United States. President.

A compilation of the messages and papers of the presidents online

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of this increase, however, was due to ad-
vance in prices, particularly during the
first half of the decade.

Up to 1899 native spruce and poplar
were used almost exclusively for pulp wood.
Since that time, however, the advancing

erice of the native stock has led to the
icreased Importation of these woods from
Canada and to the use of other and cheaper
native woods.

Paper Onrrency. (See Currency; Fi-
nances discussed.)
Paraguay. — Paraguay proper is an in-
land state of South America, lying between
the rivers Paraguay and Alto Paranft, and
bounded on the north by the Brazilian
province of Maito Grosso, while the Chaco
territory iving between the rivers Para-
guay and Pllcomayo (and bounded on the
north by Bolivia), is also claimed to be
Paraguayan, but forms the subject of a
iong-Ktandiug dispute between Paraguay
and Bolivia. The whole country may be
said to be bounded on the north bv Bo-
livia and Brazil, on the east by Brazil and
Argentina, and on the south and west by
Argentina. The area is given as 172,000
square miles.

Physical Features. — ^The country consists
of a series of plateaus. The Paraguay and
Alto Paran& Rivers are navigable at all
seasons. The Pllcomayo River is navigable
for 180 miles from Asuncion. The plateaus
are covered with grassy plains and dense
forest The Chaco is practically a dead
level, pierced by great rivers; it suffers
much from floods and still more from

Hi«fory.— Paraguay was visited in 1527
by Sebastian Cabot, and In 1535 was set-
tled as a Spanish possession. From that
date to 1776 the country formed part of
the vice-royalty of Peru, from, wnich It
was separated in 1776 and made an ad-

iunct of the vice-royaltv of Buenos Aires,
n 1811 Paraguay declared its independ-
ence of Spain, and from 1814-1840 was
governed by Francia, a Paraguayan despot,
who was succeeded by Lopez, 1840-1802.
In 1862 Francisco Solano Lopez succeeded
his father, and in 1864 declared war
against Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay be-
ing involved In the struggle. Against
these three nations Lopez conducted a five
years' war, which terminated in his defeat
and death at the Battle of Cerro Cor&,
March 1, 1870. This dogged struggle re-
duced the country to complete prostra-
tion, and the population, which was 800,-
000 In 1857, is alleged to have fallen In
1870 to 250,000, of whom barely 30,000
were men.

Oovernment. — ^The present constitution
was adopted at the close of the war, and
under Its provisions the head of the ex-
ecutive is the President, elected by an
electoral college for four years and ineligi-
ble for office for eight consecutive years
after the expiration of his term. A Vice-
President is similarly elected, and succeeds
automatically in case of the death, expul-
sion or absence of the President There is
a Cabinet of five members. The republic Is
subject to frequent revolutions, of which
those of 1911 and 1912 were exceptionally
fierce and sanguinary. President (Aug. 15,
1912-1916) : Eduardo Schaerer.

Congress consists of two houses. The
Senate Is composed of thirteen members,
elected by direct vote for six years, one-
third renewable every two years; the
Chamber of Deoutles contains twenty-six
members, elected by direct vote for four
years and renewable as to one-half every
two years.

There Is a supreme court at the capital
with three Judges, two courts of appeal,
a court of Jurymen, and nine Judges of
first Instance.

Population. — The inhabitants of Paraguay
are mainly of Guarani Indian descent
The old Spanish stock has, to a large ex-
tent, become mixed with the primitive In-
habitants, but during the last fifty years
a considerable number of Eurojaeans have
settled in the oountry. The Paraguayan

Digitized by



Messages and Papers of the Presidents

Paraguay — Continued.
Chaco Is only partially explored and Is in-
bablted almost entirely by tribes of no-
madic iDdlaos, estimated at 100,000. Tbe
population of Paraffuay proper includes
about 60.000 unclvllTzed Indians, and 20.-
000 to 80.000 foreigners, of wbom about
10.000 are from Argentina. 10,000 to 15.
000 are Italian. 3.000 German, 1,500 Bra-
slilan. 1,000 Spanl&b, 750 French. 600 Uru-

fuayan.aud 400 to 500 British. Immigration
8 encouraged, but has fallen to about 5U0
yearly since 1909. The ofBdal language is

SpaDlsb. but Guaranl is general, and Tlttie
else Is spoken away from the towns.

