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2460.
French spoliation claims, 2316.
Improvement of rivers and harbors,
2310.
Veto power of President discussed

by, 2512.
Warehousing system, discussed by,
2405.
Poll Tax.— An Indlvldnal or head tax lev-
ied upon the male citizens of some for-
eign countries and a portion of the United
States. The Federal Government has the
power to leyy such a tax in proportion to
the census (20) but hna never exorcised
It. Before the Revolution tbe Colonies
levied poll taxes at various times. In
1808 twenty-seven states and territories
levied and collected a poll tax. Some
states, as South Carolina, have constitu-
tional provisions for levying the poll tax.
In Ohio and some other states any tax on
polls Is prohibited by tbe constitution. In
others, as in Massachusetts nnd Tennes-
see, Its payment is made a qualification for
voting. Many of the states devote their
revenue from poll taxes to free schools.

Pollock VS. Farmers' Loan and Trtuit

Oo. (See Income Tax Gases.)
Polygamy (see also Mormon Church):
Discussed by President —

Arthur, 4644, 4731, 4771, 4837.

Buchanan, 2985.

Cleveland, 4946, 5379.

Garfield, 4601.

Grant, 4105, 4167, 4309, 4310.

Harrison, Benj., 5553, 5641.

Hayes, 4511, 4557.



Boosevelt, 7428.
Pardons granted persons guilty of
unlawful cohabitation under color
of polygamous marriage, 5803,
5942.
Ponca Oommission, appointment and

report of, discussed, 4582.
Ponca Indiana. (See Indian Tribes.)
Poncarar Indiana. (See Indian Tribes.)
Ponce, Porto Bico:
Land reserved for custom house at,

6840.
Pier and wharves at, 6773.
Bailroads at, 6899, 7063, 7064.
Ponce and Guayama Bailroad Com-
pany, concession to, 7064.
Ponce Bailway and Light Company,

concession to, 7063.
Pontlac'8 War.— A war between the Eng-
lish garrisons and settlers on the western
frontier and a confederacy of the Delaware,
Shawnee, MIuko. Ottawa, Chippewa, and



other Indian tribes, led by Ponilac. an Otta-
wa chief. Pontlac assembled a great council
of Indians near Detroit April 27. 17(Sa. and



(See Italy; Papal



unfoldtMl his plans for retarding or prevent-
ing wblte settlers locating west of Pittsburg.
To capture Detroit was Pontlac's special
task, and May 7 was the date seleotod. but
the commander of the post was warned of
the plot by an Indian girl, and the attempt
was not made. Tbe town was surrounded,
however, and July 81 the garrison made a
night attack on the Indians in which 59
English were killed or wounded. Oct. 12
Pontlac raised the siege and retired. Forts
Sandusky. St. Joseph, Miami. Ouatanon,
Mackinaw, Presque Isle, Le Bceuf, and Venan-

fo were taken and their garrisons massacred
y tbe Indians in this war. A treaty of
peace was made in 1700. Pontlac was mur-
dered by a Kaskaskia Indian in 1769.

Pontifical States.

States.)

Poor Bicliard'8 Almanac.— in 1732 Benja-
min Franklin began the publication of Poor
Richard's Almanac. It contained many
homely but very striking maxims* and for
this reason became famous.

Pope of Borne, sentiments of regard for
President, conveyed, referred to,
2761.
Population.— The first United States cen-
sus having been taken in 1700, all popu-
lation figures previous to that date are
based upon estimates.

Barly estimates, of somewhat doubtful ac-
curacy, give tbe following population figures
for tbe colonies and states since incorporated
into tbe Union :

1688 200.000 I 1760 1,695.000

1714 434,000 1770 2,312,000

1750 1,260,000 I 1780 2,945,000

The number of immigrants added to tbe
population was estimated for different
periods as follows :

From 1654 to 1701 134,000

From 1702 to 1800 492.000

From 1801 to 1820 178.000

From 1821 to 1890 15,000,000

Tbe people of New England wore almost
purely Bnglish ; those of New York largely
Dutco, Pennsylvania and the countries to
the southward attracted many Germans,
Scotch, Irisb. and Huguenot immigrants, the
latter settling largely in South Carolina and
Qeor^.



