United States. Office of Indian Affairs.

Annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs online

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from the sale of dressed poultry. Close application and attention to details are
essential, and as the work is not laborious, women as well as men have an eqaal
chance of success. Fresh eggs are always acceptable in trade for groceries and other
commodities at a country store.

Environment an Obstacle in Indian Education.
[W. P. Campbell, Assistant Superintendent Salem School, Oregon.]

The Indian should be induced to leave his reservation and take advantage of every
opportunity which presents itself for so doing. The schools have largely been the
means of pushing him out into civilized communities. It is true that civilization
latterly has gone in among his people in some instances, and that has helped, but
still it has been the province of the schools to be the principal factor. Granted that
their environment would be better in a public school, then why should not our
brightest full-blood pupils be placed in tnese environments? Every opportunity
which presents itself should be taken advantage of to place our Indian youth in the
public schools of the country.

Tribal clannishness must be broken up, and the Indian must be immersed in or
absorbed by the environs of our American civilization before we can hope for his
emancipation.

How Much Government Money should bb Expended on an Individual Indian,
AND HOW TO Recompense the (^vernment.

[Charles E. Shell, superintendent Greenville School, California.]

Much depends upon the individual Indian. No fixed sum can be written as the
amount that shoula be expended upon an individual. It should be enough to ren-



SUMMER SCHOOLS. 437

der him not only able to care for his bodily necessities and comforts, but to make
him respectable as well. The expense of providing for the Indian's wants, both
temi>oral and intellectnal, will decrease proportionately as his independence increases.
A brighter day has dawned for the aborimne of America. He is to be made a pro-
ducer of more than he consumes. Whether he likes it or not he must earn his bread
by the sweat of his face.

Domestic Science.

[Mrs. Mart E. Theisz, matron Salem School, Oregon.]

Domestic science, according to my understanding, is a scientific and practical
knowledge that tends to the betterment of the home. The girls do the cooking,
washing, ironing, housekeeping, and milking, and make clothing for the inmates of
the cottage. The boys are detailed to the fields, the orchard, the shops, the garden,
and perform regular chores. Every employee in the domestic departments of every
school should make the work the very best possible with the means at her dispo^,
and who can estimate the amount of good that jnight be accomplished.

Industrial Teaching.
[Morris W. Coopkr, industrial teacher Puyallup School, Washington.]

The Indian boy needs the strengthening that comes from carrying tasks to com-

Sletion. He needs the joy of seeing that he can do something to lift him over to the
esire to do something more. Work also has its moral value. The worker's skill
means not only a better working mind but better, truer, more forceful living,
jklanual training is the bond between the school and the home. Forethought,
accuracy, persistency, orderly habits, neatness, deftness of the hands, all these fit
wonderfully well into the home life.

Compulsory Education.

[D. D. McArthur, superintendent Siletz School, Oregon.]

So long as it is necessary to maintain our present system of Gk)vemment schools
for Indiums, so long should the placing of children in these schools depend upon no
precarious conditions, or make necessary undue solicitation. Where people can not
or will not give their children a chance to become reasonably well educated there
can be no question that carefully constructed compulsory school laws, both State and
national, properly enforced, are for the good of all concerned, and such legislation
sould be forthcoming.

Sunday-School Work in Indian Schools.

[Hattie M. McDowell, teacher, Umatilla School, Oregon.]

The ^reat work of the Indian school is character building, and all the rocks for
this building are found in the Bible. Morals, good principles, or strong points in our
lives are the teachings taken from the Bible. The study of this book with the help
of God will make us strong in the right and strong to resist evil. The Sabbath school
should be made interesting. It should be graded as the week-day school, and classes
should be small. By maps and illustrations the pupils should be interested in the
lesson. A few remarks made before the class impress the teachings of the lesson.
Present object lessons, sing appropriate songs, see that children remember golden
texts, stories of lessons, the Ten Commandments. Endeavor to teach that this culti-
vation of the spiritual nature not only develops the spiritual being, but awakens one
to a desire for a better mental and physical body.

[Rev. W. R. WiNANS, Salem, Oreg.]