ProOiucUon and industry.— -The chief nat-
ural products are timber and yerba mat6
(Paraguayan tea). Tobacco and fruit,
chiefly orabges. are grown for export, su-
gar cane, roots and grain for home con-
sumption. The chief Industry is stock
raising. The primitive coLditions of the
country and the scarcity of labor appear
to be, at present, unfavorable to agricul-
ture The soil and climatic conditions,
however, are said to be exceptionally prom-

Marble, lime and salt are found and
worked In small quantities. Iron ore is
said to exist in large quantities, but coal
has not been found. Copper manganese
and other minerals exist, but the nilneral
resources are practically unexplored.

Tbe principal exports are oranges, hides,
tobacco, yerba mat6. timber, dried meat,
meat extracts, and quebracho extract.
The imports are textiles, hardware, wines,
foodstuffs, fancy goods, drugs and cloth-
ing. The prlncipaT sources of revenue are
import and export duties, land tax, stamps,
stamped paper and sundry Internal taxes.

Finance. — The revenue of the country
varies widely between 500.000 and 8,000.-
000 pesos, and the expenditures, while
nearer constant, vary from 600,000 to
1,000,000 pesos. The gold peso, the stand-
ard of value, is equivalent to the dollar
of the United States, the silver peso to
$0.48,5, and the current paper pesos of
the country, of which 65,000,000 are in
circulation, has depreciated to almost noth-
ing. There is a debt of something over

Railicat/a. — A railway (Paraguay Central)
has been built and extended from Asun-
cion, the capital, to Encarnacion, a total
distance of 232 miles. There is a through
train service from Asuncion to Buenos
Aires, the coaches being conveyed across
tbe Intervening rivers by means of train
ferries. The rolling stock is up-to-date
and the sleeping ana restaurant cars simi-
lar to those of European main lines. Un-
der normal conditions vessels drawing ten
feer can reach Asuncion.

Trade tcith the United Siatea.— The value
of merchandise imported into Paraguay
from the United States for the year 1912
WRH $187,867. and goods to the value of
$58,285 were sent thither — a balance of
$129,582 in favor of the United States.

Affairs in, referred to, 4069.

Boundarr question with Argentine
BepubliCy submission of arbitra-
tion of, to President of United
States, referred to, 4449.

Claims of United States against,
2980, 3050, 3091, 3114, 3195, 3270,
Commissioners appointed to adjust,

Convention regarding, 3108,

Naval force sent to, to await con-
tingencies, discussed, 3050, 3091.
Satisfactorily settled, 3091.
Convention with, award of commis-
sioners under, discussed, 3195, 3268.
Imprisonment of American citizens

in, 3884, 3898.
Minister of United States to—
Controversy with President of, dis-
cussed, 3883.
Difficulties, referred to, 3890,
3898, 3899.
Withdrawn, 3987.
Questions with, regarding right of
asylum discussed and referred to,
3883, 3890, 3898, 3899.
Treaty with, 2759, 2813, 3091, 3108,
Batification of —
Delayed, 2914.
Befused, 2980.
Vessels of United States seized or in-
terfered with by, 2952, 3046, 3091,
War with Brazil-
Good offices of United States ten-
dered, 3776, 3883.
Beferred to, 4078.
Paraguay, Treaties with. — A treaty of
friendship, commerce, and navigation was
concluded in 1859. Concessions to the
United States include free navigation of
the Paraguay River as far as the bound-
aries of Brazil nud of the right side of
the Parana In the dominions of Paraguay
on like terms as are conferred upon other
nations; vessels may discharge all or part
of the cargo at the ports of Pilar or may
proceed to Asuncion. Rights and conces-
sions enjoyed by other nations are conferred
and shall accrue to the United States.
Equitable imposition of charges, tolls, and
fees; freedom of Importation and exporta-
tion is equally enjoyed by the United States
and Paraguayan vessels.

The rights of citizens of the United
States to conduct trade, commerce, and to
follow trades, rocatlons, and professions, in
Paraguay are equal to those of subjects
of Paraguay. The transfer and holding of
property, succession to real or personal
property by will or otherwise and free
and open access to courts of Justice are
secured to citizens of the United States.
The consular office may act as executors or
administrators of estates.