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Population Messages and Papers of the Presidents



Poxmlation, Center of.— (See Center of

Population.)

Populist or People's Party.— in Decem-
ber, 1889, a meeting of the Farmers' and
Laborers' Union of America was held at
St. Louis, Mo., for the purpose of con-
solidating the various bodies of organ-
l£ed farmers which had been formed at
different times and places in the United
States since 1867, and which were known
under the general name of Grangers (q. ▼.)•
The consolidated body was called the
Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union«
On Dec. 2, 1890, a national convention
wus held at Ocala, Fla. Thirty-five States
and Territories were represented bj 163
delegates. Independent political action
was decided upon, and a platform was
adopted advocating free silver, the snb-
treasury plan, equal taxation, a graduated
income tax, election of President, Vice-
President, and Senators by direct vote, and
prohibition of alien ownership of land.

The second convention was held at Cin-
cinnati, Ohio. May 19, 1891. Thirty States
and Territories were represented by 1,418
delegates. At this convention the Ocala
platform was heartily indorsed and the
name People's party was adopted. A third
national meeting was held at St. Louis.
Mo., In February, 1892. It was decided
to put In the field candidates for President
and Vice-President, and on July 2, 1892. a
national body of delegates met at Omaha,
Nebr.. and nominated Gen. James B. Weav-
er, of Iowa, for* President, and James O.
Field, of Virelnla. for Vice-President.
"Weaver obtained a popular vote of 1,041,-
028 and an electoral vote of 22.

In 1896 the People's party met at St.
Louis, Mo., and nominated for President
William J. Bryan of Nebraska, and for
Vice-President Thomas E. Watson, of
Georgia. Mr. Bryan had been previously
nominated for the Presidency by the Demo-
cratic party. In the popular vote the
Bryan and Watson ticket (straight Popu-
list) received 245.728 votes, and Bryan
and Sewall ticket (Democratic and straight
fusion ticket) 6,257.198 votes. In the
electoral college McKlnley and Hobart (Re-
publican candidates) received 271 votes.
Bryan. 176, Sewall 149, and Watson 27.
On May 10, 1900, a convention of the
fuRlon wing of the party met at Sioux
Falls, S. D., and nominated William J.
Bryan for President and Charles A. Town
for Vice-President. Mr. Town withdrew
in favor of Adlal Stevenson, the Demo-
cratic candidate, and on Aug. 28th the ex-
ecutive committee nominated Mr. Steven-
son. The anti-fusion wing of the party
met at Cincinnati on May 10th and nomi-
nated W^barton Barker for President and
Ignatius Donnelly for Vice-President The
Democratic and fusion nominees received
6,374,897 popular votes and 155 electoral
votes. The anti-fusion (middle of the road)
wing of the People's party received 50,378
popular votes. In 1904 the People's party
nominated Thomas E. Watson for President
and Thomas H. Tibbies for Vice-President
nnd they received 120^03 votes. In 1908
Watson and Samuel Williams of Indiana
wore nominated to head the ticket. The
vote this year fell to 88.871.

Pork Prodncts. (See Animals and Ani-
mal Products.)
Port Gibson (Miss.), Battle of. -On the
night of April 16, 1863, the Federal gnn-
boots under Admiral Porter succeeded in
running past the batteries at Vicksburg.
Grant ordered Sherman to make a feint on
the Confederate batteries at Haines Bluff,



above Vicksbnnr, while Porter covered the
landing of McClemand's and McPherson's
corps at Bruinsbnrg. a few miles below
Grand Gulf. Immediately upon landing Mc-
Clemand pushed forward toward Port Gib-
son. A march of eight miles brought him
in sight of the Confederates, whom he forced
back until dark. The next day (May 2) the
Confederates held a strong position, which
they stubbornly defended. 'That night the
troops slept on their arms. Dnrbig the
night the Confederate forces retired across
the Bayou Pierre, pursued next day by Mc-
pherson's corps. 'The Federal loss was 131
killed, 719 wounded, and 25 missing— a total
of 876. One thousand prisoners and 5
cannon were taken from the Confederates.