Place value upon the Sunday school. In order to have a pupil feel that you mean
what you say, present the lesson in an intelligent manner. Make the teaching
practical and fit the lesson to the boy. Do not lecture or preach, but talk and ask
questions.

Thb Beot Means to Employ to Fill the Indian ScHooiii.

[Allen A. Babtow, teacher, Port Madison, Wash.]

The day school is the logical foundation of the system, and it is of great importance
that a determined effort to made to include all available pupils of the locality in their



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488 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF INDIAN SCHOOLS,

enrollment Once enrolled in the schools, the work of passing the pupils along the
line is not nearly so difficult if the proper spirit of cooperation is maintained between
the teachers of the day and the reservation and nonreservation schools. Where a
good boarding school is maintained at the agency headquarters it needs only a little
energy and determination on the part of the day-school teachers and the superintend-
ent to induce the children who are fitted by age and training for promotion to go to
the reservation boarding school.

How TO Teach Sewing in Indian Schooi^

[Bessie McKinzib, Klamath School, Oregon.]

The class-room method, as laid down in the Course of Study, if put into effect in
the schools would bring about a very millenium in the sewing room. Necessarily
darning comes first, and what is darning but weaving. Buttonholing is the mcist
desirable practice of all in sewing. It adorns a garment and is indispensable, and it
is the most important lesson in embroidery. Lessons in correct measurements, pro-
portionate lines, cutting, and fitting 'can be successfully taught without even the use
of a tape measure. Teach them whatever way is best adapted to their individual
needs, and needlework being a favorite cralt with them, they will not fail to make
good use of the instruction.

Engineering — its Field op Usefulness in Indian Education.

[W. W. Cochrane, engineer, Shoshoni School, Wyomlng.l

The Indian's mode of life for ages past has developed skill in the use of the eye,
ear, and hand. These are good points in the making of engineers. The twentieth
century engineer must not only be a natural mechanic, coupled with experience, but
a man of broad training, but nothing bevond the capacity and training of any bright
Indian boy who has a natural aptitude for the work.

Language and Reading.

[John P. Mackay, principal teacher Lemhi School, Idaho.]

As outlined in the Course of Study, the work for the first year should be of the
kindergarten kind. Oral rather than written work should be the aim in language,
and the pupils should be trained in conversation with the teacher and with each
other. As to a choice of methods of teaching the first elements of reading, the sen-
tence method is to be preferred.

Manual Training in the Day Schools.

[John H. Wilbon, teacher, Jamestown School, Washington.]

The Indians as a race must become farmers, and I would have most of the manual
training directed to the various branches of farming. Go into the fields where one of
your boys is plowing. You will probably find that his plow is not set right to do the
best work. Show him how it should be, and why it should be so. Perhaps the
harness has been broken, and then mended with strings or wires; or possibly it does
not fit the horses. Call his attention to it in a tactful way, and tell him you will
show him how to wax a thread and sew leather if he will come to you when he has
time.



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RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED AT SUMMER SCHOOLS.



DBPABTMENT OF INDIAN EDUCATION.

Hesolvedf That we strongly indorse the firm stand on Indian matters taken by the
President in his annual message, in which he stated that we should treat the Indian
aa an individual, not as a member of a tribe; that the reservation and ration systems
are barriers to progress and should be abolished, and that we should preserve the
Indian from the evils of the liquor traffic.

Resolved, That we commend the S^retary of the Interior for his hearty advocacv
of industrial training and for his efforts to make the Indian self-supporting through
practical means.

Resolved, That we indorse the broad-minded, economical, business administration
of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and commend the Superintendent of Indian
Schools for making personal visits to the schools, and for her helpful suggestions
tending to better the condition of the Indian.

BesoTved, That all employees in the Indian service should be subject to civil-serv-
ice rules.

Resolved, That we extend our thanks to the city, school, and State officials for
their kindness and courtesy, to all who have so ably assisted in making our meetings
a success, to the citizens of Minneapolis for their hospitality, and to the press for
tiheir reports of our department.

PACIFIC COAST INSTITUTE.

Re9olved^ That the Pacific Coast Institute for 1903 be held at such place and time
88 may be decided upnon by the committee to be appointed by the president.