No military exactions of service or forced
loans or contributions other than those to
which all subjects of Paraguay are law-
fully subject shall be imposed. Consular
appointment is provided for as in consular
conventions. In the event of war it is
agreed that citizens of each country re-
siding or doing business within the con-
fines of the other shall suffer no Injustice,
persecution, or spoliation and shall be free
to continue In business or to close out as
they may elect ; nor shall debts, stocks, or
Interest be sequestered or detained. Re-
ligious freedom Is secured to citizens or
siibjects In the dominions of the other con-
tracting party.

International arbitration on the lines laid
down by The Hague Convention of 1899
was agreed to by a treaty signed at Asun-
cion March 18. 1909.
Paraguay also became a party to tbe co9-

Digitized by


Encyclopedic Index

Parcel Post

Paragnsy, Treatias with— CofiMfiued.
ventlon between tbe United Slates and the
several republics of South and Central
America for the arbitration of pecuniary
claims and the protection of Inventions,
etc.. which was signed In Buenos Aires In
1910 and proclaimed In Washington July
29, 1914. (See South and Central America,
Treaties with.)

Parcel Post.~The agitation for a parcel
post In the United States dates back to
1875 at least, and during the following
thirty-five years (to quote Post master-Gen-
eral Wanamakeri. only four objections have
been raised against it, namely, the United
States, the Wells Fargo, the American,
and the Adams express companies.

In 1907 Postmaster-General Meyer advo-
cated the establishment of a general and
a local parcel post system. His plan for
the general parcel post he described as
follows: **Tbe present rate for the trans-
mission of fourth-class matter through the
malls is 16 cents a pound, and the limit
of weight is four pounds. Under our postal
treaties the rate from any American post
office to 29 foreign countries Is 12 cents a
pound, and the limit of weight to twenty-
four of these countries Is eleven pounds.
The Department has simply recommended
that our citizens be permitted to dispatch
parcels to each other, in our own country,
at as liberal a rate as that at which they
are allowed to send them to a foreign

"The general parcels post system is In
operation In Great Britain, New Zealand,
Australia, Germany. Austria, France,
Belgium. Italy, Holland, Chile and Cuba.
The weight limit In each case (with the
exceptions of Austria and Belgium) Is
eleven pounds. In England 26 cents will
mall an eleven-pound package, the rate
being 6 cents for tbe first pound and 2
cents for each additional pound. Germanv
has scheduled Its rates by zones: thus all
packages conveyed not more than 10 miles
are charged 6 cents, and for greater dis-
tances they are charged 13 cents, and when
the parcels exceed 12 pounds, the rates are
for each additional 2 pounds carried 10
miles, 2 cents : 20 miles. 3 cents : 50 miles.
6 cents; 100 miles, 8 cents. The weight
limits In Austria and Belgium are, respec-
tively. 143 and 132 pounds.'*

As to the cost of a general parcel post
system In the United States, Mr. Mever,
using the cost of handling fourth-class
matter as a basis, estimated It as follows:

Revenue from postage $240.00

Expenditures :

R. R. charge per ton $29.70

Labor charge per ton .... 103.87
Other conveyances 15.70 140.27

Excess of receipts over expenditures $90.78

The shove figures being based on the aver-
age haul (540 miles), Mr. Meyer pointed
out that $00.73 excess would cover the
transportation by rail of the entire ton
over an additional 1.640 miles.

''This recommendation Is founded upon
the brosd ground of the ability of the Gov-
ernment to render the service st a profit,
?'pt w*th great advantaire to tbe farmer,
he retail merchant, and other patrons of
the rural routes. The necessary machinery
Is at hard.**

Postmaster-General Hitchcock. In Decem-
ber, 1910. recommended the establishment
of a general parcel post throughout tbe
country **as soon as the postal savings
system is thoroughly organized.'* As the
preliminary step he hoped that Congress
would authorize the local parcel post.

which, he said, would entail little If any
additional expense, and which. If successful,
might lead to the general one. However,
he urged Congress to appropriate a fund
for further Investigation oi the cost and
possibilities of the general system at the
time when It authorizes the local parcel

In accordance with an act of the Sixty-
second Congress a parcel post system was
inaugurated Jan. 1, 1913.

The limit of weight for parcels of fourth-
class matter for delivery within the first
and second zones was extended by act of
Dec. 6, 1913, to fifty pounds, and delivery
in other than the first and second zones
is twenty pounds.