Port HndBon (La), Surrender of.— As
early as August, 1862, Confederates began
to fortify Port Hndson, a point on the Mis-
sissippi Blver in Louisiana, at the terminus
of the Clinton and Port Hudson Railroad,
twenty-five miles above Baton Rouge and
one hundred and forty-seven above New Or-
leans. Dec. 14, 1862. MaJ.-Gen. N. P. Banks
took command of the Department of the
Gulf, and in Marcli, 1863. made a demon-
stration against Port Hudson while Farra-
gut's fleet attempted to run the batteries to
assist Porter in the naval investment of
Vicksburg. The attempt was a failure. May
26, 1863. Banks again invested Port Hud-
son, and was reenforced by MaJ.-Gen. Au-
gur Brlg.-Gen. T. W. Sherman, and Gen.
Weitzel, Increasing his forces to 12.000 men.
An unsuccessful assault was made on the
27th, which showed the place to be strongly
fortified. Banks lost 2,000 men in the as-
sault. June 14 a second assault was made
after a bombardment of several days by Far-
ragut's fleet. This was also repulsedT with
a loss of 700 killed and wounded. Banks
now invested the place by a series of ap-
proaches. July 6 the news of the surrender
of Vicksburg reached Port Hudson, and
three days later Gardner surrendered, with
6.340 men and 61 guns. Besides, the gar-
rison lost about 600 prisoners or deserters
before the surrender, and about 700 killed
and wounded.

Port SepnbUe (Va.), Battle of.— June 9,
1862, the morning after the skirmish be-
tween the forces of Ewell and Fremont at
Cross Keys, Jackson drew in Ewell, crossed
the branch of the Shenandoah, and destroy-
ing the bridges cut off two brigades of
Shlelds's advance from Fr4mont, defeated
them in battle, and captured some 460 pris-
oners and 800 muskets.

Port Royal (S. 0.), Expedition to.— Oct.

29, 1861, a strong naval and military ex-
pedition left Hampton Roads under com-
mand of Commodore Samuel F. Dn Pont
and Gen. Thomas W. Sherman. The first
was composed of the steam frigate Wabash.
fourteen gunboats, twenty-two flrst-classand
twelve smaller steamers, and twenty-six sail-
ing vessels. The land forces under Sherman
consisted of thirteen regiments of volun-
teers, forming three brigades and numbering
10,000 men. After a tempestuous voyage the
fleet arrived off Port Royal. S. C. Nov. 3.
Upon each side of the mouth of the Broad
River is an island on which the Confederates
had built forts. On Bay Point Fort Beaure-
gard mounted twenty-three guns, and on Mil-
ton Head, opposite. Fort walker bad six,
some of them of the largest caliber. A
fleet of eight steamers lay inside the har-
bor. Tlie guns of the fort were fully
manned by 1,700 South Carolinians, and a
field battery with 600 men supported one of
them. On the 7th Du Pont brought his gun-
boats into action. He mancaavred his



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Porto Rico



Port Boyal (& O.), BxpadltUm to-CTfif.
In a circle around the harbor between the
forts, firing broadsides as he passed the
Confederate batteries. His shells wrought
havoc In the works, but the moving ships
were little damaged. For four hours the
battle raged, when the garrison retreated
leaving everything behind. Forty-three guns
were captured. Hilton Head was made the
center of later naval operations.

Fort Boyal, S. 0., blockade of, re-
moved by proclamation, 3290.
Portage Lake, Mich., act authorizing
establishment of new harbor lines in,
returned, 5506.
Portland Oompany, bill for relief of,

vetoed, 5527.
PortLand, Ore., proclaimed port of de-
livery, 2588.
Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposi-
tion at, 6798.
Porto Bico. — The island of Porto Rico,
over which the flig of the United States
was raised in token of formal possession
on October 18, 1898, Is the most eastern
of the Great Antilles in the West Indies
and Is separated on the east from the Dan-
ish Island of St Thomas by a distance of
about fifty miles, and from Haiti on the
west by the Mona passage, seventy miles
wide. Distances from San Juan, the capi-
tal, to Important points are as follows:
New York, 1,411 mUes; Charleston, S. C,
1,200 miles; Key West, Fla., 1,060 miles;
Havana, 1,000 miles.

