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Annual Reports. Report of the Postmaster-General. Miscellaneous Reports online

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DOCUMENTS
DEPT.




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ANNUAL EEPORT



OP



THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL



OF



THE UNITED STATES



'/



FOR



THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1872.




f UN' ''"^Bj



WASHINGTON:

aOVEENMENT PKINTING OFFICE.
1872.



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CONTENTS.



Page.

Finances :

Financial condition *. ^ 7

Estimates for 1874.. 7

Subsidies 8

Deficiency appropriations * 8

Deficiency appropriations available , 8

Net balance 8

Issues of postage-stamps and stamped envelopes 9

Increase in issues ■. 9

Lopt postage-stamps 9

Contracts :

Transportation statistics 9

Progress of the eyst-em of railroad mail-service » 10

Re-adjustment of pay on railroad routes 10

Post-route maps 11

Fines and deductions , , 11

Mail bags, locks, and keys 11

Through mails. — Between Atlantic and Pacific coasts .• 12

Between Washington and New Orleans 13

Between Washington and Cincinnati 14

Mail depredations 14

Railway post-offices 14

Foreign malls :

Statistics 15

Weight of mails exchanged with European countries 15

C*t of transporting the transatlantic and other ocean mails 16

New contracts for ocean mails - 16

Increase of service to Brazil and subsidy for line to Australia again recommended 17

Postal conventions 17

Reduction of postage on correspondence with all parts of the civilized world.. : 18

Appointments :

Number of post-offices 18

Number of appointments made during^the year 19

Cases acted on 19

Special, route, and local agents, &c 19

Free-delivery system 19

Employes of the Post-Office Department 19

Re-adjustment of postmasters' salaries - 20

Dead letters : ^

Dead letters received 20

Letters containing money 21

Letters containing checks, drafts, &c 21

Letters containing jewelry, &c 21



\ \ 2 ^^ 8 ^

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4 CONTENTS.

Pag

Letters without inclosures / i

Unmailable letters S

Applications - i

Deposits A

Postal money-order system :

Number of money -order offices

Issues and payments *. ^

Duplicate orders -

Receipts and expenditures

Remittance of surplus funds

Fraudulent payments

Money-order system at sub-post-offices

Exchange of postal orders with Switzerland ..-..•-

Exchange of postal orders with Great Britain

Miscellaneous :

Franking privilege

Government telegraphs — signal-service

Postal telegraph, its early advocacy -

Rivalry of the telegraph with the mail

Defects and abuses of the telegraph under corporate management

Oppressive tariffs ,

Rates variable at the pleasure of the companies, and not affected by competition

Improper use of telegraphic information

Free-message business .•

Favoritism 1

Oppressive infli^fence of telegraph companies upon newspapers

Discussions in Congress upon the adoption of a postal telegraph

Telegraph act of 1866

Its acceptance by the companies

Proposed plan in accordance with its provisions

Purchase

Additional telegraphic facilities

Reduction of tariffs ,

Probable increase of telegraphic business

Estimated revenue

Estimated expenses

Necessity of a governmental telegraph in time of war

Objections to the plan proposed for the establishment of a telegraph company to

work its lines in connection with the Post-Office Department

Post-office savings-banks

Postal cards

Salaries



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CONTENTS OF APPENDIX. ^



No. 1. Estimates for expenditures for the fiscal year ending Jane 30, 1874.

No. 2. Statement exhibiting receipts and expenditures under appropriate head's, by

quarters, for the fiscal year ended June 30,^ 1872, compared with the fiscal

years ended June 30, 1870, and June 30, 1871.
No. 3. Statement of payments under sundry heads charged to miscellaneous accounts,

for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1872. * ^

No. 4. Estimate of indebtedness of Post-Office Department on June 30, 1872, and not

yet adjusted.
No. 5. Receipts and disbursements at Treasury depositories, fiscal year ended June 30,

1872. ,

No. 6. Receipts and disbursements at depository post-offices, on account fiscal year

ended June 30, 1872.
No. 7. Postage-stamps, stamped envelopes, and newspaper-wrappers issued during the

fiscal year ended June 30, 1872.
No. 8. Postage-stamps, stamped envelopes, &c.
No. 9. Statement of dead letters received and disposed of during fiscal year ended

June 30, 1872, compared with previous year, 1871.
Letter of Second Assistant Postmaster-General, referring tables, viz :

A. Table of mail-service for the year ended June J^O, 1872, as exhibited by

the state of the arrangements at the close of the year.