Parcels weighing four ounces or less
are mailable at the rate of one cent for
each ounce or fraction of an ounce, regard-
less of distance. Parcels weighing more
than four ounces are mailable at the pound
rates shown In the table on the following
page, a fraction of a pound being considered
f, full pound.

The rate on parcels for Alaska, the
Hawaiian Islands, the Philippine Islands,
Guam, the United States Postal Agency at
Shanghai (China). Tutulla (Samoa), and
the Canal Zone (except for parcels weighing
four ounces or less, on which the rate is
one cent for each ounce or fraction there-
of), is twelve cents per pound or fraction

Third-class matter can not be sent by
parcel post. (See Postal Rates.)

Seeds, cuttings, bulbs, roots, scions and
plants are matter of the fourth class, but
are chargeable with the special rate of
postage of one cent for each two ounces
or fraction thereof, regardless of distance.
Ordinary or parcel post stamps are valid
for nostage and for insurance and collect
on delivery fees on fourth-class mall.

Packages mailed as first-class matter
should be sealed. Fourth-class parcels must
not be sealed.

Boxes to which the lids are nailed or
screwed may be accepted for mailing at
the fourth-class rates of postage. If, with
reasonable effort, the lids can be removed
for the purpose of permitting examination
of the contents.-

Parcels In bags or cloth so stitched that
the necessary examination can not be made
will be regarded as closed against Inspection.

In addition to the name and address of
the sender which is required. It Is permis-
sible to write or print on the covering of
a parcel, or on a tag or label attached to
it, the occupation of the sender, and to
Indicate in a rmall space by means of
marks, letters, numbers, nsmes or other
brief description, the character of the par-
cel, but ample space must be left on the
address side for the full address in legible
characters and for the necessary postage
stamps. Inscriptions such as "Merry
Christmas." "Please do not open until
Christmas.** •'Happy New Year," ''With best
wishes," and the like, may be placed on the
covering of the parcel In such manner as
not to interfere with the address.

Parcels may be remalled or forwarded
on the payment of additional postage at
the rate which would be chargeable if they
were originally mailed at the forwarding
office, in which case the necessary stamps
shall be affixed by the forwarding postmas-
ter. Payment must be made every time the
parcel 1« forwarded.

A mails hie psrcel on which the postage
is fully prepaid may be insured against
loss in an amount equivalent to its actual
value, but not to exceed $25, on payment of
a fee of five cents, and In an amount
equivalent to its actual value in ezctis of

Digitized by


Parcel Post Messages and Papers of the Presidents
Parcel Post — Continued.



Weicht in


Up to 50


2d ,

50 to 160 ^

miles ,


bo 300to

• miles

600 to


1,000 to




1.400 to








10.05 »


9 $0.07
3 .11
9 .15

2 .19

1 .23
J .27

3 .31
) .35

2 .39

1 .43
5 .47

3 .51
3 .55

2 .59
( .63
J .67

3 .71
} .75
2 .79
1 .83














































































1 20












1 92




2 16




































* The local rate an;>U«9 to parcels mailed under the following conditions: 1. At any post offioe for looal
delivery at such office. 2. At any city Inttor carrier offioe, or at any point within its delivery limits, for
delivery by carriers from that office. 3. At any post office from which a rural route starts, for delivery on
such route, or whi^n mailed at any point on a rural route for delivery at any other point thereon, or at
the office from which the route starts, or for delivery on any other rural route starting from the same offioe.

$25, but not to exceed fno, on payment of
a fee of ten cents In stamps, such stamps
to be affixed. The amount of the Insurance
fee shall be placed on the receipt Riven the
sender and on the coupon retained at the
mailing office.

The sender of a mailable parcel on which
the postaf^e Is fnlly prepaid may have the
price of the article and the charges thereon
collected from the addrcsscR on payment of
a fee of ton cents In stamps nfflxod. pro-
vided the amount to be collected does not
exceed $100. Snch a parcel will be Insured
against loss without additional charge in
an amount equivalent to its actual value,
but not to exceed $50.

Matter manifestly obscene, lewd, laflciyi-

ons, or Immoral Is nnmallable. also spirit-
nous, vinous, malted, fermented, or other
Intoxicating liquors, or odorous. Inflam-
mable or otherwise dangerous substances.

