, in charge of R iv^ake, with a capacity of 170 pupils.

The health of the pupiis nas l)een fairly good aunng the past year. There have
bo^ (I number of cases of smallpox on the reservation, but fortunately it has been



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REPORTS CONCERNING INDIANS IN WISCONSIN. 371

kept ont of the schools, and but for a brief epidemic of measles, which was promptly
and ably looked after by the ageucy physician, the health of the pupils has been all



Online LibraryUnited States. Office of Indian AffairsAnnual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs → online text (page 64 of 117)