Resolved, That the institute is unanimous in the expression of its appreciation of
the work done bv the Salem Indian school in contributing in such a large measure
to the success of the institute, in the arrangement of details, in the furnishing of
mnsic by its excellent band, and for the invsuuable and indefatigable services ren-
dered by Mr. W. P. Campbell, assistant superintendent, to make the institute a
success.

Resolved, That this institute extends its sincere thanks to Hon. J. H. Ackerman,
State superintendent of public instruction of Oregon, for his masterly address; to
President Campbell, of the Or^on, State University, for his able remarks; to Miss
Estelle Reel, superintendent of Indian schools, for her presence and hearty coopera-
tion; to Mr. Edwin L. Chalcraft, supervisor of Indian schools, for his presence and
active interest in the meetings; to Hon. Frank Davey, Professor Horner, ex-Special
A^nt Litchfield, Rev. Mr. Winans, and others, for interesting addresses; to Mr.
Edwin Stone, manager of the C. and E. Railroad, for courtesies in transportation;
also to Dr. Davis and Mr. Irwin for courtesies extended; to the citizens and visitors
at Newport stunmer resort for their cordiality, and to all others who have contributed
their time, energy, and talent in making the institute a success.

Resolved, That it is the sense of this body that a law should be enacted by Con-
gress taking out of the hands of the ignorant Indian parents the decision as to
whether or not their children shall receive an education. We therefore recommend
that a law be enacted requiring Indian children to attend some school approver! by
the Indian Office for a reasonable length of time during each year, and that, where
necessary, police officers be provided to enforce such law.

Resolved, That Indians who are thoroughly capable of managing their own affairs
and not requiring Federal supervision in the future be recognized m every respect as
dtixens under the entire control of the States in which mey reside; and that all

439



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440 BEPOBT OF 8UPEBINTENDEKT OF IKDIA.N SCHOOLS.

Indians not found capable be reauired to remain under the jariBdiction of the Fed-
eral Government, administered through the Secretary of the Interior and the Indian
Office.

Resolved, That we are heartily in accord with the advanced ideas in Indian edaea-
tion contained in the Course of Study issued from the office of Miss Estelle Reel,
superintendent of Indian schools, ana take this opportunity of assuring her of car
loyalty to her and of our hearty support in applying the Course of Study to our work.

Resolved, That these meetings of the employees and officers of Indian schools are
productive of great benefit professionally and socially, enlarging our knowledge of
our work, and bringing ourselves under a bond of mut^ sympathy. We therefore
uixe all who are connected with these schools to make every effort to attend each
annual meeting.

Resolved, That the thanks of the institute be extended to Dr. Charles M. Buchanan
for the able manner in which he has presided over the affairs of this assembly.



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SYNOPSIS OF REPORTS OF SPECIAl INDIAN AGENTS AND

SUPERVISORS.



Dantel W. Manchester, United States special Indian agent:

Grand Ronde, Oreg. — There are a large number of small children in this school,
and they require much more care, watching, time, and attention than if they were
older.

Ibrt Belknap, Mont. — The Indians of this reservation are not in a very civilized
state, but the superintendent is an experienced teacher and is doing efficient work.

GreeriviUe, Cat — On account of the lack of school facilities in this locality in the
past, naany of the children are not far advanced, but steady progress is being made.

Neah Bay, Wa^h. — ^The higher grade pupils are in charge of a male instructor,
and the primary pupils are in charge of a female Indian teacher. The former are in
a neat frame building and are doing well, but the latter are but poorly provided for.

PuyaUup^ Wash. — The location is pleasant, and the children see much of refined
life and civilization, being but a short distance from and in sight of the city of Tacoma.

Santee, Nebr. — Oood progress has been made, and results are satisfactory. The
school has an excellent garden, which furnishes an ample supply of vegetables for
the table and will also jjrovide much for winter use.

SUetZf Oreg. — The pupils are fully up to the average of those elsewhere met. Many
have been sent from here to Carlisle, Chemawa, and other schools.

7\UaIipf Wash. — This was for many years a mission school, and the old site and
buildings are still used. This should m abandoned and a new plant built at the
agency, where there is an excellent water supply. The number of pupils could be
greatly increased were there adequate facilities for accommodating them.