Parcel Post, extension of^ recommended,

7102, 7227, 7694.
Amnesty proclamation of President
Lincoln, 3414.
DiscuBsed, 3390, 3455.
Persons entitled to benefits of, de-
fined, 3419.
Beferred to, 3508.

Digitized by


Encyclopedic Index


PartUma— Coit i iiM i a Jb

Amnestv proclamations of President
Johnson, 3508, 3745, 3853, 3906.
Authority for, discussed, 3895.
Circular regarding, 3539.
Persons worth more than $20,000
to whom special pardons issued,
referred to, 3583.
Referred to, 3659, 3669, 3722, 3779.
General amnesty and removal of po-
litical disabilities recommended,
4107, 4209.
Granted —
American citizens by Queen of

Spain, 2689, 2692.
Counterfeiters, forgers, etc., re-
ferred to, 3818.
Deserters from Army, 413, 497,
499, 528, 1062, 3364, 3479, 4189.
Act authorizing, 3365.
Foreigners on condition of emigra-
tion to United States discussed,
Insurgents in Pennsylvania, 173,

Referred to, 176.

Persons carrying on lawless trade,
but who aided in defense of New
Orleans, 543.
Persons guilty of unlawful cohabi-
tation under color of polygamous
marriage, 5803, 5942.
Political disabilities, removal of, rec-
ommended, 4107, 4209.
Queen of Spain grants, to American

citizens, 2689, 2692.
Sentences of deserters condemned to
death commuted, 3434.
Paris, The, mentioned, 6313.
Paris, Declaration of. — in the treaty of
Paris, whicb was concluded March 80, 1856,
between Russia and Turkey, Great Britain.
France, and Sardinia, the following decla-
rations with regard to the conduct of war
were snbscrlbea to by all the parties to the
treaty and have since been accepted by
nearly all civilized nations: First, Priva-
teering is and remains abolished. Second,
Neutral goods in enemies' ships, enemies'
goods in neutral ships, except contraband
of war, are not liable to capture. Third,
Paper blockades are unlawful. The United
States refused to agree to this declaration
on account of the clause doing away with
privateers, as the country was compelled to
rely largely upon such service In naval war-
fare This refusal cost It heavily In the
Civil War, although It was willing to sub-
scribe to the declaration In 1661. In 1871
the declaration was censured by the British

Paris, France:
International Congress of Electri-
cians at, 4681, 4625, 4714. (See
also Katianal Conference of Elec-
International convention at — .
For protection of —
Industrial property, 4560, 4794,
4857, 5118.

Ocean cables —

In 1880, 4714.
In 1884, 4799.
Declaration of, transmitted to

Senate, 5117.
Discussed, 5084.
On the subject of trade-marks,
International exhibition at —
In 1878, 4405, 4419, 4447.
In 1889, 5181, 5471.
International Monetary Conference

In 1867, 3776, 3792.
Beport of S. B. Buggies on, re-
ferred to, 4013.
In 1878, 4447, 4464, 4474, 4510.
In 1881, 4625.
In 1882, 4697.
International Postal Congress at, dis-
cussed, 3387.
New convention adopted by, 4453.
Official publications, agreement

reached for interchange of, 4718.
Spanish-American Peace Commission

at, 6321, 6322.
Universal exposition at —

In 1867, 3569, 3592, 3660, 3776.
Commissioners of United States

to, 3798, 3828.
Correspondence regarding, 3668.
Memorial to Congress concern-
ing, 3668.
To be held in 1900, 6061.
Bepresentation of United States
at, discussed, 6247. 6267, 6275,
6329, 6368, 6411, 6427, 6461.

Paris, Monetary Oonfereuces at.—
There have been three Important Interna-
tional monetary conferences held In Paris.
The first assembled June 17, 1867, at the
solicitation of France, to "consider the

?[ue8tlon of uniformity of coinage and seek
or the basis of ulterior negotiations."
The United States sent representatives, as
did also nearly every European nation.
The conference adjourned after about a
month without having arrived at any defl*
nite conclusion.

August 16, 1878, a second International
monetary conference convened at Paris,
this time at the Instance of the United
States, **to adopt a common ratio between
gold and silver for the purpose of estab-
lishing Internationally the use of bimetallic
money and securing fixity of relative value
between those metals.*' The collective de<
clsion of the European delegates was that
this would be Impossible, monetarv ques-

Online LibraryUnited States. PresidentA compilation of the messages and papers of the presidents → online text (page 17 of 111)