The island Is a parallelogram In general
outline, 108 miles from the east to the west
and from 37 to 43 miles across, the area
being about 3,600 square miles, or some-
what less than half that of the State of
New Jersey (Delaware has 2,050 square
miles and Connecticut 4,990 square miles).
The population according to an enumeration
made by the United States Qovernment In
1900 showed a population of 958,243, of
whom 589,426 are white and 863,817 are
colored. The d nsity was 260 to the square
mile In 1900; 88.2 per cent of the popula-
tion could not read. The population In 1910
is reported as 1,118,012.

Porto Rico Is unusually fertile, and its
dominant industries are agriculture and lum-
bering. In elevated regions the vegetation
of the temperate zone is not unknown.
There are more than 500 varieties of trees
found in the forests, and the plains are
full of palm, orange, and other trees. The
principal crops are sugar, coffee, tobacco,
and maise. but oranges, bananas, rice, pine-
apples, and many other fruits are important
products. The largest article of export from
Porto Rico is sugar. The next is tobacco.
Other exports In order of amount are coffee,
fruits, molasses, cattle, timber, and hides.

The principal minerals found In Porto
Rioo are gold, carbonates, and splphides
of copper and magnetic oxide of Iron In
large quantities. Lignite Is found at Utuado
and Moca, and also yellow amber. A large
variety of marbles, limestones, and other
building stones are deposited on the Island,
but these resources are very undeveloped.
There are ult works at Guanlca and Sallna
on the south coast,, and at Cape Rojo- on'
the west, and these constitute the principal
mineral Industry. In Porto Rico.



The principal cities are Mayagues, with
16,939, Ponce, 35,027 Inhabitants; and San
Juan, the capital, with 48,716. The ship-
ments of domestic merchandise from the
United States to Porto Rico, year ending
June 80, 1918, were $32,223,191. The ex-

Sorts of domestic merchandise to the United
tates were $40,529,665. The foreign trade,
year ending June 30, 1913, was: Imports,
$3,745,057; exports, f 8,564,942.

An act providing for a civil government
for Porto Rico was passed bv the Fifty-
sixth Congress and received the assent of
the President April 12, 1900 (page 6678).

Under this act a civil government was es-
tablished which went into effect May 1,
1900. There are two legislative chambers,
the Executive Council, or *'upper house,*'
composed of the Government Secretary, At-
torney-General, Treasurer, Auditor, Com-
missioner of the Interior, and Commissioner
of Education, and five citisens appointed by
the President, and the House of Delegates,
or "lower house," consisting of thlrty-flve
members, elected by the people. The island
is represented in the Congress of the United
States by a Resident Commissioner.

President Roosevelt in messages to Con-
gress Dec. 5, 1905 (page 7398), Dec. 3,
1906 (page 7431). Dec. 3, 1907 (page
7484) and Dec. 8, 1908 (page 7613) recom-
mended the granting of United States dtl-
senshlp to the Porto Ricans, and a bill was
Ibtroduced In the Slxty-seoond Congress pro-
viding for the same, but failed to reach a
final vote.

The Legislature of 1912 enacted a sani-
tation law establishing an insular board of
health, and a general sanitary organization.

{provided a bureau of labor, and authorized
nvestment by the treasurer of $200,000 in
first mortgage bonds of a corporation to be
organized for the construction of a modern
hotel in San Juan. It also authorized a
bond issue of $500,000 in connection with

E>rt Improvement at San Juan. The Leg-
lature of 1913 provided for the retirement
on three-quarter pay of the Justices of the
Supreme Court of the island after ten years'
service, and upon reaching sixty-five years
of age, and ordered the establishment of an
insular hospital In each of the seven districts
in which the island is divided, for those
suffering from transmissible and contagious
diseases.

Porto Bico:

American citizens in, unlawfully pun-
ished, 783.

Campaign against, under command of
Maj.-Gen. Miles, 6318.

Citizenship for islanders, 7018, 7051,
7104, 7233.
^Civil government of, 6681, 6772, 7018.

Commercial relations with, 1260, 1347,
4826, 4921, 5089, 5470, 6069.
Treaty regarding, 4842, 4847, 4848.