Umatillaf Oreg. — ^The school has a high standing in the midst of an intelligent com-
naanity, and the public evinces a warm interest m it The employees, as a rule, are
of a high degree of efficiency.

Warm Spring, Orep. — The grounds and surroundings are pleasant and the buildings
well arranged and m good condition. It is evident that good work has been done
in the past, and a high standard is maintained.

In general. — ^If we are to educate and Christianize the Indian youth, the place to
do it IS in the school. The home influences are hostile, and but little can be expected
from that source. So the teacher and the school must stand in the place of parent
and home, and it is not enough that teachers and employees be capable instructors,
or that they set a good moral example even; there should be training along the reli-
gions side of life.

Edwin L. Chalcrapt, supervisor of Indian schools:

I have the honor to report that during the fiscal year 1902 I visited the schools at
Leech Lake Agency and Morris, Minn., in the fifth district, and the greater number
of agencies and scfiools in the fourth district. The following is a brief statement of
my observations:

Morris, Minn. — ^The nonreservation school at this place has a capacity of 150 pupils
and is well located near the town. The principal Duildings are m good conaition.
with the exception of a two-story frame used for dining room, kitchen, and employees
quarters, which needed repairs. Pupils are received from the reservations in Min-
nesota.

Leech Lake Agency, Minn. — At this agency are ^ve Government boarding schools,
having a combined capacity of 270 pupils. The buildings are all new and very well
equipped, but more land for fanmng purposes should be cleared at each of the
Bcnools.



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442 BEPORT OF SUPEBrNTENDENT OF INDIAN SCHOOLS.

Fort Peck Agency y Mont. — Better buildings are needed. The school is filled beyond
its capacity^ and a large number of children from this reservation are attending
nonreeervation schools. The general condition and management of the school is
excellent

Fort Belknap, Mont, — ^The buildings need repairs. The attendance was 106.

Ibrt Shaw, Mont. — ^This school has 6,000 acres of land, a part of which is irrigated.
Industrial instruction is given in the shops principally. The enrollment was 331.

Blaclrfeet, Mont.— The removal of the Blackfeet school to Out Bank River, 4 miles
northeast of the agency, has been recommended by various officials. The present
site is an undesirable one.

Colville, Wash. — ^The buildings are frame, and with some remodeling wiU be ade-
quate to accommodate all the pui)ils available. The attendance was 213.

Tulalip, Wash. — ^The largest buildings of this plant were burned last winter, since
which tmie there has been no school on the Tulalip Reservation. There is an appro-
priation for the erection of new buildings. The Indians of this agency are self-
supportine.

Neah Bay, TFcw/u— The Indians depend upon fishing for a living and are self-
supporting. Two day schools, having a combmed capacity of 98 pupils, are supported
by the Government.

PuyaMup, Wash.— The Puyallups are self-supporting. They have the most valua-
ble lands of any Indians in the State. The boarding school has been reduced in size
by restricting the attendance to pupils from the reservations of the agency only.
There are two public schools on the IMvallup Reservation attended by Indians and
whites. Two of the directors of one of these schools are Indians.

Nez Perci, Idaho. — ^This school has a good farm, and the climatic conditions are
favorable for agriculture and stock raising.

Lemhi, Idaho. — The Lemhi boarding school is a small one. An Episcopal miasion
station has lately been established.

Crow, JtfbrU.— The Crow Indians are progressive and take an active interest in agri-
cultural pursuits. First-class irrigation ditches are being constructed, making their
reservation a valuable one. The boarding school has alarm of 160 acres, allunder
irrigation and fenced. The school has an attendance of 165, is well managed, and in
excellent condition. A new school is under construction at Pryor, on tne western
part of the reservation.

Tongue River, Mont. — There are two schools on this reservation — a day school, having
a capacity of 32 pupils, suppjorted by the Grovernment, and a Catholic mission school,
havmg a capacity of 50 pupils.

Flathead, Mont. — The Government has no school buildings on this reservation, but
conducts a small school in rented buildings. The Jesuit fithers have a large scliool
plant on the reservation.