B. Railroad-service as in operation on the 30th of June, 1872.

C. Steamboat-service as in operation on the 30th of June, 1872.

D. Tabde showing the increase and decrease in mail transportation and cost

during the year ended June 30, 1872.

E. Table showing the weight of the mails, the speed with which they are

conveyed, the accommodations for mails and agents, the trips per
week, and the rates of pay per mile per annum, on railroad-routes in
States (chiefly) in which the contract term expired June 30, 1872.

F. Table showing the re-adjustment of the rates of pay per mile on certain

railroad-routes, and on certain new routes the adjustment of the rates,
based upon returns of the weight of the mails, the speed with which
they are conveyed, the accommodations provided for mails and agents,
and the number of trips per week.

G. Statement, compiled from the annual reports of the Post-Office Depart-

ment, showing the amount of railroad mail-service, and the cost
thereof, from the commencement of such service, in the fiscal year
ended June 30, 1836, to June 30, 1872.

H. Number and cost of mail locks and keys purchased and repaired dur-
ing the year ended June 30,*1872.
I. Statement of the immber, description, and cost of mail-bags purchased
by contract and put into service during the fiscal year ended June 30,
1872.

K. Railway post-offices in the United States June 30, 1872, with table show-
ing increase in the service since June 30, 1871.



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6 • CONTENTS OF APPENDIX.

Through mail tables :

•1. Through mails to San Francisco from Washington.

2. Through mails to Washington from San Francisco.

3. Through mails to San Francisco, from New York.

4. Through mails to New York ftom San Francisco.

5. Through mails to San Francisco, from Boston.

6. Through mails to Boston from San Francisco.

\ 7. Through mails to San Francisco from Cincinnati.

8. Through mails to Cincinnati from San Francisco.

9. Through mails to San Francisco from Chicago.

10. Through mails to Chicago from San Francisco.

11. Through mails to San Francisco from Saint Louis.

12. Through mails to Saint Louis from San Francisco.

13. Through mails to New Orleans from Washington.

14. Through mails to Washington from New Orleans.

15. Through mails to New Orleans from New York.

16. Through mails to New York from New Orleans. .

17. Through mails to Memphis from New York.

18. Through mails to New York from Memphis.

19. Through mails to Cincinnati from Washington.

20. Through mails to Washington from Cincinnati.

21. Through mails to Cincinnati from New York.

22. Through mails to New York from Cincinnati.

23. Through mails to Saint L6uis from Washington.

24. Through mails to Washington from Saint Louis.
2.5. Through mails to Saint Louis from New York.

26. Through mails to New York from Saint Louis.

27. Through mails to Chicago from Washington.

28. Through mails to Washington from Chicago.

29. Through mails to Chicago from New York.

30. Through mails to New York from Chicago.

31. Through mails to Chicago from Boston.

32. Through mails to Boston from Chicago.

Statements showing operations and results of foreign mail-service for the fiscal year

ended June 30, 1872. T

Ocean mail steamship contracts.
Convention for the regulation of the postal intercourse between the United States of

America and the Kingdom of Denmark.
Second additional convention to the convention relative to the amelioration of the

postal intercourse concluded between the United States of America and the Swiss

Confederation.
Postal convention between the United States of America and the republic of Ecuador.
Postal convention between the United States of America and the Argentine Republic.
Postal convention between the United States and Newfoundland.
Operations of the appointment office for the year ended June 30, 1872.
Table showing the increase and decrejise of post-offices in the several States and Ter-
ritories ; also the number of post-offices at which appointments are made by the

President and by the Postmaster-General, for the year ended June 30, 1872.
Table showing the number of post-offices in each of the several States and Territories

of the United States, as well as the aggregate salaries of the postmasters therein, as

re-adjusted, to take effect on the 1st July, 1872. ^
Convention between the Post Department of the United States of America and the

post department of the German Empire.
Additional articles to the postal convention between the Swiss Confederation and the

United States of America, of the 12th of October, 1867.
Telegraphs, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
Report of the Auditor of the Treasury for the Post-Office Department.