Expeditions against, referred to, 2741.

Grants of public or corporate rights
in, order regarding, 6583.

Lands reserv^ in, for public pur-
poses, 6778.

Military commission to superintend
Spanish evacuation of, 6322.

Piracies from, suppressed, 783.

Privateering in ports of, 2345.

Bailroads in, 6730.

"^B^lations of, with United States,
6658^ 7018.



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Porto Rico Messages and Papers of the Presidents



Porto Blco— C(miifiii«(L

Sanitary problems connected with, re-
ferred to, 6341.
Slavery in, discassed, 4100.
Belease of persons held in, dis-
cussed, 4194.
Tariff laws of, evidence of modifica-
tions of, proclaimed, 5583.
Referred to, 5615, 5747.
Telephones in, 6732.
Vessels from certain ports of, duties
on, suspended by proclamation,
4871.
Vessels of Spain from, discriminating
duties on, suspended by procla-
mation, 4810, 5075, 5155.
** Discussed, 5089.

Suspension revoked, 5074.
Vessels of United States, discrimi-
nating duties and fines on, in,
4626, 4714, 4763, 4786, 4788, 5961.
Abolished, 4810, 5155.
Betaliatory measures, discussed,
4763.
Visit of American naval officer to,
referred to, 845.
Ports. (See Bivers and Harbors.)
Portsmouth, N. H., dry dock at, about
completed, 2669.
Site for, 934.
Portsmoutb, Ohio, act to erect public

building at, vetoed, 5152.
Portsmouth, Treaty of. — A treaty of
peace between Russia and Japan, at
Portsmouth, N. H., Sept. 5, 1905, bring-
ing to a close the war that had been waged
between those two countries since Feb. 11,
1904.

Shortly after the battle of the Japan
Sea, May 27-20, 1905 (see Japan). Presi-
dent Roosevelt, after conference with the
Russian Ambassador and the Japanese
Minister, sent identical notes to the Gov-
ernments of the two countries, nrglng them
to begin direct peace negotiations with
each other, and offering the services of
the United States In bringing their envoys
together. Japan accepted the proposition
two days later, and Russia within a week.
Various places were proposed for the meet-
ing: Paris. The Hague, Chefoo, Geneva,
and Washington. As the summer heat
made the latter place unsuitable, the
United States Government offered the use
of a building at the United States Navy
Yard, at Portsmouth, N. H., and the offer
was accepted. The envoys appointed were,
on the part of Japan, Baron Komura,
Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Kogoro
Takahira. Minister to the United States;
and on the part of Russia, Count Sergius
Wltte and Baron Rosen, Ambassador to
the United States.

On Aug. 6 the envoys assembled on the
United States cruiser. Mayflower, near Oys-
ter Bay, L. I., and were Introduced by
President Roosevelt. The sessions of the
conference began Aug. 9. when the Japa-
nese presented their terms : I. Recognition
by Russia of the preponderating influence
of Japan In Korea ; If. Simultaneous evac-
uation of Manchuria by Russia and Japan :
III. Transfer to Japan of the Russian
leases of Port Arthur and Dalny ; IV. "The
return of Manchuria to China according



to. the previons agreement between Russia
and China; V. The ceftslon of Sakhalin
Island to Japan ; VI. The transfer to Japan
of all public property In Port Arthur and
Dalny, rights of private property to be re-
spected : VII. The transfer to Japan of the
Manchnrian railroad between Port Arthur
and Dalny and Harbin; VIII. Russia to
retain the main line in Vladivostok; IX.
The reimbursement of Japan for the ex-
penses of the war; X. The surrender to
Japan of the Russian warships Interned at
neutral ports; XI. Limitation of Russia's
naval strength in the Pacific ; XII. Fishing
rights for citizens of Japan in Russian wa-
ters.