Fbrt Hall, Idaho. — ^The school is now 18 miles from the agency, but is to be removed
to a place near the agency at Rossfork.

Yakima, Wash. — This school has a capacity of 150 pupils. Thirty-six pupils attended

?ublic schools on the reservation this year and 30 are at nonreservation schools,
'hese Indians have lands that produce large crops when supplied with water.

Shoshoni, Wyo. — ^These Indians are so isolated that it is a slow, difficult naatter to
bring them imder control of civilizing influences. The school has a capacity of 150
pumls. There are one day school and two mission schools on the reservation.

The general condition and success of the schools visited during the past year are
satisfactory. A commendable effort has been made bv the employees to bring the
literary work into closer relationship with the industrial training, as contemplated in
the new Course of Study. Where the intent of this plan has been fully comprehended
and put into practice the results are gratifying.

J. Franklin House, supervisor of Indian schools:

This district comprises the territory east of the Missouri River, except the school
at Pipestone, Minn., and the schools lying east of the river in South Dakota. There
are within the district 26 Government boarding schools, 18 day schools, and 7 mis-
sion boarding schools, with a total enrollment of 5,144. The buildings in most
instances are good and well equipped and are kept in good condition. The work of
the schools is, in general, satisfactory. The industrial branch of the work is not all
that it should be, out good is being accomplished through details of pupils to assist
with the work of the various departments and through classes in mdustrial work
or^nized as contemplated in the Course of Study. Many of the day schools are
doing excellent work, but at others not much is being accomplished. There should
be thorough and systematic supervision of day schools, and where practicable I
would recommend that they be placed under the care of the superintendents of the



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BEP0KT8 OF SCHOOL SUPEBVI80R8. 448

reservation boarding schools. I am of the opinion that much good can be accom-
plished through the day schools.

One factor which is undoubtedly detrimental to the beet interests of the boarding
achools is the too frequent change of employees. More effort should be made to
make ajid keep employees efficient rather than to transfer them, and employees
should be willing to give their best efforts for the good of the school in whicn they
are employed.

In conclusion, I would state that while I can see room for improvement in the
schools of this district, it is very gratifying to be able to say that I nave found many
competent and earnest employees in the schools, and, with few exceptions, all are
working harmoniously together for the good of the Indians.

A. O- Wright, supervisor of Indian schools:

During the past year, in addition to visiting nearly all the schools in the third
sapervisor's district (Nebraska and South Dakota), I have had special work which
has given me an opportunity to inspect the schools on the Moqui and Western Navaho
reservations in Arizona, the Fort Lapwai school in Idcdio, and the schools at Albu-
querqae and 8anta Fe.

New Course of Study. — ^The new Course of Study is based on the central thought of
industrial education, and embodies the best results of all the experiments in that line in
Indian schools as well as in schools for whites. A considerable part of iny work has
been in introducing it into actual use as fast as possible in the scnools. To focilitate
this I issued a circular early in the fall to the teachers in my district, and held
teachers' institutes with the Course of Study as an important item of the work. The
effects of this Course of Study are very apparent in a large number of schools. Win-
dow gardens in winter and school gardens in the spring nave been introduced, carry-
ing with them much nature study. In several scnools sewing is now taught to the
younger grades of both sexes by the literary teachers, and in all the grading has
oeen established on language and number work on the grades laid down in the
Course of Study.

InstUutes. — During the year I have conducted four teachers' institutes: At Keams
Canyon, at the Winnebago school, at Pineridge, and at Flandreau, besides attending
the general institute at Minneapolis. The institutes at Keams Canyon and at Winne-
bago were conducted along the usual lines. The institute at Pineridge was com-
posed lar^ly of day-school teachers and was shaped to meet their needs.

IndustrvaL instruction, — ^The statements in my last annual report in regard to the
general superiority of the literary instruction and the general inferiority oi the indus-
trial instruction in Indian schools only need modification this year to say that more
attention seems to be paid to teaching hand sewing to little girls and cutting and
fitting to the more advanced girls, and that in a considerable number of schools
cooking classes have been formed. The school at Genoa has regular classes in
domestic economy with a special teacher.



Online LibraryUnited States. Office of Indian AffairsAnnual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs → online text (page 75 of 117)