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IMPORT



OF



THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL.



Post-Offioe Department,
Washington, D. 0., November 15, 1872.
Sm: The ordinary revenues of this Department for the ^j^^*;*^°^^^ ^^°^^
fiscal year ended June 30, 1872, including revenue from
money-order business, were $21,915,426.37, and the expen-
ditures of all kinds $26,658,192.31. For the year ended
June 30, 1871, the ordinary revenues were $20,037,045.42,
and the expenditures $24,390,104.08. The increase of reve-
nue for the year 1872 over the year 1871 was $1,878,380.95, or
9.37 per cent., and the increase of expenditures $2,268,088.23,
or 9.29 per cent., showing a net increase of expenditures of
$389,707.28. The increase in revenue for the year 1872 over
1870 was $3,036,048.72, or 16.08 per cent., and the increase of'
expenditures for 1872 over 1870 was $3,309,354.68, or 14.17
per cent. The increase in revenue for 1872, compared with

1871, was greater than the increase for 1871, compared with

1870, by $720,713.18; and the increase of expenditures for

1872, compared with 1871, was greater than the increase for

1871, compared with 1870, by $1,226,821.78.

If, in addition to the ordinary revenues, the Department
be credited with $700,000 appropriated for the transporta-
tion of free matter, and the amounts drawn and expended
for subsidies to steamship lines, it will appear that the defi-
ciency provided out of the general Treasury for the year
1872 is $3,317,765.94, against $2,928^058.66 for the year 1871.

The accompanying report of the Auditor fully sets forth |
the details of the financial operations of the Department.

The estimated expenditures for the year ending June 30, Egtimates for 1874.

1874, are '. $30,903,167

The revenues, estimated at 10 per cent, increase

overlastyear $23,619,231

Estimated i#venue firom money-order business- 100, 000

Estimated increase in revenue consequent on

the introduction of postal cards 833, 334

24,552,565

Leaving a deficiency of 6, 350, 602

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8 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL.

subBidieg. The foiegoing estimates do not include the following spe-

* cial appropriations in the nature of subsidies :

For mail steamship service between San Francisco and
Japan and China $500,000 00

For special subsidy for like service, under sections 3 and
6 of the act approved Jijne 1, 1872, from October 1, 1873,
toJune30,1874 375,000 00

For mail steamship service between the United States and
Brazil 150,000 00

For like service between San Francisco and the Sandwich ,
Islands * 75,000 00

Total ; 1,100,000 00

Deficiency ap- ^^ *he deficiency appropriated for the year 1870, there was

propriations. unexpended June 30, 1871, the sum of $3, 690, 000 00

Of the amount appropriated for 1871, there was unex-
pended at the close of that year 3,035,032 00

Amount appropriated for the year 1872 3, 969, 383 00

Atotal of 10,694,415 00

There was drawn during the last fiscal year,

of the amount unexpended at the clo^e of

the year 1870, for payments on account of

that year J68,364 00

Of the amount appropriated for the year

1871,for payments on account of that year, 416,636 00
Of the amount appropriated for the year

1872 3,083,750 00

3,568,750 00

Leaving amount of deficiency appropriations undrawn.. 7, 125, 665 00
There was also carried to the " surplus fund " of the gen-
eral Treasury, of the deficiency appropriated for 1870,
and not needed : 2, 621; 636 00