To some of these Russia a^eed at once ;
but the questions of indemnity and the ces-
slon of the Island of Sakhalin still remained
open, and by the 19th of August the nego-
tiations seemed certain to end In failure.
The pressure of neutral nations, brought
to bear on both parties, and especially the
Influence of President Roosevelt, led to a
compromise. Japan waived the question of
Indemnity, and withdrew her demand for
the Interned warships; while Russia con-
sented to the surrender of the southern
half of the island of Sakhalin. Each na-
tion agreed to pay the cost of the main-
tenance of its prisoners of war, an arrange-
ment much to the advantage of Japan.
An agreement was reached August 29. and
the formal treaty was signed Sept. 5. 1905.
Ratifications of the treaty were exchanged
on Oct. 14, 1905. (See also Japan.)

Portugal.— Continental Portugal occupies
part of the maritime district of the Iberian
Peninsula, between 6* 15'-9« 30* W. longi-
tude, and 37*-42« 8' N. latitude, and Is
bounded on the north and east by Spain,
and on the south and west by the Atlantic
Ocean. The Asores and Madeira Islands
form an Integral part of Portugal for ad-
ministrative purposes.

Physical Feature*.— Portugal Is generally
hilly, but with no great heights, and there
are many plains. The principal riven are
Douro. Tagus, Guadlana and Mlnho. The
ciimate Is equable and temperate, the south-
western winds bringing an abundant rain-
fall. Lisbon has an annual mean tempera-
ture of 61* F., but there Is a difference of
50* F In the extremes.

History.— From the close of the eleventh
century until the revolution of 1910 the
government of Portugal was a monarchy,
and in the year 1500 the King of Portugal
was *'Lord of the conquest, navigation, and
commerce of India, Ethiopia. Arabia and
Peraia,'* the territories of the Empire In-
cluding also the Vice-Royalty of Brasll,
which declared Its independence fn 1822

isee Brazil). In 1910 an armed rising
rove the King and the Royal family Into
exile, effected a separation of Church and
State and set up a Republic

Gopemment.— The National Assembly of
Aug. 21, 1911, sanctioned the Republic and
adopted a Constitution, with a President
elected by Congress for four yeare. a Con-
gress of two Chambers, and an Executive
appointed by the President but responsible
to the Legislature. The Republic was for-
mally recognised bv the Powers on Sept. 11,
1911. President of the Republic (Aug. 24.
1911-1916). Dr. Manoel d*Arrlaga. There is
a Congress of two houses, the Senate and
the Chamber of Deputies. The Senate con-
sists of seventy-one members, elected by the
Municipal Councils of the Republic for six
years, one-half renewable every three years.
The Chamber of Deputies (or National
Council) consists of 164 membera, elected by
direct vote for three yeare.

There are Courts of first instance in each



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PortcigAl



PortussI— CofiiiHiicdL

of the 198 jQdlcial districts or comarcas,
wltb Courts of Appeal (trlbunaes de rela-
cao) at Lisbon and Oporto and at Ponta
Delgada In the Asores. There la a Supreme
Court of Appeal at Lisbon.

The RepuDllc is divided Into twenty-one
Districts (Continental Portugal seventeen,
Asores three, Madeira one), governed by an
appointed Governor, a District Auditor and
an elective council of three members.

ASIA Aim POPULAnOH

Area in Population

Districts K"g^* ih CeiMUs

Sq. Miles 1911

Avdro 1,064 336,243

Asores 922 242,660

B«ia 8,958 192,499

Braga. 1,041 382,276

Brsgasfa 2,612 192,024

Castallo Bnneo 2,581 241,184

Coimbim 1,507 350,387

Evota. 2356 148,295

Faro 1,937 272,861

Guarda. 2,114 271,616

Leiria 1^16 262,632

Liaboa 3,085 852,854

Madeira. 314 169,783

Portalegra 2,404 141,481

Porto 892 679,540

Bantarem 2,554 325,775

YianDa do Castallo. 857 227,250

ViHaReal 1,649 245,547

Viaeu 1.937 416,744

TotalPortogal 35,500 5,960,056

Portuguese Colonies 804,841 9,675,000

Grand Total 840,341 15,635,056

In 1911 there were 41,197 foreigners resi-
dent in Portugal, of whom 20^17 were
Spanish, 12.143 Brazilians, 2,516 BriUsh,
1,832 French, 1,646 Americans.

For the army B3e Armies of the World



Online LibraryUnited States. PresidentA compilation of the messages and papers of the presidents → online text (page 25 of 111)