Leaving in the general Treasury, undrawn, the sum of.. 4, 504, 029 00
There was also in the hands of the Assistant Treasurers
of the United States a balance of 250,984 06

Deficiency ap- Making the total amount available for payment of indebt-

propriationi. avail- edness to June 30, 1872 4,755,013 06

able. ' ' '

Against which there are chargeable sundry unliquidated

accounts, estimated as follows :

For balances to foreign countries $197. 400 00

For mail service under contract and recog-
nized, but not yet reported 411,635 15

Mail service still unrecognized 185, 705 00

^ 794,740 15

Het balance. Leaving, after settlement of all liabilities to June 30, 1872,

a net balance of deficiency appropriations of 3, 960, 272 91



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REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 9

The number of adhesive postage-stamps issued during the Issueg of port-
year was 541,455,070, representing $15, 840, 649 00 gt am p e^*" envel-

Stamped envelopes, plain, 58,276,500, representing 1, 663, 196 50 ^^P®"-

Stamped envelopes, " request," 46,825,000, representing.. 1, 391, 630 00
Newspaper-wrappers, 8,824,250, representing 175, 152 50

I

The whole number of stamps, stamped envelopes, and

newspaper-wrappers was 655,380,820, of the aggregate

value of 19,070,628 00



The increase in the issue of stamps, stamped envelopes, increase in isaueg.
and newspaper- wrappers is exhibited by the following table:



Description.


Fiscal year
ended June
30, 1872.


Fiscal year
ended June
30, 1871. •


Increase,
amount.


Increase,
per cent.


Adhesive postage-stamps..
Stamped envelopes, plain . .
Stamped envelopes, request
Newspaper-wrappers


$15, 840, 649 00

1, 663, 196 50

1, 391, 630 00

175, 152 50


$14, 630, 715 00

1, 432, 474 75

1, 434, 181 50

132, 180 00


$1, 209, 934 00

230, 721 75

*42, 551 50

42, 972 50


8.27
16.10
*2.96
32.50


Acrorrefirate


19, 070, 628 00


17, 629, 551 25


1, 441, 076 75


8.17







poBtage-



* Decrease.

The number of packages of postage-stamps lost in the Lost
mails during the year was ten, representing $256, and of" °*^^
stamped envelopes none 5 being much less than losses from
similar delinquencies in 1871 and previous years.

CONTRACTS.

Th^re were in the service of the Department on the 30th Transportation
of June, 1872, 5,544 contractors for the transportation of the
mails on public routes.

There were at the close of the year 2,325 " special " oflSces,
each with a mail-carrier whose pay from the Department is
not allowed to exceed the net postal ^yield of the office.

Of public mail-routes in operation there were 7,259, aggre-
gating in length 251,398 miles, in annual transportation
114,984,322 miles, and in annual cost $12,572,264. Adding
the compensation of railway post-office clerks, route-agents,
mail-route messengers, local agents, mail-messengers, and
baggage-masters in charge of registered packages, amount-
ing to $2,206,944, the aggregate annual cost was $14,779,208.

The service was divided as follows :

Eailroad routes: Length, 57,911 miles; annual transporta-
tion, 62,491,749 miles; annual cost, $6,502,771— about 10.40
cents per mile.

Steamboat routes: Length, 18,860 miles; annual trans-
portation, 4,308,436 miles; annual cost, $779,865 — about
18.10 cents per mile.



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10 EEPOET OF THE POSTMASTER- GENERAL.

Other routes, on which the mails are required to be con-
veyed with "celerity, certainty, and security:'' X/ength,
174,627 miles; annual transportation, 48,184,137 miles; an-
nual cost, $5,289,628 — about 11 cents per mile.

^ There was an increase over the preceding year in length

of routes of 13,039 miles; in annual transportation, 7,411,528
miles ; and in cost, $1,042,869. Adding the increased cost
for railway post-office clerks, route, local, and other agents,
$331,418, the total increase in cost was $1,374,289.

The railroad routes have been increased in length 8,077
miles, and in cost $777,792. Assuming the increase caused
by the readjustment of rates for the year ended June 30,
1872, to be the same as that shown in Table F for the year
ended September 30, 1872, viz, $354,865, the expense for new
railroad service may be set down at $422,937, being an aver-
age cost of $52.36 per mile per annum.
progreBs of the An interesting table, compiled from the annual reports of

maii^Mi^c'e. °* the Department, is presented herewith, showing the amount
of railroad mail-service, and the cost thereof, in successive
years, from the commencement of such service, in 1836,no
June 30, 1872.^ The report for 1836 shows the annual trans-
portation on railroad and steamboat routes combined. The
length of railroad routes was first reported to be 974 miles
at the close of the year ended June 30, 1837. The length in
1872 was 57,911 miles, an increase of 56,937 miles in thirty-
five years, being an average of over l,626f miles per annum.
The largest increase in length for any one year was for 1872,
being 8,077 miles. The first report of the annual cost of
railroad routes, uncombined with steamboat routes, was
^ $531,752 on the 4th of November, 1845. The cost in 1872

was $6,502,771, showing an increase of $5,971,019 in twenty-
seven years, and an average increase of over $221,148 per
annum. The largest increase in cost for any one year was
for 1872, being $777^792.
Re adjustment of Table E, presented herewith, exhibits returns of the char-

Joutes!'^ ^*' ^° acter and amount of the mail-servibe on railroad routes in
the States of New Jersey, PennsylTania, Delaware, Mary-
land, and Ohio, obtained with a vie^ to the're-adjustraent
of the rates of pay on such routes in those States for the
new contract term commencing 1st July, 1872. The table
contains returns, also, from railroad routes in other States,
submitted by the proprietors thereof, as the basis for the
adjustment or re-adjustment of their compensation. The
re-adjustment of rates on old routes and the adjustment
of rates on new routes, founded on these returns, are shown
in ^able F, in which it will be seen that the rates were in-



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REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 11

creased on 89 and decreased on 14 old, and fixed on 19 new
routes, and that the net excess of the present over the former
amount of annual pay by readjustment is $354,865.94. The
number of new railroad routes put in operation within the
year ending June 30, 1872, was 116, on which, as a general
rule, temporary rates of compensation were fixed, not exceed-
ing the maximum ($50 per mile per annum) allowed by law
to roads of the third or lowest class, with the understanding
that the pay should afterward be re-adjusted, if necessary,
according to the grade of the service, to be shown by the
usual returns. The 19 new routes included in Table F'are
exceptions to the rule, the proprietors having preferred to
commence the transportation of the mails without a fixed
compensation, leaving the rate of pay to be afterward deter-
mined according to the grade of the service.

The preparation and puWicatiori of post-route maps have Poatroute maps.
been continued during the past year, under the supervision
of the topographer 5 and the maps, as brought up in succes-
sive editions, have been distributed to postmasters, members
of Congress, and others.

The map, in four sheets, of the States of Elinois, Iowa,
and Missouri, is nearly completed, and the portion embrac-
ing Illinois is in course of distribution. Maps of other States
will be taken in hand as fast as practicable, so as to extend
the benefits of this very essential auxiliary to the work of
the Department. .

The amount of fines imposed upon contractors and deduc- pines and de-
tions made from their pay for failures and other delinquen- ^"^'*<'^''-
cies for the last year was $92,381.47, and the amount remitted
during the same period was $23,349.21, leaving the net
amount of fines and deductions $69,032.26, as appears from
the following recapitulation:

Amount of fines $2,968 01

Amount of dediictions 89, 413 46

Total 92,381 47

Amount ren^tted 23,349 21

Net amount 69,032 26

A table appended to this report exhibits in detail the Man-bags, locks,
number, description, and cost of mail-bags, locks, and keys »*^d ^^y«-
purchased and issued during the year. The total number of
new mail-bags procured and put in service was 77,670, of
which 65,212 were used for transmission of printed matter,
and 12,458 for letter-mails. The cost was $99,020.61. The



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